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p 



The Arthur and Elizabeth 

SCHLESINGER LIBRARY 

on the History of Women 

in America 



WOMAN'S RIGHTS 
COLLFCTION 



SUSAN B. ANTHONY, 



THE LIFE AND WORK 



OP 



SUSAN B. ANTHONY 



INCLUDING PUBLIC ADDRESSES, HER OWN LETTERS 
AND MANY FROM HER CONTEMPORARIES 
DURING FIFTY YEARS 



BY 

IDA HUSTED HARPER 



H Btory of the SvoUition of the 8t*tii9 of raoimn 



IN TWO VOLUMES 



VOLUME n 

ILLUSTRATED WITH PORTRAITS. PICTURES OF HOMES. ETC. 



INDIANAPOLIS 

THE HOLLENBECK PRESS 






Copyright 1898 

BT 

IDA HUSTED HARPER 






TO WOMAN, FOR WHOSE FREEDOM 

SUSAN B. ANTHONY 

HAS GIVEN FIFTY YEARS OF NOBLE ENDEAVOR 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Vol. II. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Pouticai/Candidathh-Writinothb History. (1880-1881.) 615-632 

Miss Anthony's rallying cry ; letter on death of sister ; Conven- 
tion at Indianapolis; Mass Meeting in Farwell Hall, Chicago; 
saffrage advocates neither anmarried nor childless ; Republican 
National Convention refuses even *^ recognition " plank of former 
years; Greenback-Labor Convention passes Woman Saffrage res- 
olution in spite of Dennis Kearney ; Democratic Convention at 
Cincinnati receives ladies with great courtesy but ignores their 
claims; tribute of Commercial; Prohibition Convention adopts 
Suffrage plank; interviews with Garfield and Hancock; cor- 
respondence of General Garfield and Miss Anthony on Woman 
Suffrage ; martyrdom to writing the History ; Thirteenth Wash- 
ington Convention and memorial service to Lucretia Mott ; ridic- 
ulous press items on Skye terrier; letter on sparing parents for 
children's sake ; first volume of History issued. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

The Ljboacy — Nbbrasea Campaign— Opf fob Eubopb. (1881-1882- 

1883.) 638-660 

National Association in Boston ; badge presented Miss Anthony 
by Philadelphia Citizens' Suffrage Association; comments of 
Traveller and Globe ; sweep of New England ; tribute of Zerelda 
G. Wallace ; no welcome for Miss Anthony in Albany ; letter on 
death of Garfield ; attends National W. C. T. U. Convention in 
Washington; Phillips' seventieth birthday; Mrs. Eddy's hand- 
some legacy; Fourteenth Washington Convention ; amusing suf- 
frage debate in Senate; meeting in Philadelphia; tributes from 
Elmira Free Press and Washington Republic ; favorable Senate 
and House Committee reports; campaign in Nebraska; ad- 

(iii) 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

dresses Lincoln Clab, Rochester ; decides to go abroad ; Philadel- 
phia Times accoant of Birthday reception; Mrs. Sewall's de- 
scription in Indianapolis Times of farewell honors ; fine tributes 
from Chicago Tribane and Kansas City Joamal ; N. Y. Times de- 
scribes departure for Europe. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Miss Anthony's European Lettebs. (1883.) 651-679 

On shipboard ; in Liverpool and London ; in Milan and Rome ; in 
Naples; in Zurich, Berlin, Cologne, Heidelberg; in Paris; back 
to London ; Mrs. Jacob Bright, Moncure D. Conway, Wm. Hen- 
ry Channing, Mrs. Rose, Stopford Brooke; speech at Prince's 
Hall; Helen Taylor, Jane Cobden and others; speech at St. 
James Hall; Mrs. Mellen's Fourth of July reception; Canon 
Wilberforce, Sarah Bernhardt; Edinburgh; Elizabeth Pease 
Nichol, Priscilla Bright McLaren, Professor Blackie, Dr. Jex- 
Blake; home of Harriet Martineau; Dublin; Isabella M. S. Tod 
and others; trip through Ireland; characteristic descriptions; 
John Bright, Hannah Ford, home of the Brontes; Henrietta 
Muller, Margaret Bright Lucas, Frances Power Cobbe, Millicent 
Garrett Fawcett, Mrs. Peter Taylor ; home again. 

« 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Congressional Hearings— Visit to New Orleans. (1884-1885.) 581-603 

Welcome Home from Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, N. Y. 
Evening Telegram, Cleveland Leader; unkind comment Cincin- 
nati Times-Star; dislike of interviewing Congressmen shown by 
letter to Wm. D. Kelley; Warren Eeifer in favor of Woman 
Suffrage; opposition of Reagan, of Texas; members for and 
against Special Committee ; Douglass marriage ; letters to young 
workers; death of Wendell Phillips; Bishop Simpson on Woman 
Suffrage ; fine speech before Congressional Committee ; Thomas B. 
Reed's report; letter from Senator Palmer; Miss Anthony on Suf- 
frage Bill in Parliament ; attitude of Presidential candidates ; 
opposes resolution denouncing dogmas and creeds ; attack of Rev. 
W. W. Patton ; Senator Palmer's speech ; trip to New Orleans ; 
tribute of Picayune ; Eddy legacy received ; working on History ; 
Miss Anthony's dislike of literary labor ; Mrs. Stanton's seven- 
tieth birthday ; letter from Harriet Stanton Blatch. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Many Trips— First Vote on Sixteenth Amendment. (1886-1887.).... 605-626 
Miss Anthony's persistence with members of Congress; Eigh- 
teenth Washington Convention ; committee reports ; canvass of 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

the State of Kansas ; Manidpal Saffrage Bill passed by Legisla- 
tare; speaking tbroaghoat Wisconsin; advice as to Oharch for 
holding convention ; History of Woman Suffrage and valuable 
work accomplished by it ; opinions of Mary L. Booth, Sarah B. 
Cooper and others; Nineteenth Annual Convention; Senator 
Blair's bill for Woman Suffrage ; Senators Brown and Vest in op- 
position ; Senators Dolph and Blair in favor ; remonstrance from 
Boston ; the Vote ; women incensed at Ingalls ; letter to Frances 
Willard on Prohibition Party ; letter to Olympia Brown against 
bringing suit under school suffrage law ; scores Senator Ingalls in 
Kansas ; canvass of Indiana. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

Union of Associations — ^Intbrnational Council. (1888.) 627-645 

American Association proposes Union ; negotiations to that end ; 
plea for Mrs. Stanton's election as president ; Union completed ; 
International Council of Women; magnitude of preparations; 
Miss Anthony's idea of a sermon; letter of Douglass on First 
Woman's Rights Convention ; letter of Maria Mitchell ; efforts to 
secure Mrs. Stanton's presence; comment of Baltimore Sun and 
N. Y. World ; Frances Willard's speech and letter to Union Sig- 
nal; National and International Councils formed; at Central 
Music Hall, Chicago ; letter urging women to go to National Polit- 
ical conventions ; open letter to General Harrison ; Republican 
"free ballot" plank does not include Women; dislike of " red 
tape;" speech at Columbus W. C. T. U. celebration not well 
received. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Conventions from Washington to South Dakota. (1889.)... 647-661 

Twenty-first Washington Convention; address before Unity 
Club, Cincinnati; death of niece Susie B. ; letters on Death; 
newspaper comment on Dress ; at Seidl Club on Coney Island and 
"Broadbrim's" account; a round of lectures and conventions; 
letter of Harriet Hosmer; canvass of South Dakota; Miss An- 
thony outlines plan of campaign ; nephew D. R. describes speech 
at Ann Arbor ; "Andrew Jackson-like responsibility " ; work for 
South Dakota ; description in Washington Star. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

At thb End of Sxvbnty Ybars. (1890.) 66S-678 

Consternation at idea of selling tickets for Birthday banquet; 
description of banquet by Washington Star and N. Y. Sun ; 
speeches of Bev. F. W. Hinckley, Hon. J. A. Pickler, Mrs. 



VI TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

Stanton and MisB Anthony; congratulatory letters from distin- 
guished people; eloqaent tribates from Boston Traveller and 
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle ; first Convention of United 
Associations; money for South Dakota; in Washington society ; 
letter on pre-natal influence. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

The South Dakota Campaign. (1890.) 679-696 

Appeals from South Dakota; Miss Anthony lays down the law 
regarding National funds ; pledges of Farmers' Alliance leaders ; 
contributions to campaign; goes to South Dakota; Farmers' Al- 
liance and Knights of Labor form new party and repudiate 
pledges for Woman Suffrage ; insults at Democratic Convention ; 
Republican Convention has room for Indian men but none for 
white women; Miss Anthony's cheerful letters; hardships of 
campaign ; Mrs. Howell's description of meetings at Madison ; 
Rev. Anna Shaw's account of crying babies and drunken man; 
Mrs. Chapman Catt's summing-up of situation ; statistics of De- 
feat; Miss Anthony endorsed by State W. C. T. U. and Suffrage 
Associations. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Wyoming — Miss Anthony Goes to Housbkbsping. (1890-1891.) 697-716 

Debate in Congress on admission of Wyoming; first majority re- 
port from House Committee in favor of Sixteenth Amendment; 
Wimodaughsis ; in Boston ; letter of sympathy from Lucy Stone ; 
first triennial meeting of National Woman's Council ; Miss An- 
thony's joy ; Twenty-third Washington Convention ; breakfast at 
Sorosis; letter from ex-Secretary Hugh McCulloch; leaving 
Riggs House ; letter describing visits in New England ; goes to 
housekeeping ; kindness of press and people ; letter from Adi- 
rondacks and John Brown's home ; stirs up Rochester W. C. T.U. ; 
at Chautauqua; describes meeting at Lily Dale; happiness in 
keeping house ; speaks at N. Y. State Fair; invites Mrs. Stan- 
ton to share her home ; calls meeting to admit girls to Rochester < 
University ; speaks at Thanksgiving services in Unitarian church ; 
appeals from Kansas. 

CHAPTER XL. 

Ignobbd by the Pabtibs— Appointed to Oppicb. (1892.) 717-736 

Mrs. Stanton's last appearance at National Convention ; Miss 
Anthony made president ; home life ; attends biennial meeting 
Federation of Woman's Clubs ; bust made by Lorado Taft ; letter 
approving Southern Woman's Council; ignored by Republican 
National Convention at Minneapolis; ''every citizen" does not 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vll 

inclade Women; bowed oat of Democratic National Conven- 
tion at Chicago ; Frances Wi Hard's beautiful tribute ; at People's 
I^ational Convention in Omaha ; Woman Suffrage at Chautauqua ; 
campaign of Kansas on Republican platform ; illustrates differ- 
ence in treatment of same women now and forty years ago; ap- 
pointed on Board of Managers State Industrial School; press 
comment ; addresses mass meeting on including Women in pro- 
visions of New Charter for Rochester; face sculptured on theater 
in Dowagiac, Mich. ; John Boyd Thacher asks his father's record ; 
Philip Schuyler objects to his stepmother's statue in company 
with Miss Anthony's; Justice Bufus W. Peckham's tribute. 

CHAPTER XLI. 

Wobld's Fair— Congbbss op Rbpbessntativb Wombn. (1893.) 737-764 

Miss Anthony opposes holding National Conventions outside 
Washington; extended range of letters and invitations; urges 
those who can not work to contribute money ; opening of World's 
Fair ; Bertha Honor^ Palmer's words for women ; Miss Anthony 
behind movement to have women on Board of Managers ; Presi- 
dent and Board of Lady Managers ; Woman's Congress ; Miss 
Anthony center of attraction; compliments from Frances Wil- 
lard and Lady Somerset; letter of Florence Fenwick Miller; 
SafErage leads at Congress; letters from Mrs. Palmer, Mrs. 
James P. Eagle ; speech on Religious Press ; pleasant visits in 
Chicago ; tribute from Inter-Ocean ; Woman Suffrage granted in 
Colorado; preparing for New York and Kansas amendment 
campaigns. 

CHAPTER XLII. 

Thb Sbcond Nbw Yobk Campaign. (1894.) 756-776 

Speeches in Ann Arbor, Toledo, Baltimore and Washington ; no 
creeds, no i)olitic8 in National- American Association ; congratu- 
lations of Chicago Journal ; great New York campaign inaugu- 
rated to secure Amendment from Constitutional Convention; 
headquarters in Anthony home ; Corresponding Secretary Mary 
S. Anthony reports amount of work done; opening rally in 
Rochester; women of wealth and fashion in New York and 
Brooklyn take part; N. Y. World describes the movement; ''Re- 
monstrants " organize ; Miss Anthony's opinion of them ; 000,000 
signatures secured ; Joseph H. Choate, President of Constitu- 
tional Convention, uses his influence against Woman Suffrage 
Amendment ; Miss Anthony and many other women address 
delegates; representatives of the ''Antis" speak in opposition; 
Edward Lauterbach and other members support Amendment; 
Elihu Root, Wm. P. Goodelle and others oppose; Amendment 
Defeated ; tribute by State president, Mrs. Greenleaf ; apprecia- 



^r— *■■ -m.. 



Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

tive letters ; incorrect report of speech at Spiritualist camp meet- 
ing; Miss Anthony, Frances Willard, Lady Somerset and others 
at Republican State Convention in Saratoga; starting for 
Kansas. 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

The Second Kansas Campaign. (1894.) 777-798 

Miss Anthony insists that political State conventions mast pat 
Woman Suffrage planks in their platforms ; politicians try to per- 
suade Kansas women not to ask for them ; dilemma of State presi- 
dent, Mrs. Johns ; letters of Mrs. Chapman Catt, Henry B. Black- 
well, Rev. Anna Shaw, showing uselessness of campaign with- 
out Political endorsement; Miss Anthony's rousing letters to 
Woman's State Committee, Republican leaders and Mrs. Johns ; 
great speech at Kansas City ; action taken by Republican Woman's 
Convention ; Suffrage plank refused by Republican State Conven- 
tion; fight for it in Populist Convention; wild scene when 
secured ; *' not a test of party fealty ;" Prohibitionists adopt plank ; 
Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw censured by Republicans ; Miss 
Anthony states their reasons and takes a cheerful view ; friendly 
words from Wm. Lloyd Garrison; her brave declaration; 
scores Kansas Republicans in letter to Mr. Blackwell ; cordial 
support of Annie L. Diggs; Mrs. Johns and Mr. Breidenthal 
hopeful ; Amendment Defeated ; possession of Limited Saffrage a 
hindrance to securing Full Suffrage. 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

The Southern Tbip— The Atlanta Convention. (1896.) 799-817 

Not cast down by Kansas defeat, Miss Anthony speaks at 
Nebraska Convention; goes to New York State Convention 
at Ithaca ; visits Cornell University and speaks to girls of Sage 
College; addresses National W. C. T. U.on Sunday at Cleveland, 
showing weakness of all attempts at Reform unsupported by the 
Ballot; pleasant month in New York City; letter on Y. M. C. A. 
for " woman's edition ;" invitation from Rev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones 
and Rev. H. W. Thomas to take part in Liberal Religious Con- 
gress; addresses at Lexington, Louisville, Memphis and New 
Orleans ; complimentary reports of Picayune, Shreveport Times, 
Birmingham News, Huntsville Tribune; National-American Con- 
vention in Atlanta ; courtesy of press, pulpit and people ; Seventy- 
fifth Birthday celebration and presentation of Annuity of $800; 
second triennial of Woman's Council ; speaks at Douglass' fa- 
neral ; stirs up the audience in Rochester at Ida B. Wells' lecture 
on Lynching; resigns position on State Industrial School Board. 



TABL£ OF CONTENTS. IZ 

CHAPTER XLV. 

Th» Sbcond Visit to California. (1896.) 819-838 

Invitation from California Woman's Congress; Miss Anthony 
and Miss Shaw have royal welcome at St. Louis, Denver, Chey- 
enne, Salt Lake City, Reno ; cordial reception at Oakland ; beaa- 
tiful scene at Woman's Congress ; enlogies of press ; visit Stanford 
University ; entertained by many clabs and societies ; go to Yosem- 
ite Valley ; joyfully received at San Jose, Los Angeles, River- 
side, Pasadena, Pomona, San Diego, Santa Monica; address 
Ministers' Meeting in San Francisco ; Mrs. Cooper's victory over 
Foarth of July Committee ; speak at the celebration ; miss audi- 
ence at Oakland ; affectionate farewell. 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

Mbs. Stanton's Birthday —Thb Bible Rbsolxttion. (1895-1896.) 63^-861 

Miss Anthony stirs up papers with resolution on Kansas men ; 
description by Chicago Herald ; seized with nervous prostration 
at Lakeside, O.; sympathy of people and press; secret of vital- 
ity ; letter on maternity hospitals ; on *'hard times;" on woman's 
dress ; Mrs. Stanton's birthday celebration ; Miss Anthony mag- 
nanimously refuses to take the lead ; tribute from Tilton ; appre- 
ciative letters from Mary Lowe Dickinson, Mrs. Leland Stanford ; 
Twenty-eighth Annual Convention ; Utah admitted with Woman 
Suffrage; women of South Australia enfranchised; resolution 
against Woman's Bible ; speech on Religious Liberty ; grief over 
action of convention ; view of the Bible ; Suffrage will emanci- 
pate from Superstition; Nelly Bly's racy interview; loud call 
from California; can not refuse but goes to the Golden State. 

CHAPTER XLVII. 

Thx California Campaign. (1896.) 863-893 

Effort to secure Woman Suffrage Bill from California Legislature ; 
State committees formed; county conventions; Mrs. Sargent's 
hospitality; work of women throughout the State; attitude of 
press; the Call declares for Woman Suffrage; Republican Con- 
vention ; Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw before platform commit- 
tee ; tributes to Mrs. Duniway and Mrs. McCann ; Populist Conven- 
tion ; Prohibition Convention ; Democratic Convention ; women's 
ratification ; headquarters opened ; principal speakers ; great work 
of Miss Anthony ; social courtesies extended ; goes to Portland and 
Seattle ; can not go to Idaho ; Suffrage plank in National Republi- 
can convention repudiated; tour of Southern California ; letters to 
Miss Willard and Mrs. Peet on holding National W. C. T. U. Con- 
vention in California ; action of Chairman Republican State Com- 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

mittee : attempts of Women to speak at Political conventions ; the 
Call coerced ; the orators ** flank ; " Liquor Dealers fight Woman 
8a£f rage ; efforts to register new voters ; amount of money raised ; 
Women outwitted by State officials; Defeat; summing-up of vote; 
a touching sight ; pleasant campaign ; State Suffrage Convention ; 
Mrs. Sargent's tribute ; homeward bound. 

CHAPTER XLVIII. 

HbB LBTTKBS-rBlBTHDAY PaRTY— -BlOGBAPHY. (18%-1897.) 80fr-011 

Reception in Rochester ; never denies charges ; urges women not 
to ** scramble " for office; Book of Proverbs; constancy of pur- 
pose ; women have nothing to do with Reform parties ; objects to 
calling God the author of Civil Government ; men trying to lift 
themselves by their bootstraps ; no time for Speculation ; opposes 
Educated and Property Suffrage; eloquent tribute of Dr. H. W. 
Thomas; pleasant letters from Mrs. Henrotin, John Hutchinson, 
Mrs. Dickinson ; National- American Convention in Des Moines ; 
letter urging that all National conventions be held at Washington ; 
reception at Indianapolis; addresses Indiana Legislature; kind- 
ness to reporters ; birthday of Frederick Douglass ; Miss Anthony's 
great Birthday reception in Rochester; compliments of Post- 
Express and Herald; the day at Anthony home; Mrs. Chapman 
Catt's tribute ; speech at Cuban League ; remarks at funeral of 
Mrs. Humphrey ; beginning the Biography ; immense amount of 
material; description of attic workroom. 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

Charactbristic Views ON Many Questions. (1897.) 91S-890 

Monday evenings at home ; Miss Anthony dislikes rOle of Literary 
or Society woman ; declares she never again will speak before 
Legislative Committee at Albany ; Miss Mary Anthony's birth- 
day ; Herald's interview ; description by Democrat and Chronicle ; 
remarks of Rev. W. C. Gannett and others ; assists at golden 
wedding; visits Eliza Wright Osborne with Mrs. Stanton; her 
greatest compliment ; opinion on Women rising in Rebellion ; on 
Mrs. Besant and Theosophy ; letter to Supreme Court of Idaho ; 
on commemorating deeds of Revolutionary Mothers ; Sentiment 
no guarantee for Justice ; Subjection of Woman the cause of pub- 
lic Immorality ; opposed to asking Partial Suffrage for women ; 
opinion on Poetry ; God not responsible for human ills ; Sunday 
observance ; objects to asking for Educated and Property Suf- 
frage ; voters not influenced by Religious arguments ; refuses to 
join Miss Willard in attack on " yellow journalism '' and prize 
fighting ; wide scope of invitations, etc. ; amusing letter of inquiry ; 
never received salary from National Association ; visit to Thou- 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI 

Band Islands; centennial of Bev. SamaelJ. May; at Nashville 
Exposition; criticises Women for going into Partisan Politics 
and defends ** rings ;" Woman Suffrage movement of the Present 
contrasted with that of the Past. 



CHAPTER L. 

AoxK LiFR— Ths Reunion— The Woman. (1897.) 931-968 

Daily habits of life ; dress ; harmonioas relations of the two sis- 
ters ; description of Anthony home ; oatline of Miss Anthony's 
vast private correspondence ; her patience and conscientiousness ; 
objects to which close of life is being given ; invited to Berkshire ; 
Satbrage Committee meeting in the *' Old Hive " at Adams ; guest 
of Berkshire Historical Society ; addresses of Mrs. Chapman Catt, 
Mrs. Foster Avery, Mrs. Sewall, Mrs. Colby, Rev. Anna Shaw 
and others; Anthony Reunion; picturesque old homestead; 
visit to birthplace and loved spots of childhood; contrast 
in position of Woman now and fifty years ago; Miss An- 
thony's part in securing reforms; face carved in Capitol at 
Albany ; tributes of Mrs. Sewall, Miss Willard and Mrs. Stanton ; 
Miss Anthony's characteristics; compared to Napoleon, Glad- 
stone, Lincoln, Garrison; finis. 



V 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Vol. II. 



8u8AN B. Anthony in California Campaign, 1896 Frontispiece 

Habbiet Purvis faces page 626 

Mbntia Taylor " " 554 

Priscilla Bright McLarsn " " 564 

Elizabeth Pease NiCHOL " *• 568 

Margaret Bright Lucas ** ** 578 

Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton writing the History of 

Woman Suffrage «* '« 600 

Caroline £. Merrick ** •• 608 

Zerelda 6. Wallace *• ** 632 

Rev. Anna Howard Shaw '* " 688 

Harriet Taylor Upton *• " 700 

May Wright Sewall ** " 746 

Mary S. Anthony " " 760 

Carrie Chapman Catt ** " 780 

Rachel Foster Avery *' " 814 

Sarah B. Cooper *• " 828 

Ellen Clark Sargent ** " 864 

Sarah L. Knox Goodrich '* ** 888 

Anthony Residence in Rochester ** ** 904 

Attic WoRK-RooMS ** ** 910 

Mary S. AND Susan B. Anthony ** ** 916 

Anthony Family AT Reunion ** ** 938 

At THE Old Homestead, ** " 942 

QuAKJEB Mkbtino-Housb, Adams, Mass " " 946 



CHAPTER XXX. 



POLITICAL CANDIDATES — WRITING THE HISTORY. 



1880—1881. 




URING her May lecture trip Miss Anthony was 
formulating a scheme for a series of conventions, 
opening and closing with a great mass meeting, 
which should influence the national political 
conventions to recognize in their platforms the 
rights of woman. As usual most of the women opposed this 
plan and as usual Miss Anthony carried the day. The following 
letters to Mrs. Spencer, national secretary, will serve as speci- 
mens of hundreds which she wrote with her own hand, before 
every similar occasion : 

I want the roasingest rallying cry ever pat on papers-first, to call women 
by the thousand to Chicago ; and second, to get every one who can not go 
there to send a postal card to the mass convention, saying she wants the 
Repablicans to pat a Sixteenth Amendment pledge in their platform. Don't 
yoa see that if we could have a mass meeting of 2,000 or 3,000 earnest 
women, June 2, and then receive 10,000 postals from women all over the 
country, what a tremendoas influence we could bring to bear on the Republi- 
can convention, June 3 ? We can getFarwell Hall for $40 a day, and I think 
would do well to engage it for the 2d and 3d, then we could make it our 
headquarters— sleep in it even, if we couldn't get any other places. 

Besides this, I want to make the best possible use of all our speakers between 
June 3 and 21, when we shall have a mass meeting in Cincinnati, the day be- 
fore the Democratic convention. My proposition is that I, as vice-president- 
at-large, call conventions of two days each at a number of cities. We 
could divide our speakers and thus fill in the entire two weeks between 
Chicago and Cincinnati with capital good work. How does the plan strike 
you? Can we summon the women from the vasty deeps— or distances? 
Can we get 5,000 or 10,000 to send on their postals ? Do the petitions still 
come in ? How many thousands of appeals and documents have you had 
printed and how many have you sent out ? 

(515) 



516 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

After the ball was set rolling she wrote : 

A letter from Mrs. Stanton tells of her being on the verge of pneamonia, 
and rushing home to rest and recruit. She is better and, since she has been 
to the dinner-table, I infer she is well enough to begin to work up the thun- 
der and lightning for Indianapolis and Chicago. Now won't yon at once 
scratch down the points with which you want to fire her soul and brain, and 
get her at woik on the resolutions, platform and address ? She won't go 
out to lecture any more this spring, and if you will only put her en rapport 
with your thought she will do splendid work in the herculean task await- 
ing us. 

It is simply impossible for me to go to her at present, and we must all give 
her our ideas in the rough, from time to time, and let her weld them together 
as best she can ; and then, as she says, when we meet in Indianapolis we 
all will put in our happiest ideas, metaphysical, political, logical and all 
other " cals," and make these the strongest and grandest documents ever 
issued from any organization of women. It does seem to me that if we can 
succeed in grinding out just the right appeal, demand, or whatever it may be 
called, the Republican convention must heed us. At any rate, we will do our 
level best at a strong pull, a long pull and a pull all together to compel them 
to surrender. 

I enclose my list of May lecture engagements. I shall be able to help in 
money from them soon, and better than I could in any other way. I watch 
both Congress and our State legislatures, but the " scamps " are vastly bettex 
at promising than fulfilling. The politicians, of course, expect all this flut- 
ter and buncombe about doing something for women in New York — in Cali- 
fornia—in Iowa— is going to spike our guns and make us help the Republican 
party to carry all before it; but we must not be thus fooled by them. 

After a lecture at Waynesburg, Penn., when she had gone to 
her train at 4 a. m. to find it an hour late, she wrote on the 
ticket-o£Sce shelf, by the light of a smoky lamp, this letter to 
her sister : 

Just three years ago this day was our dear Hannah's last on earth, and I 
can see her now sitting by the window and can hear her say, ** Talk, Susan." 
I knew she wanted me to talk of the future meetings in the great beyond, all 
of them, as she often said, so certain and so beautiful to her ; but they were 
not to me, and I could not dash her faith with my doubts, nor could I pretend 
a faith I had not; so I was silent in the dread presence of death. Three 
years— and yet what a living presence has she been in my thoughts all the 
days I There has been scarcely one waking hour that I have not felt the loss 
of her. We can not help trying to peer through the veil to find the certainty 
^t things over there, but nothing comes to our eyes unless we accept the 
Spiritualistic testimony, which we can not wholly do. 

Well, only you and I are left of mother's four girls, and when and how we 
also shall pass on is among the unknown problems of the future. Of course 



I 



POLITICAL CANDIDATES — WRITING THE HISTORY. 517 

I feel and know that yoar loss is far beyond mine ; for never was there a 
child who so faithfully devoted herself to a mother, and made all other inter- 
ests sabserve that mother's happiness as did you, and I feel, too, that bat for 
yon I never conld have done my public work. 

llie great series of conventions began with the May Anni- 
versary, which was held at Indianapolis, the 25th and 26th, 
in the Park Theater, Miss Anthony presiding. All arrange- 
ments had been made and all expenses assumed by the local 
suffrage society under the leadership of Mrs. Sewall. The 
Sentinel, edited at that time by Colonel J. B. Maynard, wel- 
comed the convention in a strong editorial declaring for woman 
suffrage in unmistakable terms. The very successful meetings 
closed with a handsome reception tendered by Mrs. John C. 
New. 

The mass meeting opened in Farwell Hall, Chicago, June 1, 
the day before the Republican convention, with delegates from 
twenty-six States, and continued in session three days. The 
welcoming address was made by Elizabeth Boynton Harbert, 
the speakers comprised the most prominent women of the 
nation, the audience numbered 3,000 and the enthusiasm was 
unprecedented in all the records of this movement.^ The 
History of Woman Suffrage says : 

The mass convention had been called for Jane 2, but the crowds in the city 
gave promise of sach extended interest that Farwell Hall was engaged for 
Jane 1, and before the second day's proceedings closed, fands were volantarily 
raised by the aadience to continae the meeting the third day. So vast was 
the namber of letters and postals from women who desired to vote, that the 
whole time of each session coald have been spent in reading them — 
one day's mail alone bringing them from twenty-three States and three Terrir 
tories. Some contained hundreds of names, others represented town, county 
and State societies. Many were addressed to the different nominating cx)n- 
ventions, Republican, Greenback, Democratic, while the reasons given for 
desiring to vote ranged from the simple demand, through all the scale of 

' Tlie Chicago press gave very satisfactory reports of this meeting, but the Springfield 
Bepnblic was yulgar and abusive, called the ladies " witheted beldames,*' " cats on the back 
roof,'* and adTiaed them to " go home and attend to their children, if they had any, and if 
not, to engage in that same occupation as soon as they could regularly do so.** 

The chaise being so often made that the leaders of the suffrage movement were a lot of 
old maids and childless wives, Miss Anthony prepared a list showing that sixteen of the 
most prominent were the mothers of sizty-siz children. Of the pioneers she herself was the 
only one who never married. Of the younger speakers Phoobe Couzins was the only one who 
remained angle. 



518 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

thoee connected with good government and morality. So highly important a 
oontribation to history did the Chicago Historical Society deem these expres- 
sions that it made a formal request to be pat in possession of all letters and 
postals, with a promise that they shoold be carefoUy goarded in a fire-proof 
safe. 

A large parlor in the Palmer House was tendered to the 
ladies by the proprietor for business meetings and for a recep- 
tion room. They were visited by a number of Republican 
delegates, many of whom were thoroughly in favor of a suf- 
frage plank in the platform and of giving the ladies seats in 
the convention. A letter was sent to the chairman of the Re- 
publican national committee, Don Cameron, signed by one 
hundred and eighteen United States senators and representa- 
tives, asking that seventy-six seats on the floor of the conven- 
tion be given to as many accredited delegates from the National 
Suffrage Association. Although the veteran soldiers and sail- 
ors were liberally provided for, Mr. Cameron granted only ten 
seats to the women, and those not to the association in its of- 
ficial capacity but as "gaest" tickets for seats on the plat- 
form. Miss Anthony was allowed ten minutes before a sub- 
committee to present the argument for a suffrage plank. It 
was favorably regarded by scattered members of various dele- 

/cations, but the platform was silent on the subject. 
^ The Republican convention of 1880 did not even adopt the 
'* recognition '' planks of 1872 and 1876, and all the demon- 
strations of this great mass meeting of women had not the 
slightest influence, because made by a disfranchised class. Be- 
fore closing they adopted a resolution that they would support 
/ no party which did not endorse the political equality of woman; 
; but all the "support " which they could give or withhold was 
/ not likely to be considered of much value by political leaders. 
Miss Anthony and four others attended the Greenback-Labor 
Convention, a few days later, in the same city. They were 
well received. Mrs. Gage read the suffrage memorial in open 
session and Miss Anthony was permitted to address the con- 
vention. This privilege was violently opposed by Dennis 
Kearney, who said that ''his wife instructed him before he 



POLITICAL CANDIDATES — WRITING THE HISTORY. 519 

left California not to mix up with woman suffragists, and if he 
did she would meet him at the door with a flat-iron when he 
came home. ' ' Failing to frighten the convention with Mrs. Kear- 
ney's flat-iron, he declined to hear Miss Anthony's speech and 
left the hall in disgust. The committee refused to incorporate a 
suffrage plank in its platform, but the next day in convention, 
after the nominations were concluded, a delegate introduced an 
equal suffrage resolution which passed by a large majority. 

The delegates and speakers of the National Association then 
held meetings at Milwaukee, Wis., Bloomington, 111., Grand 
Rapids, Mich., Lafayette and Terre Haute, Ind., and reached 
Cincinnati in time for the Democratic National Convention, 
^ June 22. They were received here with unexpected courtesy. 
Mayor Prince, of Boston, and Mr. Eaton, of Kansas, presented 
their request for se&ts, and sixteen were granted them on the 
floor of the house, just behind the delegates. A committee 
room was placed at their disposal and their notices and placards 
were printed by the convention. A hearing was given before 
the platform committee, with no limit as to time, and after sev* 
eral had spoken the others were invited to do so. The chair- 
man, Henry Watterson, declared himself in favor of the plank 
I desired. The delegations from Maine, New York and Kansas 
f also were favorable. Miss Anthony was escorted to the plat- 
form upon the arm of Carter Harrison, amid wild applause, 
given a seat beside the presiding officer. Wade Hampton, and 
the clerk was ordered to read the address which she presented.^ 

) After all this parade, however, the platform contained not the 
slightest reference to the claims of women or, in fact, to their 
, existence. The results of the appeal to the Republican and 
Democratic conventions were precisely the same, except that 
the latter administered the dose with chivalry. 

>11ie Cinciiinatl Commenial said at this time: "Mias Anthony is the same clear, oalm 
reasoner— a woman of the same firm oonyictions and with the same forcible, dignified and 
msnntinllr womanly manner of expressing them— that she has always been. While in Cin- 
cinnati she is tiie guest of her cousin, Mrs. A. B. Merriam, of Walnnt Hills, where many call 
upon her and ilnd a talk with a woman so earnest and fine in intellectoal power to be a gen- 
uine satisfaction. On the * woman quaetion,' she is hopeful but not a hopeless enthusiast. 
She is too dear-headed for that, and has OTcroome too many obstacles not to appreciate the 
requisite momentum and the force necessary to produce it. Her life is great in that it has 
made a larger life sind hidier work possible to other woman, who share her aspirations with- 
out her iiiTiiieible stamngth to eorfo their way«" 



/ 



/ 



520 LIFB AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

The National Prohibition Convention at Bloomington, 111., 
officially invited the suffrage advocates to meet with them and 
participate in their proceedings. Phoebe Couzins was sent as 
a delegate, and the convention adopted the following plank : 
\ *^ We also demand that women having privileges as citizens in 
! other respects, shall be clothed with the ballot for their own 
•protection, and as a rightful means for the proper settlement 
,4of the liquor question/' This body, it will be noticed, not 
only demanded the ballot for woman but told her what she 
would be expected to do with it. 

While not at all surprised, Miss Anthony was greatly dis- 
gusted with the action of the Republican and Democratic con- 
ventions, but, determined to leave nothing undone, she soon 
afterwards called upon General Garfield at Mentor. He was 
cordial and expressed himself in favor of equality for woman 
in matters of education, work, wages and civil rights, but was 
not ready to declare himself in favor of the suffrage and, as was 
always the case, urged that the issue be not pressed during 
that campaign. Mrs. Blake and others visited General Han- 
cock, the Democratic candidate, and the New York Sun re- 
ports the interview in part : 

Mrs. Blake said the delegation had come to ask the general what hope the 
woman suffrage party might entertain in case any measure came before him, 
as President, which bore upon granting women the ballot. The general re- 
plied that the movement was a growing one, and that everything which tended 
toward the amelioration of woman's condition had his sympathy. In the 
coarse of conversation he said that women should be paid equally with men 
for the same work equally well performed. 

Mrs. Slocum said that the delegation desired a decided expression from 
him as to whether he would or would not veto any measure favorable to 
woman suffrage that might come before him as President. The general 
replied that if such a measure were voted upon by Ck)ngre8S as a constitutional 
amendment, it would not come before the President. If, however, Congress 
accorded women the right to vote in the District of Columbia, he certainly 
would offer no obstruction. 

Mrs. Blake asked if he considered women as " people." 

''Undoubtedly," replied the general. *'He would be a bold man who 
would undertake to say they were not." 

** Then, general," said Mrs. Blake, '* we ask nothing more than what yon 



POLITICAL GANDIDATBS — ^WRITING THE HISTORY. 521 

say in yoor letter of acceptance : ' It is only by a fall vote, a free ballot and 
a fair coant that the people can rale in fact, as reqaired by the theory of oar 
government/ " 

"I am perfectly willing/' said General Hancock, ** that yoo should say I 
take my stand on that paragraph in my letter of acceptance." 

In order to exhaust every resource, Miss Anthony, on Au- 
gust 17, addressed this letter to each of the presidential candi- 
dates : 

As vice-president-at-laige of the National Woman Saffrage Association, I 
am instnicted to ask yoa if, in the event of yoar election, you, as President 
of the United States, woold recommend to Congress the sabmission to the 
several legislatares of a Sixteenth Amendment to the National Gonstitation, 
prohibiting the disfranchisement of United States citizens on account of sex. 
What we wish to ascertain is whether yoa, as President, woold ase yoar 
official influence to secare to the women of the several States a national guaran" 
tee of their right to a voice in the government on the same terms with men. 
Neither platform makes any pledge to secare political eqaality to women — 
hence we are waiting and hoping that one candidate or the other, or both, 
will declare favorably, and thereby make it possible for women, with self- 
respect, to work for the success of one or the other or both nominees. Hop- 
ing for a prompt and explicit statement, I am, sir, very respectially years. 

General Hancock did not so much as acknowledge the receipt 
of this, but General Garfield answered promptly, writing with 
bis own hand : 

Yoar letter of the 17th inst. was duly received. I take the liberty of asking 
year personal advice before I answer yoar official letter. I assume that all 
the traditions and impulses of your life lead you to believe that the Republi- 
can party has been and is more nearly in the line of liberty than its antagon- 
ist, the Democratic party ; and I know you desire to advance the cause of 
woman. Now, in view of the fact that the Republican convention has not 
discossed your question, do you not think it would be a violation of the trust 
they have reposed in me, to speak " as their nominee " — ^and add to the pres- 
ent contest an issue which they have not authorized ? 

Again, if I answer your question on the ground of my own private opinion, 
I shall be compelled to say that, while I am open to the freest discussion and 
fairest consideration of your question, I have not yet reached the conclusion 
that it would be best for woman and for the country that she shoald have the 
suffrage. I may reach it ; but whatever time may do to me, that fruit is not 
yet ripe on my tree. I ask you, therefore, for the sake of your own question, 
do you think it wise to pick my apples now 7 Please answer me in the frank- 
ness of personal friendship. 



522 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

With kind regards, I am, very tmly yours. 

PA4AJL/ xx^t-**-*^ <^^ ^ 







Under date of September 9 Miss Anthony sent a spirited 
reply : 

Yoars of the 25th alt. has waited all these days that I might carefully con- 
sider it. 

First.— The Repahlican party did ran well for a season in the '* line of lib- 
erty," bat since 1870, its congressional enactments, majority reports. Supreme 
Court decisions, and now its presidential platform, show a retrograde move- 
ment^not only for women but for colored men — limiting the power of the 
national government in the protection of United States citizens against 
the injustice of the States, until what we gained by the sword is lost by polit- 
ical surrenders. We need nothing but a Democratic administration to 
demonstrate to all Israel and the sun the fact, the sad fact, that all is lost by 
the Republican party. I mean, of course, the one vital point of national su- 
premacy in the protection of United States citizens in the enjoyment of their 
right to vote, and the punishment of States or individuals thereof, for depriv- 
ing citizens of the exercise of that right. The first and fatal mistake was in 
ceding to Rhode Island the right to " abridge " the suffrage to foreign bom 
men ; and to all the States to '' deny " it to women, in direct violation of the 
principle of naXionoX supremacy. From that time, inch by inch, point by point 
has been surrendered, until it is only in name that the Republican party is 
the party of national supremacy. Grant did not protect the negro's ballot in 
the presidential election of 1876— Hayes can not in 1880— nor will Garfield be 
able to do so in 1884— for the " scepter has departed from Judah." 

Second. — For the candidate of a party to add to the discussions of the con- 
test an issue unauthorized or unnoted in its platform, when that issue is one 
vital to its very life, it seems to me would be the grandest act imaginable. For 
doing that very thing, with regard to the protection of the negroes of the South, 
you are today receiving more praise from the best men of the party than for 
any and all of your utterances inside the line of the platform. I know, if you 
had in your letter of acceptance, or in your New York speech, declared your- 
self in favor of ''perfect equality of rights for women, civil and political,'' 
you would have touched an electric spark which would have fired the hearts 



POLITICAL CANDIDATES— f-WRITING THE HISTORY. 523 

of the women of the entire nation, and made the triumph of the Republican 
party more grand and glorioas than any it ever has seen. 

Tiiird.— As to picking fruit before it is ripe I Allow me to remind you that 
very much fruit is never picked ; some is nipped in the bud ; some is worm- 
eaten and falls to the ground ; some rots on the trees before it ripens ; some, too 
slow in ripeningf is bitten by the early frosts of autumn ; while some rare, 
ripe apples hang until frozen and worthless on the leafless boughs I Really, 
Mr. Garfield, if after passing through the war of the rebellion and sixteen 
years in Congress ; if after seeing and hearing and repeating that no class 
ever got justice and equality of chances from any government except it had the 
power— the ballot— to clutch them for itself ; if after all your opportunities for 
growth and development, you can not yet see the truth of the great principle 
of individual self-government ; if you have reached only the idea of class-gov- 
ernment, and that, too, of the most hateful and cruel form — bounded by sex 
— there must be some radical defect in the ethics of the party of which you 
are the chosen leader. 

No matter which party administers the government, women will continue 
to get only subordinate positions and half pay, not because of the party's or 
the President's lack of chivalric regard, but because, in the nature of things, 
it is impossible for any government to protect a disfranchised class in equality 
of chances. Women, to get justice, must have political freedom. But par* 
don this long trespass upon your time and patience, and please bear in mind 
that it is not for the many good things the Republican party and its nominee 
hare done in extending the area of liberty that I criticise them, but because 
they have failed to place the women of the nation on the plane of political 
equality with men. I do not ask you to go beyond your convictions, but I do 
most earnestly beg you to look at this question from the standpoint of the wo- 
man—alone, without father, brother, husband, son — ^battling for bread. It is 
to help the millions of these unfortunate ones that I plead for the ballot in the 
hands of all women. 

With great respect for your frank and candid talk with one of the disfran- 
cfaised, I am, very sincerely yours. 

On the strength of Hancock's perfectly non-committal inter- 
view and Garfield's frank letter, several of the prominent 
Democratic women rushed into a campaign for that party, 
whereupon Miss Anthony called them down in vigorous lan- 
guage. After expressing her indignation at the many false 
newspaper reports of her correspondence and interview with 
General Garfield, she said : 

He has always stood ready to aid us in getting our demand before Congress, 
and was one of the three who reported in favor of a special woman suffrage 
committee in the House the last session. He has actually done a thousand 
things a thousand times more friendly to woman suffrage than Hancock now 
talks of doing. Then, again, Hancock has given us no public statement that, 
if elected, he will recommend a Sixteenth Amendment in his inaugural ; 



524 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

and in his letter of acceptance he said nothing more that can be twisted into 
suffrage for women than Garfield did in his, and there is no more in the Dem- 
ocratic platform that can be thus construed than there is in the Repablican. 
I never intended that the National Association should accept any sort of 
^* under the ink or between the lines " as favorable pledges; and before I 
shall consent to put my name to any document favoring either candidate, I 
must see in black and white, in the candidate's own pen tracks, something to 
warrant such favoring. Mere gallantry will not do. 

During the campaign which followed, neither she nor the 
other leading women of the country did any public work, and 
both parties lost the splendid services which would have been 
gladly rendered had they recognized the simple principle of 
justice. When the success of Garfield was practically assured , 
Miss Anthony wrote to a friend on the evening of election 
day : "I am fairly holding my breath tonight, waiting for 
the morning reports, as I feel it will be an overwhelming tri- 
umph for the Republican party. If their majority should be 
immense, perhaps it will give them courage and strength to 
speak for woman — ^and so let us hope and hope on." 

As Mrs. Stanton's health forbade her going on the lecture 
platform in the autumn of 1880, and as Miss Anthony had 
now enough money ahead to dare claim a little leisure from 
public work, they decided to settle down to the serious business 
/ of writing the History of Woman Suffrage. For this purpose 
Miss Anthony went to Tenafly in October and ensconced her- 
self in Mrs. Stanton's cosy home among the *' blue hills of 
Jersey." The work already was advanced far enough to show 
that it could not possibly be restricted to the one volume into 
which it had enlarged from the 500-page pamphlet at first 
intended, and the task loomed up in an appalling manner. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, the generous patron of so many pro- 
gressive movements, gave Miss Anthony $1,000 for immediate 
expenses and so they went on with the work, delving among 
old papers and letters, compiling, cutting, pasting, writing 
and re-writing, sending over and over to the women of differ- 
ent States for local history, going into New York again and 
again to see the publishers, and performing all the drudgery 
demanded bj' such an undertaking, which can be appreciated 
only by the few who have experienced it. 



POLITICAL CANDIDATES — WRITING THE HISTORY. 526 

Miss Anthony hated this kind of work and it was torture 
for her to give up her active life and sit poring over the musty 
records of the past. Her diary contains the usual impatient 
expressions of this feeling, and in her letters to friends she 
jBays : ''0, how tired and sick I am of honing down to facts 
/and figures perpetually, and how I long to be set free from 
/ what to me has been a perfect prison for the last six months I ' ' 
She stuck to it with Spartan heroism, however, knowing that 
otherwise it never would be done, but she was not unwilling 
occasionally to sally forth and fill a lecture engagement or 
attend a convention. At the Rhode Island annual meeting 
she made the principal address, and the next day went, with 
Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, to Danbury, Mass., to call on John G. 
Whittier. Almost his first words were, "And so our dear 
Lucretia Mott is gone I '' She had died the evening before, 
November 11, aged nearly eighty-eight. 

Miss Anthony had expected her death, but was inexpressibly 
grieved to lose from out her life that sweet presence which 
had been an inspiration for thirty years, whose staunch sup- 
port had never failed, even when friends were fewest and 
fortune at its lowest ebb. In times of greatest perplexity she 
could slip down to the Philadelphia home for sympathy and 
encouragement, and there was always a corner in the pocket- 
book from which a contribution came when it was most needed. 
If ever any human character was without a flaw it was that 
of Lucretia Mott. Her motto was "Truth for authority, not 
authority for truth." She faded away like a spirit and her 
dying words, whispered many times during the last day or 
two, were, '* O, let me go, let this little standard bearer go 1 " 
For freedom, for peace, for temperance, for equality, she was 
indeed the standard bearer through all her long and beautiful 
life. 

On election day, prompted no doubt by the unconquered and 
unconquerable Miss Anthony, Mrs. Stanton made an effort to 
vote. This act created much excitement and called forth 
columns of comment in the newspapers, to the great amuse- 
ment of the two conspirators in their quiet retreat. 



626 lifb'and work of susan b. anthony. 

Toward the end of 1880, Miss Anthony wrote to the treasurer, 
Mrs. Spofford, asking if she did not think it would be best to 
omit the National Convention of 1881, giving as reasons that 
there had been such a surfeit of conventions during the past 
year and that she was very busy with the History. Mrs. 
Spofford was much surprised, for Miss Anthony never had 
been known to yield in the matter of holding this annual meet- 
ing, even when all others were opposed, but she advised against 
postponement and by the next mail received this reply : 

I feel exactly as yoa do about having the convention. I have never for a 
moment felt ready not to hold it. I wrote yon under Mrs. Stanton's orders 
not to tell you how I felt, aa that would be sure to influence yon. Now I have 
read her your letter and told her my determination was to go ahead. She 
won't promise to attend, she never does, but I never fail to take her with me 
when I am on the spot, as I shall be when the time comes next January. So 
you may save us each a bedroom away up, no matter how lofty — ^you know I 
love the fresh air of the high heavens. Don't give yourself one moment's 
uneasiness in regard to the convention. I am going to set about it and am 
bound to make it one of the best, if not the best ever held in Washingtont 
and yon shall have Mrs. Stanton too, unless I miss my guess. 

At the same time came the following from Mrs. Stanton : 
"Your kind invitation I fully appreciate, and feel that the 
pleasure of seeing you is one of the compensations of these 
conventions, which I dread more than I can tell. But Susan 
says truly that when she is at hand, she always dragoons 
me into what she considers my duty, so I never venture 
to say what I will or will not do. Although I have solemnly 
vowed I will go nowhere this winter, I should not be surprised 
if I found myself in Lincoln Hall the middle of January." 

The Thirteenth Annual Convention of the National Asso- 
ciation opened January 18, 1881, Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 
the chair. The first session was devoted to a memorial serv- 
' ice for Lucretia Mott. The stage was decorated with draperies 
and flowers and a large portrait of Mrs. Mott stood on an easel. 
An exquisite floral harp was presented by the colored citizens 
of the District. In the audience were many distinguished 
people, including Mrs. Hayes and her guests from the White 
House, members of the Supreme Court and of Congress, and 
other noted personages. The music was rendered by the 



'gi4dU.- ^u^4^. 



POLITICAL CANDIDATES — WRITING THE HISTORY. 527 

colored choir of St. Augustine's Church. Miss Anthony said 
in part : " The highest tribute she could pay was that during 
the past thirty years ahe had always felt sure she was right 
when she had the sanction of Lucretia Mott. Next to that of 
her own conscience she most valued the approval of her 
sainted friend ; and it was now a great satisfaction that in all 
the differences of opinion as to principles and methods in their 
movement, Mrs. Mott had stood firmly with the National 
Association, of which she was, to the day of her death, the 
honored and. revered vice-president." Short and touching 
addresses were made by Mrs. Sewall, Miss Couzins, Frederick 
Douglass and Robert Purvis, and the eulogy was delivered by 
Mrs. Stanton. 

There was an effort during this convention to secure in Con- 
gress a ''standing committee on the rights of women." It 
was ably advocated by Senator McDonald and defeated largely 
through the smooth manipulation of Roscoe Conkling. The 
Vconvention closed with a reception and supper for the delegates, 
given by Mrs. Spofford at the Riggs House. 

Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton went from Washington 
to the home of Mrs. Mott, where they were welcomed by her 
daughters, who sent for Sarah Pugh, and the old friends 
had a lovely day, made sacred by reminiscences of the dear 
one gone forever. For more than a quarter of a century this 
had been Miss Anthony's stopping-place when in Philadelphia,^ 
but she was welcomed at once into another beautiful home, 
that of the wife and daughters of J. Heron Foster, founder 
of the Pittsburg Dispatch. All were deeply interested in the 
great question, and Julia and Rachel henceforth were ranked 
among the most earnest and valued workers. 

It was soon afterwards that a reporter of the Chicago News 
started the following paragraph : 

Sasan B. Anthony has never condescended to love a man but she lavishes a 
heap of affection on a little gray Skye terrier which she takes around with 
her wherever she goes. This dog was given her by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 
and having recently lost a favorite Newfoundland pet, she accepted the frolic- 

^Tliu and the hospitable homes of Robert and Harriet Parvis, Sarah Pngh, and Adeline 
and Annie Thomson, sisters of J. Edgar Thomson. 



528 UFB AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Bome Skye with hearty graiitade. She has taaght the apt brate every variety 
of tnck and its intelligence seeme to be unlimited. The little creature sleeps 
on her bed, eats from her hand, has blankets, gold and silver collars and 
every kind of ornament and comfort. Miss Anthony is accompanied by this 
accomplished canine everywhere, and daring the recent convention in Wash- 
ington " Birdie," as the dog is called, occapied a prominent place on the plat- 
form, either caddled ap in her volominoos lap or coiled in a frowsy heap at 
her feet. 

This was copied into many newspapers throughout the coon- 
try, often accompanied by editorial comment, facetious, dis- 
approving, and sometimes deducing from this text the solemn 
fact that every woman's nature must have something to love^ 
/or that while women were so frivolous they had no right to 
' ask for the ballot. This extract from a half -column editorial 
in the New York Graphic will serve as an example : 

There is something wrong here. If Miss Anthony were to carry around 
with her a Newfoandland or a good bloodhoand the spectacle woald have 
nothing inoongraoos in it. If she would make a pet of a six-barrelled revolver 
and another of a laige clab that woald be appropriate. Bat a Skye terrier, a 
miserable, little, whining pap, a coached, coddled and coaxed dog making re- 
peated joameys in a basket and fed on crackers and milk — what sort of a 
thing is this for a person of reformative powers to be associated with? It is 
an argument in favor of woman's rights that women are capable of all the 
mascalinity necessary to voting and the making of laws ; bat who ever heard 
of a President, a senator, a member of the Hoase of Representatives, a legis- 
lator of any kind, going aboot with a sick dog in his arms, soothing the little 
wretch into its proper sleep, providing it with its regular noarishment and 
superintending its morning awakenings and the accompanying ablutions? 

Women can never come to the head of the government, can never assist to 
a large extent in its management, until they reform these weaknesses. It 
isn't necessary that they should chew tobacco and swear, and perhaps they 
needn't smoke cigars and drive fast horses ; but their leaders must abandon the 
pet dog, the favorite kitten, the especial hen and the abominable bird. They 
may still sew and still wear the petticoat ; but if they enter politics they must 
submit to the hard raps that men expect, without putting their hands to their 
eyes and sobbing that their feelings have been hurt. There must be reform, 
and Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton must set about it in earnest and at once. 

A Skye terrier for Miss Anthony I Merciful heavens I after all these years 
has it come to this ? • Catnip for Julius Csesar I Boneset tea and black stock- 
ings with garters for Alexander the Great I A locket with hair in it on the 
bosom of the first Napoleon I A Skye terrier 1 We have fallen upon eviL 
days. "^ 

• Under this in her scrap-book Miss Anthony wrote, ** Doesn't 



f 



POLITICAL CANDIDATES — WRITING THE HISTORY. 529 

this cap the climax ? " Of course, there was not the slightest 
/foundation for the paragraph. Miss Anthony never owned a 
/dog or any pet animal, not from dislike but because she felt 
I that humanity needed all her time and affection. 

Work on the History was at once resumed, as its editors 
were now convinced that it never could be finished except by 
the hardest kind of labor without cessation. Of the able as- 
sistance rendered by many women throughout the country, 
perhaps that of Clarina Howard Nichols was the most valua- 
ble. She possessed not only great literary ability but also 
the true editorial instinct and was one of the few left of the 
" old guard." Out of her fine memory she wove a number of 
delightful chapters, all written while lying on her back an 
almost helpless invalid and over seventy years old. She had 
long ago gone to California to be with her children, and Miss An- 
thony's weekly letters to her were of the most loving character 
and answered in the same affectionate strain. Mrs. Nichols 
hesitated to use the names of those who had been most violent 
in their opposition to the rights of women, because she disliked 
to make their children blush for them, but Miss Anthony 
wrote: 

History oaght to be tme, and the men and women who at the time enjoyed 
the glory of opposing as ought to be known to posterity even if it is to their 
children's sorrow ; just as those who suffered the torments of ridicule and 
hatred then, now enjoy the rewards, and their children and grandchildren 
glory in their ancestors. Robert Dale Owen's daughter, in writing up the In- 
diana Constitutional Convention and her father's opponents, withheld their 
names from sympathy for their children. I have told her, that as she now 
rejoices in what was then considered her father's reproach, so she should let 
the children of those men hang their heads now for what then was their 
father's pride. Isn't that fair 7 GkLrrison used to say, " Where there is a sin, 
there must be a sinner." When people understand that their descendants 
and all Israel will know of their deeds, a ^hundred years hence, maybe they 
will learn to be and do better. 

I am a genuine believer in the doctrine of letting the seed bear its fruit on 
the sower's own ground. For us not to give the names of our opponents, but 
only of those who were wise and good, not only would not be true history, 
bat would rob the book of one-half its interest If all persons felt that their 
children most suffer for their wrong-doings, they would be more cautious, but 
the belief that all their ill record is to be hidden out of sight helps them to go 
Amt.— 34 



530 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

on reckless of trath and justice. It is not in malice or with a desire to make 
any one soffer, bat to be tine to history that every namejahoold stand and be 
]adged as the facts merit. 

Miss Anthony in reality seldom carried out this theory, but 
usually desired that personal failings should not be recorded 
and handed down to posterity. She scarcely could be per- 
suaded to allow the bare facts in many instances to be stated 
lest surviving relatives should be hurt thereby. 

Without knowing where the money was to be obtained for 
publishing the History but determined that it should be done, 
Miss Anthony pushed on the work. The steel engravings 
cost $126 apiece and where women were unable or unwilling to 
pay for their own, she herself assumed the responsibility. To 
Mrs. Nichols she wrote : ''I shall have your picture and that 
of Ernestine L. Rose if it takes the last drop in the bucket.''^ 
Because of the unpopularity of the subject the large firms would 
/ not consider the publication of this work, which it was now 
I found would fill two huge volumes, but arrangements were 
I concluded finally with Fowler & Wells. In their great anxiety 
to get their work before the public while they yet lived to see 
it properly done, each chapter was hurried to the publishers the 
moment it was completed and immediately stereotyped and 
printed, which made revising, condensing and re-arranging 
impossible." 

The first volume was issued in May, 1881, a royal octavo of 
900 pages, bringing the record down to the beginning of the 
Civil War. It is not an exaggeration to say that no history 
during the century had been more favorably received by the 
press. The New York dailies contained from one to two or 
more columns of most complimentary reviews. The National 
Citizen and Ballot- Box gave up almost an. entire edition to 
notices of the History taken from New York, Boston, Philadel- 
phia, Chicago and other papers, with not a disparaging criti- 
cism. Most of them echoed the sentiment of the New York 
Sun: "We have long needed an authentic and exhaustive 

* The women of Kansas oontribated |75 toward Mrs. Nichols' piotoie as a testiinoiilal to 
her scdKrage work in that State. 



/ 



POLITICAL CANDIDATES — WRITING THE HISTORY. 



631 



account of the movement for the enfranchisement of women ; ' ' 
and of the Chicago News: ''The appearance of this hook, 
long expected by the friends, is not only an important literary 
occurrence, but it is a remarkable event in the history of civil- 
ization." The personal commendations from such men as 
President Andrew D. White, of Cornell University, Hon. Q. 
B. Waite, of Chicago, Rev. William Henry Channing, and 
from scores of eminent women, would in themselves require 
several chapters. 

Nobody realized so well as the authors the imperfections of 
the work, but when one considered that it had to be gathered 
piecemeal from old letters, personal recollections, imperfect 
newspaper reports, mere scraps of material which never had 
been put into shape as to time and place, the result was re- 
markable. They were indeed correct in their assertion that no 
one but the actual participants ever could have described the 
early history of this movement to secure equal rights for 
women. " We have furnished the bricks and mortar," they 
said, '' for some future architect to rear a beautiful edifice." 
These '^ bricks and mortar" were supplied almost wholly by 
Miss Anthony, who, from the beginning, had carefully pre- 
served every letter, newspaper clipping and report, and whose 
persistent and endless labor in collecting facts, dates, etc., 
never can be estimated or suflSiciently appreciated ; and it is 
not probable that any more forcible or graceful pens than those 
of Mrs. Stanton and Mrs. Gage ever will be found to enhance 
their splendid work. 





532 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

So unanimous and hearty was the reception of this book, to 
which they had devoted every moment of spare time for five 
years, that they felt encouraged to spend the next five, if 
necessary, upon the other volume, which the mass of material 
now demanded ; but if all the criticism had been unfavorable 
and everybody had declared the work not needed, they still 
would have gone straight on to the finish, because they realized 
so strongly the value of putting into permanent form the story 
of the struggle for the emancipation of woman. Many letters 
were received urging that it was too soon to write this history, 
to which Mrs. Stanton invariably responded in her humorous 
way: '*Well, we old workers might perhaps have * remin- 
isced ' after death, but I doubt if the writing mediums could 
do as well as we have done with our pens. You say the his- 
tory of woman suffrage can not be written until it is accom- 
plished. Why not describe its initiative steps ? The United 
States has not completed its grand experiment of equality, 
universal suffrage, etc., and yet Bancroft has been writing our 
history for forty years. If no one writes up his own times, 
where are the materials for the history of the future ? ' ' 

Before the task should be resumed, however, there must be a 
little rest and a great deal of work of another kind. The diary 
says : ** Had a man today and toted all my documents out to 
the barn, storing them in big boxes, then packed my winter 
clothes away in the attic, so that my room might be renovated 
for Theodore Stanton and his bride from Paris." Miss An- 
thony then returned home, filled several lecture engagements 
and in May started for Massachusetts, stopping at Tenafly to 
take Mrs. Stanton with her in order that she might not escape. 




CHAPTER XXXI. 

THB LBQACT — NEBBASKA CAMPAION^-OFF FOB BUROPB. 

1881—1882—1883. 

fT had been decided this year of 1881 to take the 
anniversary meeting into the very heart of New 
Ingland, and for the first time the National Asso- 
ciation went to Boston, opening in Tremont Tem- 
>le, May 26. The address of welcome was made 
by Harriet H. Robinson, wife of *' Warrington," the well- 
known newspaper correspondent, and there were several new 
speakers in the convention, including A. Bronson Alcott, 
Mary P. Eastman, Anna Garlin Spencer, Frank Sanborn, ex- 
Governor Lee, of Wyoming, the noted politician, Francis W. 
Bird, Harriette Robinson Shattuck and Rev. Ada C. Bowles. 
The ladies had no cause to complain of the hospitality of this 
conservative New England center. The Boston Traveller ex- 
pressed the general sentiment in saying : 

The National Suffrage Association has reason to congratulate itself on one 
of the most notable and saccessfal conventions ever held. Boston's attitude 
to her distinguished guests has been uniformly hospitable, the audiences have 
been large and enthusiastic, the press co-operative in every sense. The emi- 
nent women who are its leaders are ladies whose acquaintance is an unmixed 
pleasure, and not least in importance have been the friendships formed and 
renewed at this meeting. The business management of the convention has 
been superb ; the sympathy between audience and speakers reciprocal. 

The guests received an invitation from Governor John D. 
Long to visit the State House and were received by him in 
person. In his remarks he said he believed women should 
vote, not because they are women but because they are a 
part of the people and government should be of the people 

(533) 



534 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

regardless of sex; he thought the extension of sufifrage to 
women could not fail to give stability to the govern- 
ment. Mrs. Hooker thanked him for coming to their sup* 
port and in her letter describing the occurrence she says : 
'' Miss Anthony standing close to the governor said in low, 
pathetic tones, ' Yes, we are tired, we are weary with our 
work. For thirty years some of us have carried this burden, 
and now if we might put it in the hands of honorable men, 
such as you, how happy we would be.' " The ladies also ac- 
cepted an invitation from Mayor Prince to visit the city hall 
and were cordially received by him. They were invited to 
inspect the great dry goods store of Jordan, Marsh & Co. and see 
the arrangements for the com fort and pleasure of the employes, 
many of whom were women. Miss Anthony, Mrs. Stanton 
and Mrs. Robinson were entertained at the Parker House by the 
famous Bird Club. 

Miss Anthony received several beautiful floral offerings dur- 
ing the convention, and also a handsome pin in the shape of a 
Greek cross. The golden bar from which it was suspended 
bore the letters S. B. A., on the points were the initials N. W. 
8. A., and on the reverse was engraved, ''Presented by the 
Citizens' Suffrage Association of Philadelphia as a token of 
gratitude for her life-long devotion to the interests of woman." 
The little presentation speech was made in a most tender and 
graceful manner by May Wright Sewall. The Boston Globe in 
describing the scene pays this compliment : 

Miss Anthony was as deeply toacned as she was surprised. Recovering 
herself, she responded eloquently and in her nsoal interesting and magnetic 
manner. Of all the eminent women who are here, no one is sach a favorite 
with a Boston andience as Sosan B. Anthony. Her courage and strength and 
the patient devotion of a life consecrated to the advancement and the eleva- 
tion of womanhood, her invincible honor, her logic and her power to touch 
and sway all hearts, are felt and reverently recognized. The young women 
of the day may well feel that it is she who has made life poseible to them ; who 
has trodden the thorny paths and, by her unwearied devotion, has opened to 
them the professions and higher applied industries ; nor is this detracting 
from those who now share with her the labor and the glory. Each and all 
recognize the individual devotion, the purity and singleness of purpose that 
so eminently distinguish Miss Anthony. 



THE LEGACY NEBRASKA CAMPAIGN^-OFF FOR EUROPE. 535 

The convention closed with a reception at the elegant home 
of Mrs. Fenno Tudor, on Beacon Hill. 

After leaving Boston, this distinguished body of women 
made the sweep of New England, holding conventions in 
Providence, R. I.; Portland, Me.; Dover, Concord and Keene, 
N. H.; Hartford and New Haven, Conn. The national board 
'of officers received an infusion of new blood this year through 
tbe election of May Wright Sewall, chairman executive com- 
mittee, and Rachel Foster, corresponding secretary. Miss 
Anthony writes, ''It is such a relief to roll oft part of the 
burden on stronger, younger shoulders." This entire round 
of conventions was arranged by Miss Foster, a remarkable 
work for an inexperienced girl. 

At Concord Miss Anthony was entertained in the family of 
her old friend and co-laborer, Parker Pillsbury, and after her 
departure Mrs. Pillsbury wrote : "I am so very happy to 
know you personally, and I thank you for the compliment 
you bestow in asking me to enroll my name among the most 
grand and noble women of our land. I shall enjoy being 
counted worthy to place it in company with dear Miss Anthony. 
Mr. Cogswell says many men (some members of the Legisla- 
ture among them) in talking with him have expressed unex- 
pected satisfaction in the speeches of the convention just 
holden— especially in yours, and he says, ' She is a host in 
herself, I like her practical common sense.' " 

There was comfort in a letter received at this time from 
Elizabeth Boynton Harbert, president of the Illinois Suffrage 
Association and one of the Inter-Ocean staff : 

Before entering; upon oar oaaal basiness talk, I want to wish yoa all beaa- 
tifnl and peaceful things this sammer morning, and tell yoa of a rare and 
genaine tribate to yourself which brought tears of gladness to my own eyes 
when I heard it. In talking to some of the old workers, I referred to your 
life-long sacrifice and wondered how we could develop a similar spirit in our 
yoanger women, when Mrs. Zerelda Wallace said with great impressiveness : 
" My dear sisters, I want to say this, and to say it with a profound realiza- 
tion of all that it means, that to me, the person who, next to Jesus Christ 
himself, has shown to the world a life of perfect unselfishness, is Susan 6. 
Anthony." I tell yoa this, my dear friend, because I believe such a tribute 
from sach a woman will lighten some of the burdens. 



536 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Many similar letters were now received every year, and were 
as sweet and fragrant flowers in a pathway which had contained 
more thorns than roses. 

In the hot summer of 1881 Miss Anthony went again to Al- 
bany to spend the last weeks with another friend, Phebe Hoag 
Jones, who passed away July 27. She was the intimate asso- 
ciate of Lydia Mott and the last of that little band of Abolition- 
ists so conspicuous in the Democratic stronghold of Albany for 
many years preceding the war. At her death Miss Anthony 
felt that she had no longer an abiding place in the State capi- 
tal, and expressed this feeling in a letter to Mrs. Spofford, who 
replied : *' You speak of no longer having a home in Albany. 
Why, the best homes in that city should be gladly opened to 
you, and some day those people will wake up and wonder why 
they did not take you in their arms and hearts and help you 
in your work.'" 

All the letters during this summer are filled with sorrow 
over the assassination, long suffering and death of President 
Garfield. After all was ended Miss Anthony wrote to a 
friend : 

In the reported death-bed atteranoes of oar President, the only one which has 
grated on my ears was that in answer to the query whether he had made a will : 
** No, and he did not wish one, as hecoald trast the courts to do justice to his 
wife and children." How little even the best of men see and feel the dire 
humiliation and suffering to the wife, the widow, who is left to the justice of 
the courts I My heart aches because of man's insensibility to the cruelty of 
thus leaving woman. How can we teach them the lesson jthat the wife suf- 
fers all the torment under the law's assuming her rights to her property and 
her children, which the husband would, should it assume similar ownership 
and control over him, his property and children after his wife's death. 

What a twelve weeks these have been, and what a funeral pall has rested 
upon us the past week. Every nook and corner, every mountaintop and val- 
ley is shrouded in sorrow for this crime against the nation. Today the min- 
isters are preaching their sermons on the life and character of Garfield. Our 
Unitarian, Mr. Mann, made his special point on the fact that all the people 
of every sect had united in endorsement of Garfield's religion, which was 
most emphatically one of life and action, natural, without cant or observance 
of the outward rites and ceremonies. There is no report of even a minister's 
being asked to pray with him. When the bells told of the people's day of spe- 

* This comment applies with equal force to Albany today. It is the only city in the United 
States where Miss Anthony has not a standing invitation to a number of hospitable homes. 



THK LEGACY NEBRASKA CAMPAIGN— OFF FOR EUROPE. 537 

cial prayer for his life, he exclaimed, " God bless the people," but covered his 
face, as mach as to say, " Nothing but science can determine this case." 

In the late summer and fall Mrs. Stanton had a tedious and 
alarming attack of malarial fever, and Miss Anthony was 
greatly distressed because some of her family insisted that it 
was produced by the long, hard strain of the work on the His- 
tory. She writes : " It is so easy to charge every ill to her 
labors for suffrage, while she knows and I know that it is her 
work for woman which has kept her young and fresh and 
happy all these years. Mrs. Stanton has written me that dur- 
ing her illness ' she suffered more from her fear that she never 
should finish the History than from the thought of parting with 
all her friends.' *' 

The National Prohibition Alliance, which met in New York, 
October 18, invited her to take an official part in its proceed- 
ings. She declined to do so but attended the meeting and, af- 
ter a visit to Mrs. Stanton, went to Washington to the national 
convention of the W. C. T. U. She had three reasons for this : 
1st, she understood there was to be an attempt to supersede 
Miss Willard, to whom she had become very much attached ; 
2d, an effort was to be made to commit the association to wo- 
man suffrage ; and 3d, she had made up her mind to see Pres- 
ident Arthur on business connected with her own organization. 
She sat in the convention through all the three days' sessions 
and, on motion of Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, was invited to address 
it and was introduced by Miss Willard in words of strong ap- 
proval. A prominent woman who was opposed to Miss Wil- 
lard's re-election went among the delegates, assuring them in 
the most solemn manner that Miss Willard had insulted every 
one of them by introducing Miss Anthony on the platform, as 
she did not recognize God. *' Well," replied one of them, an 
Indianapolis woman, "I don't know about that, but I do know 
that God has recognized her and her work for the last thirty 
years." 

She had the pleasure of seeing Miss Willard triumphantly 
re-elected, an equal suffrage resolution adopted and a depart- 
ment of franchise established. '' So the Christian craft of that 



538 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

great organization has set sail on the wide sea of woman's en* 
franchisement/' she comments. At the close of the conven- 
tion this amusing card was sent to the press : "All presidents 
of State delegations represented in the National W. C. T. U. 
desire to explain, in refutation of a statement in the Post of 
October 31, that, so far from * capturing the convention/ Miss 
Susan B. Anthony made no effort to influence their delegations 
in public or in private, and is not, nor ever has been, a mem- 
ber of the W. C. T. U., either local. State or national, hence 
has had no part in its deliberations." 

The President, who was an old schoolmate of her brother 
Daniel R., granted her a pleasant interview, arranged by Sen- 
ator Jones, of Nevada, in which she urged him to recommend 
in his message to Congress a standing committee on the rights 
of women and also a Sixteenth Amendment which should en- 
franchise them. The reporters learned of this interview and, 
as a result, newspapers throughout the country used a portion 
of their valuable space in describing " how President Arthur 
squeezed Susan B. Anthony's hand I" 

On the way home she stopped in Philadelphia and, with 
Rachel Foster and Adeline Thomson, called on George W. 
Childs, who gave to her $50 for *' the cause," and to each of 
them one of his rare china cups and saucers. On November 7 
work on the History was again resumed. The 29th was Wen- 
dell Phillips' seventieth birthday and Miss Anthony wrote 
him a letter of congratulation, telling him that she always had 
found comfort in the thought that, when there were differences 
between them, she had had his respect if not his approval. 
He replied with the following affectionate note: ''Hearty 
thanks for your congratulations. The band grows smaller 
month by month. We ought to stand closer together. You 
and I have differed as all earnest souls must. I trust each 
always believed the other to be true in spirit. I know I always 
did, touching yourself. You are good to assure me you have had 
the same faith in me, and I hope when you reach threescore 
and ten, some kind friend will cheer you with equally gener- 
ous and welcome words." 



THE LEGACY — NEBRASKA CAMPAIGN^-OFF FOR EUROPE. 539 

The last entry in the diary for 1881 says : ' * The year closes 
down on a wilderness of work^ a swamp of letters and papers 
almost hopeless." She attacked it^ however, with that sublime 
courage which was ever her strongest characteristic, and at the ' 
end of the first week of the new year the heaviest part of the 
burden was lifted from her shoulders by the receipt of this let- 
ter from Mr. Phillips : 

DiAB Susan : Oar friend Mrs. Eliza Eddy, Francis Jackson's daughter, 
died a week ago Thursday. At her request, I made her will some weeks be- 
fore. Her man of business, devoted to her for twenty-five years, Mr. C. B. 
Ransom (ex-president of one of our banks) is the executor. He and I were 
present and consulted, and we know all her intentions and wishes from long 
talks with her in years gone by. After making various bequests, she ordered 
the remainder divided equally between you and Lucy Stone. There is no 
question whatever that your portion will be f 25,000 or $28,000. I advised her, 
in order to avoid all lawyers, to give this sum to you outright, with no re- 
sponsibility to any one or any court, only ** requesting you to use it for the ad- 
vancement of the woman's cause." 

After all the years of toil without financial recompense, of 
struggling to accomplish her work with wholly insufficient 
means, of depending from month to month on the few dollars 
which could be gathered in, Miss Anthony's joy and gratitude 
scarcely could find expression in words. She answered at once: 

Your most surprising letter reached me last evening. How worthy the 
daughter of Francis Jackson ! How it carries me back to his generous gift of 
$5,000 ; to that noble, fatherly man and that quiet, lovely daughter in his home. 
Never going to Boston during the past fifteen years, I had lost sight of her, 
though I had not foi^tten her by any means. How little thought have I had 
all these years that she cherished this marvellous trust in me, and now I rec- 
ognize in her munificent legacy your own faith in me, for such was her confi- 
dence in you that I feel sure she would not have thus willed, if you had not 
fully endorsed her wish. So to you, my dear friend, as to her, my unspeak- 
able gratitude goes out. May I prove worthy the care and disposal of what- 
ever shall come into my hands. Will you, as my friend and Mrs. Eddy's, ever 
feel free to suggest and advise me as to a wise use thereof ? I am very glad it 
was your privilege to be with her through these years of her loneliness. I am 
pleased that you and Mr. Ransom propose to appropriate something to her 
faithful brother James, and most cheerfully do I put my name to the paper you 
enclose, with the fullest confidence that you would ask of me nothing but 
right and justice to all parties. 



540 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

A few days afterwards she received another letter from Mr. 
Phillips : 

Toa remember Mrs. Bacon (Mrs. Eddy's daoghter) died aboat a week after 
she did. Her husband (who Mrs. Eddy knew would disturb her will if be 
ooold) is trying ostensibly to break it, really to force yon and Lucy Stone to 
bay him o£f. The grounds on which he objects to the will are " that she was 
of unsound mind ; that I and her executor exercised oyer her an undue infla- 
ence in urging her to leave her money as she did ; and that she did not know 
how much she was willing away." The truth is, we never said one word to 
her. It was her own plan entirely to leave it to woman's rights. Mr. Bacon 
knows there is not a ghost of a chance of his succeeding. The executor and 
I have retained Benjamin F. Butler and mean to fight to have Mrs. Eddy's 
will executed as she wished. The Misses Eddy sustain the will and wish it 
carried out to the letter, and say if it is broken tbey shall give their portion 
to the woman's rights cause, to you and Lucy. I'll tell you when any news 
is to be had. We are doing our best to protect your interests. 

This was the heginning of litigation which continued for 
three years, and was a source of annoyance to Miss Anthony 
in other respects besides being deprived of the money. The 
fact of the bequest naturally being heralded far and wide by 
the newspapers, appeals and demands for a share of it poured 
in from all quarters, and she had much difficulty in persuad- 
ing people that she had not the money already in her hands to 
be divided. 

In company with Mrs. Stanton, Miss Anthony arrived in 
Washington January 16, 1882, to attend the Fourteenth An- 
nual Convention. The effort to secure a special committee on 
1 woman suffrage which had failed in the Forty-sixth Congress 
was successful in the Forty-seventh , through the champion- 
ship of Senators Hoar and John A. Logan, Representatives 
John D. White, of Kentucky, Thomas B. Reed and others. 
There was bitter opposition by Senator Vest, of Missouri, who 
declared it to be '' a step toward the recognition of woman suf- 
frage, which has nothing in it but mischief to the institutions 
and to the society of the whole country." In his zeal he 
dropped into poetry, saying, 

"A woman's noblest station is retreat, 
Her fairest virtues fly from public sight/' 



H 



THE LEGACY — NEBRASKA CAMPAIGN^-OFF FOR EUROPE. 541 

and so, of course, she had no need of a special committee. It 
was vigorously opposed also by Senator Beck, of Kentucky, 
who said 'Hhe colored women's votes could be bought for fifty 
cents apiece;" and by Senator Morgan, of Alabama, who made 
a stump speech on ^'dissevered homes, disbanded families, 
pot-house politicians seated at the fireside with another man's 
wife, women fighting their way to the polls through crowds of 
negroes and ruflSans," etc.* It was carried in the Senate by a 
vote of 35 to 23 ; in the House, a month later, by a vote of 115 
to 84. Miss Anthony says of this in her diary : "If the best 
of worldly good had come to me personally, I could not feel 
more joyous and blest." 

In addition to the usual distinguished array of speakers 
were Rev. Frederick Hinckley, Representative G. S. Orth, of 
Indiana, Senator Saunders, of Nebraska, Clara B. Colby, Har- 
riette R. Shattuck and Helen M. Gougar, all new on the National 
platform. The Senate committee on woman suffrage just ap- 
pointed, granted a hearing January 20, and at its close expressed 
a desire to hear other speakers among the ladies on the follow- 
ing day. Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton presented each of 
the members of the committee with the first volume of the 
History of Woman Suffrage. 

The convention closed with the usual handsome reception at 
the Riggs House and immediately afterwards most of the 
speakers went to Philadelphia, where Rachel Foster had 
arranged for another convention." This was held at St. George's 
Hall, January 23, 24, 25, welcomed by Rev. Charles G. Ames, 
and was highly successful. A pleasant feature of this occasion 
was a luncheon given by that revered Quaker and temperance 
worker, Mrs. Hannah Whitall Smith, of Germantown, to 
twelve of the prominent speakers. 

IThe two historians hastened back to their work, which was 
interrupted only by Miss Anthony's going to the New York 
State Suffrage Convention held in Chickering Hall, February 1. 

< For fall report of debate see History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. Ill, p. 18S. 

*Mifl8 Anthony, Mrs. Sewall and Mrs. Jane Graham Jones remained over one day to ap- 
pear before the Honse committee, presenting arguments in favor of abolishing the Vford 
''maie" from the Ckmstitatlon of Dakota before admitting it as a State. 



542 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Calls for her presence and help came from many parts of the 
country. '* 0, how I long to be in the midst of the fray," she 
writes, ''and here I am bound hand and foot. I shall feel like 
an uncaged lion when this book is off my hands." On 
February 15, her birthday was celebrated by suffrage clubs in 
many places/ but she refused to be drawn out of her retreat, 
where she was remembered with telegrams, newspaper notices 
and gifts. In quoting a complimentary reference from the 
Rochester Herald, the Elmira Free Press commented : 

The Herald says too little. Miss Anthony has labored for the most part 
withoat money, and from pure love of the principle to which she has devoted 
her life. She is as good a knight as has enlisted in any crusade, and has 
sacrificed as much and been as faithful and true. She has been thrice true, 
indeed, because of the ridicule showered on her as a woman trying to do a 
man's work. No man ever had the courage of his convictions as much as she. 
It takes a bold spirit to stand up against the dangers of gunpowder in the old- 
time, legitimate way ; but it is a braver one that withstands ridicule and that 
mean cunning which makes wit of every act looking toward the advancement 
of women. The Free Press has perhaps had as many of the frowns of this 
" good gray poet " of the woman's cause as anybody. It has seen enough of 
them to know, however, that behind that somewhat frigid exterior is a sensi- 
tiveness which would well become a girl of sixteen rather than a lady of 
sixty-two and which shows that the woman is always the woman ; and it 
wants to present its compliments to the bravest and grandest old lady within 
the circle of its acquaintance. 

The Washington Republic furnished another example of the 
pleasant things said : 

Miss Anthony, whom we know well and of whom we can speak from per- 
sonal experience, is so broad in her charity, so cosmopolitan in her sympa- 
thies, that she will stand, without fearing speck or soil, beside any publican 
or sinner whose eyes have been opened to see the good in woman's rights, 
and who is willing to help on the work in his own way. For herself she 
never deviates from the principles she espoused when, stepping upon the 
rostrum to plead for disfranchised women, she determined that her life work 
should be endeavoring to procure for her sex all the rights and privileges of 
which exclusively male legislation had for ages defrauded them. With eyes 
steadily fixed upon the goal she has in view, neither the jeers nor ridicule of 
the crowds without, nor the jealous asides of those claiming to be workers in 
the same cause, have had power to distract her attention or make her turn 
from her labor to answer or rebuke. 

^ This national celebration of Miss Anthony's birthday by snBrtige clubs was first suf^gested 
by Elisabeth Boynton Harbert, in her department, " Woman's Kingdom," in the Chicago 
Inter-Ooean. 



THE LEGACY — NEBRASKA CAMPAIGN— OFF FOR EUROPE. 543 

The last of April the second volume of the History was com- 
pleted and its editors found to their dismay that they still had 
enough material on hand for a third huge volume. Mrs. 
Stanton sailed for Europe with her daughter Harriot, and after 
Miss Anthony had read the last bit of proof and seen all safe 
at the publishers, she obeyed an urgent call from the women 

/at Washington and hastened thither to look after the congres- 
sional committees on woman suffrage. 

She was fortunate in her friends at court at this time, hav- 
ing two cousins, Elbridge G. Lapham and Henry B. Anthony, 
in the United States Senate, and her lawyer, John Van Voor- 
his, of Rochester, in the House of Representatives, all in favor 
of woman suffrage, and the two cousins on the '* select com- 
mittee" of the Senate. On June 5, 1882, this committee 
made a report in favor of a Sixteenth Amendment to the Con- 
stitution of the United States, signed by the Republican sena- 
tors, E. G. Lapham, T. W. Ferry, H. W. Blair and H. B. 
Anthony. The minority report took the ground that suffrage 
^788 a matter which should be regulated solely by the States, 
not by Congress, and was signed by J. Z. George and Howell 
E. Jackson (Dems.), and James G. Fair (Rep.). 

The following year, March 1, 1883, the House committee, 
John D. White, chairman, presented a favorable report. This 
was the first time woman suffrage had received a majority 
report from a Senate or House committee.^ 



I 




When Miss Anthony returned home she found this bright 
note from Harriot Stanton, dated Paris : "... Dear Susan, 

*For full text of reports see History of Woman Suffrage, VoL III., p. 268. 



544 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

you often seem to me like a superb warhorse. You are com- 
pletely swallowed up in an idea, and it's a glorious thing to be. 
Carlyle says, ' The end of man is an Action, not a Thought, ' 
and what a realization of that truth has your life been. You 
have never stopped for idle culture or happy recreations. 
You are possessed by a moral force, and you act. You are a 
Deed, not a Thinking. ... I should love to be your biogra- 
pher. You are to other women of your time just what Greek 
architecture is to Gothic. I long to carve your literary image, 
and know I could . " 

If Miss Anthony had any hope of rest it was soon dispelled . 
j The legislature of Nebraska had submitted a woman suffrage 
/ amendment, and the women of that State called upon the 
i National Association for assistance. After a vast amount of 
preliminary correspondence she left Rochester September 2, and 
travelled westward, leaving a trail of newspaper interviews in 
her wake, as she was intercepted by reporters at every city. 
En route she wrote to her friend Mrs. Nichols : '' Only think, 
I shall not have a white-haired woman on the platform with 
me, and shall be alone there of all the pioneer workers. 
Always with the ' old guard ' I had perfect confidence that the 
wise and right thing would be said. What a platform ours 
then was of self-reliant, strong women! I felt sure of you all, 
and since you earliest ones have not been with us, Mrs. Stan- 
ton's presence has ever made me feel that we should get the 
true and brave word spoken. Now that she is not to be there, 
I can not quite feel certain that our younger sisters will be 
equal to the emergency, yet they are each and all valiant, 
earnest and talented, and will soon be left to manage the ship 
without even me.'* 

The opening convention was held in Boyd's Opera House, 
Omaha, September 26, 27, 28. The Bee was ironical and con- 
temptuous in its treatment, heading its report '' Mad Anthony's 
Raid." The Herald, under control of a young son of U. S. 
Senator Hitchcock, was vulgar and abusive, referring to the 
question as a '' dead issue." The Republican, edited by D. C. 
Brooks, replied : 



THE LEGACY — NEBRASKA CAMPAIGN OFF FOR EUROPE. 545 

Pbetty Lively "Dead Issue." — Daring the three days' sessions of the 
woman suffrage convention, we estimate that 7,000 people were in attendance. 
The Republican, in its three daily issues, and its coming weekly issue, will 
have laid the proceedings in full before about 75,000 readers, and the Bee and 
Herald will have given them nearly as many more. For a ** dead issue " we 
sabmit this is a pretty respectable showing. Considered as a series of political 
meetings, the suffrage convention had more hearers than all the Democratic 
meetings and conventions held in Omaha during the last five years. The 
aadiences were truly representative, embracing the business, professional 
and working interests of our city, and composed very largely of voters and citi- 
zens influential in politics. 

The next conyention was held in Lincoln with the same 
crowded houses. The newspapers were fair in their reports. 
The National Association raised $5,000 by contributions, 
mostly from outside the State. Miss Anthony gave her time 
and services and over $1,000 in money besides all she collected. 
Mrs. Foster and daughters contributed $500. Eleven speakers 
were kept in the field, ^ and all the complicated series of meet- 
ings was arranged and managed by Rachel Foster, assisted by 
^rs. Colby. Miss Anthony herself spoke in forty counties, 
/free transportation being given her by all the railroads in the 
State. On October 13, she held the famous debate at Omaha 
with Edward Bosewater, editor of the Bee, in the presence of 
an immense audience. Everywhere her meetings were perfect 
ovations, people coming in from a radius of twenty-five miles ; 
and outside of Lincoln and Omaha, there was no audience- 
room large enough to hold the crowds. 

I A splendid force of Nebraska women conducted the campaign 
i in behalf of the State. Every effort possible was made in the 
I brief space of six weeks, but the masses of voters were not pre- 
j pared for the question, most of the leading newspapers opposed 
it, and the women had no help from either of the political par- 
ties. In spite of these fatal drawbacks, the suffrage amend- 
ment received about one-third of the total vote.* 

* Mrs. Sewall, Mrs. QojigBTt ICiss Cousins, Mrs. Minor, Mrs. Saxon, Miss Hindman, Mrs. 
ShattncJc, Mrs, Mason, Madame Neymann, Mrs. Blake and Miss Anthony. 

'After the election some of the students of the State University placed an efiSgy of Miss 
Anthony in a coffin and with torches and pallbearers started in a funeral procession. They 
were met by another crowd of students who, to preserve the honor of the university, over- 
powered them and took the effifiry away. 

Amt.— 55 



546 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Miss Anthony returned home by way of St. Louis, where 
Mrs. Minor gave a large reception in her honor. When she 
reached Rochester she was invited by the Lincoln Club, one of 
the leading political organizations of the city, to give her ad- 
dress, ** Woman Wants Bread, not the Ballot." The Demo- 
crat and Chronicle said in its report : ''The large audience- 
room of the city hall was completely filled, and many extra 
seats were brought in. A number of prominent ladies and 
gentlemen occupied seats upon the platform. W. E. Werner, 
president of the club, in introducing the speaker, said it was 
fitting the hall should be full to overflowing with an audience 
anxious to hear the greatest advocate of one of the greatest 
questions of the day. ' ' 

Miss Anthony had made a short trip to Washington imme- 
diately upon her return from Nebraska, to confer with the 
/select committees on woman suffrage and also to make final 
/ arrangements for the approaching National Convention. It met 
/ in Lincoln Hall, January 23, 24 and 25, 1883, and she pre- 
I sided over its deliberations. 

In response to many urgent letters written by Mrs. Stanton 
from England, and encouraged by friends at home who felt 
that she needed a long rest after more than thirty years of un- 

/ interrupted public work, Miss Anthony decided to make a trip 
abroad. As Rachel Foster contemplated a few years' study in 
Europe, the pleasant arrangement was made that she should 
undertake the financial management of the journey, act as in- 
terpreter and give Miss Anthony the care and attention her 
loving heart would suggest.* Miss Anthony's sixty-third 
birthday being near at hand, the friends in Philadelphia, led by 
the Citizens' Suffrage Association, Edward M. Davis, presi- 
dent, tendered her a reception, which circumstances rendered 
it necessary to hold on the 19th instead of the 15th of Feb- 
ruary. The Philadelphia Times gave this account : 

* It was on this trip that, as "Miss Anthony " seemed too formal and "Sasan" too familiar, 
Miss Foster adopted the endearing title "Aunt Snsan." After they returned and a few 
of the younger workers most closely associated with her began to use this name. Miss 
Anthony did not object; but when it came into general use and not only older women and 
y comparative strangers, but men also, and the newspapers, fell into the habit of calling her 
"Aunt Susan," she was very much annoyed and never heard or saw the name without an in- 
ward protest. 



THE LEGACY — NEBRASKA CAMPAIGN— OFF FOR EUROPE. 547 

The parlor of the Unitarian church web filled to overflowing on the occa- 
Bion of the farewell reception to Miss Sasan B. Anthony. After prayer by 
Rev. Charles G. Amee, Robert Paryis, who presided, said in a brief and 
earnest address: *' I have the honor, on behalf of the National Suffrage 
Association, to present to you these resolutions testifying totheirhigh regard, 
confidence, and affection." After the applause which the resolutions evoked, 
Mr. Purvis continued: " I present these with feelings which I can not ex- 
press in words, for my thoughts take me back in vivid recollection to those 
stormy periods of persecution and outrage when you, Miss Anthony, with 
the foremost in the ranks of the Abolitionists, battled for the freedom and 
rights of the enslaved race. You have lived, with many compeers, to see the 
glorious result of your labors in redeeming from the infamy and degradation 
of chattelism 4,000,000 slaves. That done, your attention was turned to the 
greater question — ^in view of numbers— of woman's emancipation from civil 
and political debasement." 

Upon rising to reply Miss Anthony received an ovation. She said: ''I 
feel that I must speak, because if I should hear all these words of praise and 
remain silent, I should seem to assent to tributes which I do not wholly 
deserve. My kind friends have spoken almost as if I had done the work, or 
the greater part of it, alone, whereas I have been only one of many men 
and women who have labored side by side in this cause. Philadelphia has had 
the honor of giving to the world a woman who led the way in this noble 
effort. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were active in the good 
work ere my attention had been called to it. It was through their influence 
that I was led to consider and accept the then new doctrine. Alone I should 
have been as a mere straw in the wind. ... I have known nothing the 
last thirty years save the struggle for human rights on this continent. If it 
had been a class of men who were disfranchised and denied their legal rights, 
I believe I should have devoted my life precisely as I have done in behalf of 
my own sex. I hope while abroad that I shall do something to recommend 
our work here, so as to make them respect American women and their de- 
mand for political equality. . . . 



i> 



Letters, telegrams, flowers and gifts were received in great 
numbers.* 

May Wright Sewall had this graphic description in the In- 
dianapolis Times, owned and edited by Col. Wm. R. HoUoway, 
an earnest advocate of woman suffrage : 

The few days spent in Philadelphia by Miss Anthony prior to sailing were 
a series of fdtes. She spoke to over one thousand girls ef the Normal School 
on the public duties of women ; was officially invited to visit the Woman's 

'Amcmir the letters was the foUowinir from Senator John J. Ingalla: "I see by the 
papers that yon are abont to depart for Enrope. Though I do not sympathise with the 
opinions wlioee advocacy has made yon famous, yet I am not insensible to the great yalne 
of the example of yonr conrageous and self-denying labors to the cause of American 
womanhood. I hope that none but prosperous gales may follow your ship, tnat your 
Tisit may be happy* and that your life may be spared till yonr aspirations are realized." 



548 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Medical College ; was given a reception by the New Centary Clab ; was ten- 
dered a complimentary dinner by Mrs. Emma J. Bartol, in her own elegant 
home, where ten coarses were served and toasts were drank to the gaest of 
honor. . . . Letters of introdaction, quite unsolicited, poured in from 
friends and countrymen personally unknown to her, who thus showed their 
desire to facilitate her meeting with the stars of various desirable circles 
abroad. At the public reception, Robert Purvis presented the following testi- 
monial, beautifully engrossed on vellum, and encased in garnet velvet with 
gold borders : 

" Resolved, That the National Woman Sufhrage Association of the United 
States does hereby testify its appreciation of the life-long devotion of Susan 
B. Anthony to the cause of woman; that it acknowledges her as the chief in- 
spirer of women in their straggle for personal liberty, for civil equity, and for 
political equality ; that as one of the foremost of American women it com- 
mends her to the women of foreign lands. 

'* Resolved, That the members of the association rejoice in the approaching 
holiday of tbeir beloved leader; that they will follow her wanderings with 
affection and sympathy ; that during her absence they will steadfastly uphold 
the principles to which her life has been devoted ; that on her return they will 
welcome her to a resumption of her labors and hold themselves ready to work 
under her able and devoted leadership." 

Among the numerous letters and telegrams were messages from Wendell 
Phillips, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass, Mary Clemmer, Helen 
Potter, Emma C. Bascom and Dr. Alida C. Avery. . . . Probably no testi- 
mony was more enjoyed than the following : 

" RocHBSTBB, N. Y., THB HoMB OF SusAN B. Anthont: In this open letter 
old friends and neighbors unite with all who honor the birthday of its true 
citizen, and express the sincere wish that Miss Anthony in her sojourn in 
strange lands may find what she has in full measure here at home — a genuine 
appreciation of her true womanliness, her sturdy adherence to honest convic- 
tion and her heroic stand, against all opposition, for the higher education and 
enfranchisement of women. Wishing her Godspeed and a safe return, we, 
the undersigned, do not need to assure her that neither the triumphs nor the 
defeats of her future public life will change our estimation of her, for to us she 
will ever remain what her life among us has proved her to be— a good, true 
woman, self-consecrated to the cause of woman in every land." 

The signatures include the names of eighty of the leading men and women 
of Rochester; among them editors of the papers of both parties, pastors of the 
prominent churches, university professors, bankers, politicians, etc. Honor, 
if tardy, surely comes at last to the prophet in her own country. A song writ- 
ten for the occasion and inscribed to Miss Anthony, by Annie E. McDowell, 
one of the first editors of a woman's paper, was splendidly sung by Mr. Ford, 
the composer, who had set it to music. 

Among the telegrams was this from her brother, D. R. 
Anthony: "Sixty-three years have crowned you with the 
honor and respect of the people of America, and with the love 



THE LEGACY — NEBRASKA CAMPAIGN— OFF FOR EUROPE. 549 

of your brothers and sisters.*' From the friends in Washing- 
ton, D. Cf came a plush case, on whose satin lining rested an 
exquisite point lace fichu and sleeve ruffles. A New York gen- 
tleman sent $100 to be used toward the purchase of an India 
shawl, writing : "I don't believe in woman suffrage, but I do 
believe in Susan B. Anthony.'' The Cheney Brothers sent a 
handsome black silk dress pattern ; Helen Potter, a steamer 
rug ; the Fosters, a travelling bag ; Adeline and Annie Thom- 
son, a silver cup ; Robert Purvis, a gold-handled umbrella, 
and there were various other tokens of remembrance. Many 
of the leading papers contained an editorial farewell, with a 
hearty compliment and Godspeed. The Chicago Tribune, 
edited by Joseph Med ill, offered this tribute : 

The best known and most popular woman in the United States, engaged in 
public work, is Susan B. Anthony, the co-worker of Wm. Lloyd Garrison, 
Lydia Maria Child, Wendell Phillips, Lucretia Mott and others in the anti- 
slavery movement, and the fellow-laborer of Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the 
woman's rights movement. She ranks first among the warriors in this latter 
contest, because she has lived her life in its service and there has been no 
side issue to it. Neither father nor mother, husband nor children, have 
diverted her mind from her hobby, or led her to cease for a day from the 
prosecution of the task she set out to accomplish. . . . Miss Anthony is 
an American woman whom the better class of English people particularly, 
and of foreigners generally, will delight to honor, and one that her country- 
women are pleased to have represent them. She is, in point of character and 
ability, one of the few of her sex who have made themselves a name and a 
place in the history of her time. . . . 

She has had occasion to speak sharply, to lecture women severely, when in 
her heart she would have preferred to praise ; but women love her dearly all 
the same, and trust her implicitly. In integrity, stainless honor and gener- 
osity of sentiment and of deed she has no peer. She has stood the storm of 
raillery and abuse she aroused, as the leader of the " shrieking sisterhood," 
with perfect equanimity, and while others were cowed by the ridicule which 
was hardest of all to bear, Miss Anthony busied herself using this opportunity 
to show to women the real opinion of them entertained by the stronger sex. 

Only those who are aware of the great and beneficent changes made in the 
laws relating to the rights of property, for instance, can at all estimate the 
good accomplished by these brave women. Almost all the leaders in the 
movement are gone. Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony, both elderly women, 
now remain in the work, and Miss Anthony alone still labors with the old- 
time zeal and freedom. She is at her best mentally and physically, and is 
likely to live many years to follow up the work she is now doing. The best 
lesson that women can learn from her life is that success in any one thing is 



550 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Becored only by the ucrifice of many others, and that for a woman to reach 
the highest place in her choeen pnrBoit is for her to work with an eye single 
to it, coonting it a privilege to f or^o pleasores and affections which tend to 
distract and diyide attention. Miss Anthony knew this secret of sacoess, as 
she has proven. 

When the history of the reform work done in this coontry in this eentazy 
is written, no individoal laborer will have higher praise than that which 
belongs to Miss Anthony. Honest, sincere, tolerant and kind, she has won 
the homage of her adversaries ; for while there is hot a small minority of men 
and women who believe in woman safbrage, Uiere are none who fsil to pay 
tribate to the sterling qualities of this representative woman. 

The Kansas City Joarnal said good-by in these graceful 
words: ''Susan B. Anthony will celebrate her sixty-third 
birthday tomorrow, and in a few days will sail for England. 
. . . . She goes abroad a republican queen — ^uncrowned 
to be sure, but none the less of the blood royal, and we have 
faith that the noblest men and women of Europe will at once 
recognize and welcome her as their equal. Fair winds waft 
h^r over the sea and home again I " 

The two ladies sailed from Philadelphia on the morning of 
February 23, and a special dispatch to the New York Times 
thus announced their departure : 

Miss Basan B. Anthony, accompanied by Miss Bachel Foster, embarked on 
the British Prince, of the American Steamship Line, at 9 o'clock this mom- 
ingf for Liverpool. Notwithstanding the cold and cheerless weather, qaite a 
number of persons stood patiently on the wharf, facing the raw and snow- 
laden air which blew from the river, waiting to see the steamer get ander 
way and to catch a glimpse of the celebrated champion of woman's rights. 
A little before 10 o'clock Miss Anthony came oat of her stateroom with 
several friends and, bidding them a final farewell, watched with sober counte- 
nance as they passed down the gang-plank. Among those present were Miss 
Mary Anthony, of Rochester, Miss Jalia Foster, Miss Thomson, a sister of 
the first president of the Pennsylvania B. B. ; Bev. Dr. Soale, formerly of 
Scotland ; Mrs. M. Louise Thomas and Edward M. Davis 

Miss Anthony was attired in a black silk dress and wore a black velvet 
bonnet. A beaver-lined satin circular was drawn tightly about her form. 
She retired immediately to her stateroom, where a pleasant surprise awaited 
her in the shape of a handsome silk flag, the gift of a friend, which was sus- 
pended in a comer of the room. Her eyes rested upon the tasty and com- 
fortable apartment, bearing numerous evidences of the kindly feeling and 
good wishes of her friends, with visible enjoyment and emotion. 



CHAFTER XXXIL 



MISS ANTHONY S EUROPEAN LBTTERS. 



1883. 




pen so well as Miss Anthony's own, can de- 
scribe her delightful tour abroad, and although 
her letters were dashed off while travelling from 
point to point, or at the close of a hard day's sight- 
seeing, and the entries in the diary are a mere 
wordy they tell in a unique way her personal impressions. Be- 
cause of limited space descriptions of scenery will be omitted 
in order to leave room for opinions of people and events. 

On Board the British Prince, Febraary 24. 
Mt Dear Mrs. Spofford : Here we are at noon, Friday, steaming down Del- 
aware Bay. We got along nicely until 3 f. m. yesterday, when we came to a 
standstill. " Stack in the mad," was the report. There we lay until eight, 
when with the incoming tide we made a fruitless attempt to get over the bar; 
then had to steam back ap the river to anchor, and lie there until nine this 
morning — ^twenty-four hours almost in sight of the loved ones ! It is a break 
from all fastenings to friends to be thus cut loose from the wharf and wafted 
out into the waters. These long hours of delay have given me time to think 
of those left behind, and how very far short I have come of doing and saying 
all I should have done and said. . . . 



From the diary : 

Feb. 24. — ^The weather lovely ; saloon cozy and pleasant with piano, flow- 
ers and canaries. There are only seven passengers, among them a Catholic 
priest, a dear little three-year-old child and a baby. We sent twenty letters 
on shore, written during the day we have been detained. 

Feb. 25. — ^Today dawns with no possibility of communicating with a soul 
oatside the ship, a lonely feeling indeed ; but I am determined to get all the 
good I can to mind and body out of this trip, and as little harm as possible. 

Feb. 26. — I sit at the captain's right hand at table. The sea is perfectly 
smooth ; I wonder if this broad expanse can be rolled up into mountains. 

(551) 



552 UFE AXn> WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

4 p, M .— The wind and wftTes are beginning to roar. The priest ahows signa 
d Bonender* 

Mar. 2. — Sea calm and diabea no longer have to be fastened to table. It 
seems like freedom again. I can think of nothing beyond shipboaidy can see 
no moves to be made when we reach Uverpool. 

Mar. 4. — ^Winds fair, sea smooth, whole company at breakfast. Captain 
Barton read the chorch sendee. Bachel played the piano and led the sing- 
ing* 

Oh Boabd thk Bbitibh Prixcx, March 6. 

Mt Dxab Sisrb Mabt: At lonch the captain said, " I'll soon show yoa 
land I It will be Mixzenhead, the farthest soathwest point of Ireland." This 
is the first pen pot to paper since I wrote yon at the Delaware breakwater, 
eleven days ago. Think of it, oh, ye scribbling fairies, almost two weeks and 
not a letter written by 8. B. A. I 

Well, we are tbns far and have had no more than what the saUors call a 
** stiff breeze " and only two whifis of that sort. Since Thnisday the weather 
has been lovely — ^bright son and crisp air. Rachel saccombed one night 
when the " stiff breeze " first opened npon as, and I felt a little sqaalmy. The 
next morning a sadden lareh of the ship took both feet from ander me and I 
was fiat on my back. The following day while I was lying on a seat, reading 
and half-dozing, the first I knew I was in a heap on the floor. Then I learned 
it wasn't safe to lie down withoat a board fence in front. Again, in the even- 
ing I had taken the one loose chair in the saloon, drawn it ander a lamp 
and seated myself very complacently to read, when lo, I was pitched over as 
if propelled from a ten-poanderl Three times and oat — all in rapid sac- 
cession — ^taoght me to trust not to myself at all, bat always to something 
fast to the ship. I haven't lost a meal daring the whole trip. Another time 
I sboald take a larger stock of oranges, lemons and other frnit. 

3 p. M. — We have jast been ap on the bridge for a first sight of the Emerald 
Isle. So long as there was no immediate prospect of setting foot on land, I 
coald get ap no spirit to write or think. I have worn the old velvet-trimmed 
black silk dress right through, and it is pretty well salted. I should love to 
have Lucy and Louise and Maud along on this trip, with sister Mary, too. 
What a jolly lot of tramps we would make ! Well, their one ray of hope is to 
" pull through " the free academy and get on their own feet. There is plenty 
of good in store for all who can bring themselves in line to get it. Holding a 
dish right side up to catch the shower is the work for each one of us. How 
much I do think and hope for the three nieces now entering womanhood. 
For Susie B. Jr., and little Anna O. and Gula, I shall think and hope by and 
by. As for the nephews, I do not forget them, but they'll fight their way 
through somehow, as have all boys before them. . . . 

Dinner is over and an hour's talk at table after it. The Englishman, Mr. 
Mullinor, summed up: "Your country will come to ruin from such doctrines 
as you woman's rights folks advocate ; " and I have put the case to him to 
the best of my sea-brain's ability. This is the very first time I have let my 
tongue loose. We expect to be in Liverpool tomorrow early, and then I will 
write you. Just take it for granted all is well with me, and I will try to do 
the same with you. 



MISS Anthony's European letters. 553 

Miss Anthony found at Liverpool a cordial letter from Mrs. 
-A. A. Sargent, whose husband was now United States Minis- 
ter to Germany . She welcomed her to Europe, saying : ' ' You 
always have the entree to our home and hearts. Come and 
stay as long as you will.'* A note from Mrs. Stanton to her 
''beloved Susan " said : " I came up to London the moment 
I heard of the arrival of the British Prince. To think of your 
choosing a ' Prince ' when a ' Queen ' was coming I I am on 
the tiptoe of expectation to meet you. ... I write in the 
suffrage rooms surrounded with ladies." 

A week later the diary records: *' Left London at 10 A. m. 
for Rome, Rachel and self, also Hattie Daniels, Alice Blatch 
and Mrs. Fanny Keartland, five in all, three of the Eagle and 
two of the Lion, each glorying in her own nationality !" 

Rome, No. 75 Via Nazionale, March 22. 

Mt Dear Sister : Here it is a whole month tomorrow since we took a last 
glimpse of each other and scarce a decent letter have I written you ; but it is 
fearfully hard work to find the minutes. There is so much to tell, and the 
spelling and pronunciation of the names are so perfectly awful. ... At 
Liverpool we drove two hours in the Princess and Sefton parks and then 
went to the city museum, where the most interesting things to us were the 
portraits of all the Bonapartes— men and women^ old and young — Josephine's 
very lovely ; and to the city library, which is free. There is also an immense 
free lecture hall, which was built for an aquarium but found impracticable, 
so it is an enormous circle, seated from the circumference down to the center, 
with a large platform at one side and every step and seat cut out of solid 
stone. Here the most learned men of the English colleges give free lectures, 
the city fund being ample to meet all expenses. The librarian, on hearing 
we were Americans, took great pains to show us everything. Of course when 
he said, "We have over 80,000 volumes," I asked, "Have you among them 
the History of Woman Suffrage, by Mesdames Stanton, etc., of America?" 
And lo, he had never heard of it 1 

Thursday morning we took train— second-class carriage — for London. 
Mrs. Stanton was at the station, her face beaming and her white curls as 
lovely as ever, and we were soon landed at our boarding-house. Lydia 
Becker came to dinner by Mrs. Stanton's invitation, so she was the first of 
England's suffrage women for us to meet. Friday afternoon we glanced into 
the House of Commons and happened to see Gladstone presenting some 
motion. Spent the evening chatting with Mrs. Stanton — a world of things to 
talk over. . . . 

Saturday we went again to Bayswater to see Mrs. Rose — found her very 
lonely because of the death of her devoted husband a year ago. She threw 
her arms around my neck and her first words were: "O, that my heart 



664 LIFE AND WOBK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

woald break now and yoa might close my eyes, dear Susan ! " She is vastly 
more isolated in England because of her non-Christian views than she ever 
was in America. Sectarianism sways everything here more now tiian fifty 
years ago with as. 

That afternoon I left for Basingstoke, the new home of darling Harriot 
Stanton, now with Blatch suffixed. Her hosband is a fine specimen of a 
young Englishman of thirty. Sunday morning he took me in a dog-cart 
through two gentlemen's parks, a pleasant drive through pasture and wood- 
land, thousands of acres enclosed by a stone wall. When I said, '' What a 
shame that all these acres should thus lie waste, while myriads of poor peo- 
ple are without an inch of ground whereon to set foot, " he replied : "They 
would be no better off if all should be cut up into forty-acre farms and divided 
among the poor, for no man could possibly support a family upon one. The 
owners of tiiese parks are actually reduced to poverty trying to keep them 
up." So you see it is of no use to talk of giving every Englishman a farm, 
when the land is so poor no one can make a living off of it. Of course this is 
not true of all England, but evidently its inhabitants must be fed from other 
countries. On our return I was conducted through the garden and green- 
house of Mr. B latch's father, where I saw peach trees in blossom and grape 
vines budding. The tree-trunks were not larger than my arm and I ex- 
claimed, ** How many peaches can you get off these little trees 7 " " Why, 
last year, we had 250," said he. How is that by the side of our old fann 
harvest of 1,000 trees? And yet these English people talk as if they raised 
fruit! .... 

The next day I returned to London and Mrs. Stanton and I called on Rev. 
William Henry Channing at the West End, and had a two hours' chat with 
him. . . . He was very, cordial and on our leaving said, "I can't tell 
you how grateful I am for this interview. You have my blessing and bene- 
diction ; " so we were glad at heart. Mr. Channing loves America above all 
other countries and feels it was a mistake for him to have left it. His elder 
daughter is the wife of Edwin Arnold. March 12 we dined with the son-in- 
law of William Ashurst, the friend of Wm. Lloyd Garrison — Mr. Biggs, and 
his four daughters. Caroline Ashurst Biggs, the second, is the editor of the 
Englishwoman's Review and one of the leading suffrage women of England. 



^ 







<?. 



/^, 



After dinner some twenty ladies and gentle- 
men came in and we had a delightful -evening, 
but such a continual serving of refreshments ! 
Tuesday morning I went again to Mrs. Rose's and finding her bonneted 
and cloaked for a chair ride, I walked beside her, holding her hand, through 
Kensington Park. I hope and almost believe she will go back to America 
with me. I feel sure that we, who have not forgotten her early and won- 



MISS Anthony's European letters. 555 

derfol work for woman and for freedom of thought, will do all in oar power 
to flmooth her last days. . . . That evening Rachel and I went to see 
Irving and Ellen Terry in Much Ado Aboat Nothing. The painting and the 
lights and shadows of the scenery were lovely, and I sappose the acting was 
good, bat I can not enjoy love and flirtation exhibited on the stage any more 
than off. All passional demonstrations seem to belong to the two concerned, 
not to other persons. The lovemaking, however, was cooler, more distant 
and more piquant than usual. 

Wednesday afternoon Mrs. Rebecca Moore, our old Revolution correspond- 
ent, took me to a meeting at Mrs. Muller's, about the Clontagious Diseases Acts 
—fifty or sixty ladies present — was introduced, and several invited me to 
speak for them when I returned to London. Miss Rye, who has made 
between thirty and forty trips across the Atlantic with little girls, taking over 
more than 10,000 and placing them in good homes in Canada, was there and 
spoke. She said all her efforts could accomplish nothing in thinning out the 
more than 1,000,000 surplus women of the island. Not one seemed to dare speak 
oat the whole of the facts and philosophy. Each premised, '* I will not shock 
you by calling the names,'' etc. Mrs. Peter Taylor's reception that evening 
was an unusually brilliant affair. She is looked upon as the mother of the Eng- 
lish movement, as Mrs. Stanton is of the American. She is a magnificent woman 
and acted the part of hostess most gracefully. Her husband is a member of 
Parliament. At eleven we went home and packed our trunks to be off for 
Rome on the morrow, half-regretting that we had planned to leave Lon- 
don. . . . 

RoMB, March 23. 

Mt Deab Sistbb : It is noon — Good Friday — and just set in for a steady rain, 
sol will give you the goings, seeings and sayings of our company since leaving 
London. . . . We started from Victoria Station — second-class carriage, no 
sleeper — ^f or a three days' and two nights' journey to Rome. It looked appalling, 
even to so old a traveller as myself, but I inwardly said, ** I can stand it if 
the yoanger ones can." The crossing of the straits of Dover was rough, the 
sea dashing over the sides of the boat, but Rachel &nd I went through the 
two hours without a quaver. At Calais we had the same good luck as at Lon- 
don — a compartment of the car all to ourselves. Here we were to be settled 
without change for that night and the next day, so with bags and shawl- 
straps, bandies, lunch-baskets and a peck of oranges, we adjusted ourselves. 
We breakfasted at Basle, after having pillowed on each other for the night as 
best we could. Now we were in the midst of the Jura mountains, and all day 
long we wound up and down their snowy sides and around the beautiful 
lakes nestling at their feet— through innumerable tunnels, one of them, the 
St. Gothard, taking twenty-three minutes — over splendid bridges and along 
lovely brooks and rivers. 

We arrived at Milan at 7:50 p. m., when even the bravest of our party voted 
to stop over twenty-four hours and try the virtues of a Christian bed. Rachel 
and I shared a large old-fashioned room with a soap-stone stove, where we 
bad a wood-fire built at once. (Remember that all the houses have marble 
floors and stairs, and are plastered on the stone walls, so they seem like per- 
fect cellars.) We had two single bedsteads (I haven't seen any other sort on 



556 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

the continent) with the same bedclothes covering; both. Oar big room was 
lighted with jast two candles I We '' slept solid" till 8 a. m., when Rachel 
got out her Italian phrase-book, rang the bell and ordered a fire and hot 
water. 

After fairly good steak and coffee, we five began a day of steady sight- 
seeing. ... In the evening we went to the station, and here found a 
wood-fire in a fireplace and monstrous paintings of Christ and the saints on 
the walls. All who had trunks had now to pay for every pound's weight. I 
had brought only my big satchel and shawl-strap. We were not so fortunate 
as to find a compartment to ourselves but had two ladies added to our num- 
ber, while four or five men in the next one smoked perpetually and the 
fumes came over into ours. We growled but that availed nothing, as men 
here have the right of way. At Genoa the ladies left us — ^midnight — and two 
men took their places. These proved to be seafarers and could talk English, 
30 we learned quite a bit from them. At ten we were halted and rushed in 
to breakfast. Sunday afternoon we reached the Eternal City and came 
direct to the Pension Chapman, tired and hungry, but later went to St. John's 
Cathedral to vespers. . . . After dinner we were glad to lay ourselves 
away. We have a pleasant room, with windows opening upon a broad court 
and lovely garden and fountain. Monday we drove around the city for bird's- 
eye views from famous points. Such wonders of ruins upon ruins ! 

Sunday Evening. — It is of no avail that I try and try to write — when the 
sight-seeing is done for the day I am too tired. . . . Last evening the 
Coliseum was illuminated — a weird, wonderful sight. Today, Easter Sunday, 
I have seen crowds of people reverently kissing St. Peter's big toe. To- 
morrow we go to Naples for a week and then return and finish Rome. 

Naples, March 27. 

Here we are, Rachel and I, at the Pension Brittanique, far up a high hUl, 
in a room overlooking the beautiful bay of Naples. It is lovely, lovely I The 
little island of Capri, the city, the bold shores and mountain setting—a perfect 
gem. . . . We have a little bit of wood-fire with the smallest sticks — twigs 
we should call them — two sperm candles to light our bedroom and no matches 
except what we furnish. But 8 o'clock is here and we are all to meet for 
breakfast. . . . 

Yesterday was a lovely May day, and our party drove to the village of Re- 
sina, which is built forty feet above the ruins of Herculaneum. There, with 
a guide, we descended a hundred steps and walked through the old theater, 
over the same stone stairs and seats which two thousand years ago were occu- 
pied by the gayest of mortals. Then we went to the ruins of Pompeii and ate 
our lunch under large old trees growing upon the debris left by the great 
eruption. We passed through the narrow streets, over stone pavements worn 
by the tread of long-buried feet, through palaces, public gardens and baths, 
temples, the merchants' exchange, customhouse and magnificent theater. . . . 

I have just received John Bright's splendid address before the 2,000 students 
of Glasgow University on being made Lord Rector. It fired my soul beyond 
all the ruins and all the arts in Rome or Naples. It is grand indeed, and re- 



MISS Anthony's European letters. 557 

minds one of oar own Wendell Phillips' address to the Harvard students two 
years ago.^ 

RoMB, March 29. 
To Modem Susan B, Anthony ^ of New York, U, S. A,: 

Madam : We had the honor to announce yoar coming to Home some three 
weeks ago in the Italian Times. While we ourselves have an impressive ap- 
preciation of your distinguished mental acquirements, yet we would wish to 
carry to our numerous English-speaking subscribers on this continent some 
testimony of your presence in our midst. Therefore we place our columns at 
your disposal, and will esteem the privilege of presenting to the public any 
topic your facile pen may write. To this end we will wait upon you or be 
pleased to see you at our sanctum. With much respect, we are. Madam, your 
obedient servants, The Pbopbibtobs of the Italian Times. 

[Only English newspaper published in Italy.] 

Rome, April 1. 

Dbab Bbothbb D. R. : We have climbed Vesuvius. One feels richly paid 
when the puffing and exploding and ascending of the red-hot lava meet the 
ears and eyes. The mountains, the Bay of Naples, the sail to Capri and the 
Blue Grotto are fully equal to my expectations. . . . The squalid-looking 
people, however, and their hopeless fate make one's stay at any of these Italian 
resorts most depressing. Troops of beggars beset one all along the streets 
and roads, and with tradesmen there is no honesty. For instance, a man 
charged some twenty francs for a shell comb, then came down to seven, six, 
five, and finally asked, " What will you give ? " I, never dreaming he would 
take it, said, *'two francs," and he threw the comb into the carriage. 
. . . Saturday we took the cars from Naples to Palermo. Every mountain- 
side having a few seven-by-nine patches of soil in a place, is terraced and 
covered with grape vines and lemon trees, the latter now yellow with fruit. 
On many I counted twenty and thirty terraces, each with a solid stone wall 
to hold the earth in place. It is wonderful what an amount of labor it costs 
to earn even the little the natives seem to care for. Our hotel here is an old 
monastery, and on one side of the court is the cathedral with its grotesque 
paintings. One becomes fairly sickened with the ghastly spectacle of the 
dead Christ. It is amazing how little they make of the living Christ. 

On Monday morning we drove back over that magnificent road, and took 
the train to Naples. In the afternoon we went to Lake Avemus and into the 
grotto of the sibyls, the entrance to Dante's Inferno. It was a dark, cavern-* 
ons passage and with the flaring candles making the darkness only more visi-* 
ble, we could not but feel there was reason for the old superstition. Th& 
narrowness of the streets of Naples — and they are without the pretense of a 
sidewalk — leave the men, women and children, horses and carriages, funny 
little donkeys with their big loads, the cows and goats (which are each night 
and morning driven along and halted at the doors while the pint cupful, mors 

^The many inquiries and dirsotions in regard to the gnffrage work, and the loving mesi. 
sages to friends and reiatiyes at home, are omitted in the extracts made from Miss Anthony's 
letters; but they are of constant oocarrenoe, and show that these were never absent from her 
thoughts. 



558 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

or less, is milked to sapply the people within) all inarching along together in 
the filthy road, jostling each other at every step. 

Bat we are hack in Rome now and this forenoon we spent in the gal- 
leries of the Vatican. One is simply dazed with the wealth of marble — 
not only stataary, bat stairs, pillars and massive baildings. We stop here 
till the 9th, then go to Florence.^ 

It is good for oor young civilization to see and stady that of the old world, 
and observe the hopelessness of lifting the masses into freedom and freedom's 
industry, honesty and integrity. How any American, any lover of our free 
institations based on equality of rights for all, can settle down and live here 
is more than I can comprehend. It will be only by overtaming the powers 
that edacation and equal chances ever can come to the rank and file. The 
hope of the world is indeed in oar republic ; so let as work to make it a genu-- 
ine democracy, where every citizen — woman as well as man — shall be crowned 
with the one symbol of equality — the ballot. . . . 

Rome, April 5. 

Mt Dbab Sister : How these anniversary days of oar dear mother's illness 
and death bring back to me everything, even at this distance and amid these 
strange sarroundings. How she would have enjoyed these sights because of 
her knowledge and love of history. She could have told the Bible story of 
every one of these great frescoes. What a woman she would have been, 
could she have had the opportanities of education and culture which her 
granddaughters are having. . . . 

Tell Mrs. Lewia Smith her lovely piece of lace has been honored with the 
wearing in London and Rome several times and has been pronounced beauti- 
ful ; but I prize it most of all for the giver's sake. No one but she woald 
have trudged through the slush and rain to get those splendid names to that 
testimonial. Nothing which came to me gave so much pleasure as those sig- 
natures of my own townsmen and women, from President Anderson all the 
way to the end of the list. . . . This evening Rachel has gone to a 
friend's to study German so as to make our way with that nationality. What 
a jumble, that by just crossing an imaginary line one finds people who can't 
understand a word one say's I 

Last evening we heard the grand Ristori render a part of Dante's Inferno 
and a selection from Joan of Arc. Of coarse I couldn't understand a word 
she said, but her voice, her gestures, her expression told the whole story. 
Then the music, vocal and instrumental, was the softest and sweetest. . . . 

Zurich, April 23. 
Mt Dear Sister: We spent Friday night at Milan— there took our last 
look at Italian cathedrals, as we did our first, and its own still holds highest 
place as to beauty. We left early next morning and very soon were among the 
Alps. . . . The eleven hours' stretch was tiresome and disgusting inside our 
compartment, with from three to five stalwart men puffing away at their 
pipes all day long, and at every station rushing out for a drink of wine or 

* While in Florence, Miss Anthony was entertained by the Conntess de Resse, daughter of 
Elizabeth B. Phelps, of New York, and by the Princess Koltaoff-Massalsky, the distininiiafaed 
author and artist, known through Europe by her pen-name of Dora d'Istria. 



MISS Anthony's suropban letters. 559 

• 

beer. Oar only chance of a free breath was to open the window, and then 
all the natives were in consternation I 

We reached Zurich at six and, after a splendid dinner of roast chicken, 
g^een peas and lettuce, took a cab and called on Elizabeth Sargent, who is 
Btadying medicine at the university, and found her very happy and glad to 
see us. In the afternoon we took a delightful drive, as it was too cold and 
nuBty for the lake excursion we had intended. The highest Alps are still lost 
to DB by fog and clouds. After supper we called at the American consulate. 
Think of our government supporting a consul in most of the twenty-two 
cantons of Switzerland ! 

Tuesday. — At Munich. We saw princes and princesses galore out driving 
this afternoon, but not the king. We leave tomorrow morning for Nurem* 
beig, and reach Berlin Saturday, and there I hope to rest at least a week — 
bat then the Emperor William must be seen, and lots of other curiosities. 
... If I could command the money, as soon as each of our girls gradu- 
ated, I would take her first on a tour of her own continent and then through 
the old world, before she settled down to the hard work of life either in a 
profession or in marriage. Thus she would have much to think of and live 
over, no matter how heavy might be the burdens and sorrows of her after 
Hie. • • . 

Cologne, May 8. 

Mt Dkab Sistsb : We left Berlin yesterday morning after a delightful week 
with the Sargents. I do not believe our nation ever has been represented at 
any foreign court by such genuine republican women, in the truest and broad- 
est sense, as are Mrs. Sargent and her daughters. Mr. Sargent, too, touches 
the very height of democratic principle. Their association with monarchial 
governments and subjects but makes them love our free institutions the more.^ 

Our last evening was spent with the Fran Dr. Liburtius — formerly Henriette 
Hirschfeldt — a practicing dentist in Berlin since 1869, who studied at the 
Philadelphia Dental Ck)llege. No college in Germany will admit women. 
Fran Ldbertius is dentist for various members of the royal family as well as 
for the Sisters of Charity. She says there are no dental colleges in the world 
equal to those of America. . . . 

May 10.— At Worms— where Martin Luther made his glorious declaration 
for the right of private judgment. There is a magnificent monument in a 
beautiful square ; Luther's is the central statue— a standing one ; below, at 
the comers, are sitting Huss, Savonarola, Wycliffe and Peter Waldo, and on 
a still lower pedestal are four more worthies — one of them Melancthon. . . . 
We spent Tuesday at Cologne— visited the splendid cathedral and the church 
of St. Ursula. The latter contains the bones of 11,000 virgins martjrred at 
Cologne in tbe fifth century. Whole broadsides of chapels are lined with 

*Mi88 Anthony ooenpied some rainy days, while here, in wrappin^r np papers and writ- 
ing letters which she pat in her official enyelopea, bearing the revolntionary mottoes, 
'* No Just goremment can be formed without the consent of the gOYemed" " Taxation 
without representation is tyranny.'* After a few days a dignified official appeared at the 
American legation with a large jmckage of mail bearing the proeerib^ mottoes, and said, 
"Soch sentiments can not pass through the post^ffice in Germany." So in modest, ni^ 
complaining wraps the letters and papers started again for the land of the f ree.— E. C. S. 



500 LIFE AKD WORK OF SVSAS B. ANTHOXT. 

sheWes of sknlls, which the noble ladies of the twelfth centniy partly eoTered 
with embroidery. Wednes^lay we took steamer op the Rhine at six in the morn- 
ing and landed at Mayenoe at eiglit. It was a beantifnl panorama, bat not 8oi> 
passing all others I have seen. The yine^lad hillsides, the rains of the old 
castles ^nothinf^ like as many of them as I had thoagfat) and the winding of 
the rirer were all very lovely. We visited the cathedral, the monnments of 
Gatenbeig and Schiller, and then the fortress and the remains of a i^gr^fm 
monament erected nine years before Christ. . . • 

Hktdklbkbg, May 11. 

Deab Bbothsb D. R.: As I clambered among the rains of Heidel* 
berg Castle today, I wished for each of my loved ones to come acroas old 
ocean and look apon the remains of ancient civilization — of art and archi- 
tectare, bigotry and barbarism. I am enjoying my '' flying/' thoogh I woald 
not again make sach a rash, bat I am getting a good relish for a more deliberate 
toor at some later day. AH of life shoald not be given to one's work at 
home, whether that be woman safErage, joamalism or government afEairs. 

After being perpetually among people whose langaage I ooald not on- 
derstand, it was doably grateful to be in the midst of not only my ooantry* 
men bat my dearest friends, and I enjoyed their society so much that 1 
almost forgot there were any wonders to be seen in Berlin. But we did 
make an excarsion to Potsdam~a jolly company of as, Mr. and Mrs. Sargent 
and their gifted daughter Ella, also the professor of Greek in your Kansas 
State University, Miss Kate Stephens. She interpreted the utterances of the 
ever-present guides, whose jabber was worse than Greek. 

At Potsdam we were shown the very rooms in which Frederick the Great 
lived and moved and had his being, plotted and planned to conquer his 
neighbors. In the little church are myriads of tattered flags, taken in their 
many wars, and two great stone caskets in which repose the bodies of Freder- 
ick the Great and his father, Frederick William, peaceful in death, however 
warlike in life. We also visited the new palace where the present Emperor 
spends the summer. We saw parlors, dining-rooms, bedrooms, the plain, 
narrow bedstead the Emperor sleeps upon, the great workshop, in which are 
maps and all sorts of material for stud3nng and planning how to hold and 
gain empires. I even peered into the kitchen and saw the pitchers, plates, 
coffee-pots and stew-pans. It was my first chance of a real mortal living 
look of things, so I enjoyed it hugely. There are rooms enough in these 
palaces for an army of people. All of these magnificent displays of wealth 
in churches, palaces and castles, citadels, fortifications and glittering military 
shows of monarchial governments, only make more conspicuous th« poverty, 
ignorance and degradation of the masses ; and all pleasure in seeius Uiem is 
tinged with sadness. 

From the diary for May : 

12. — Showering, but I walked up the mountain to pay a last visit t/o Heidel- 
berg Castle, the most magnificent ruin in Germany. Its ivy-cov(red towers 
always will be pictured in my memory. 

13.— At Strasburg. We have driven over the city, looked at the wonderful 



MISS Anthony's bubopban lbttbrs. 561 

foitifieadoiiB and explored the great cathedral with its famoas clock. We 
heArd the grand organ and saw 250 priests conduct the services before an 
aadience of 2,000 people, nine-tenths women. Then to St. Thomas' church 
and the monument to Marshal Saxe. 

14.— Left for Paris and had a beautiful ride through Alsace and Lorraine, 
the lost kingdoms of France. It made me sad all day ; I wanted them re- 
tomed to their own mother country. Theodore Stanton and his wife Margue- 
rite met us at the station. 

15.— Madam de Barron has invited me to be her guest while here. Such a 
delightful home and intelligent hostess I I have a charming room, and this 
noming the sun is shining bright and warm and the robins are singing in the 
trees. My continental breakfast— rolls, butter and coffee— was sent to my 
txK>m and, for the first time in my life, I ate it in bed. What would my 
mother have said ? 

16.— Went to grand opera last night ; magnificent house, scenery, toilets, 
equipages ; but with my three " lacks," a musical ear, a knowledge of French 
and good eyesight, I could not properly appreciate the performance. 

17. — Theodore took me to the Chamber of Deputies to see how Frenchmen 
look in legislative assembly — very like Americans. Then we called on friends 
at the American Exchange and the Hotel Normandie, and I was too tired to 
80 to TJ. S. Minister Morton's reception at night. 

22. — Called and had a good chat with Charlotte B. Wilbour, of New York ; 
ealled also on Grace Greenwood ; visited the Hotel des Invalides and walked 
in the gardens. 

23. — Theodore and Marguerite took me to St. Cloud by boat and back on 
top of tram-car. Delightful I 

27. — Today, Sunday, we went to P^re la Chaise and saw great crowds of 
Communists hanging wreaths on the wall where hundreds of their friends 
were shot down in 1871— a sorrowful sight. 

28. — At noon we went to the College of France to witness the last honors 
to Laboulaye, the scholar and Liberal. Saw his little study and sadly 
watched the priests perform the services over his coffin. 

29. — Left Paris at 9 a. m., Theodore and his little Elizabeth Cady going 
with me to the station. The parks and forests are green and lovely, the 
homes oozy and pretty, France is a beautiful country. I have enjoyed the 
last three months exceedingly, but I am very, very tired ; and yet it is a new 
set of faculties which are weary, and the old ones, so long harped upon, are 
really resting. 

To Mi$9 Suian B, AnUumy^ Pabis. 

Madam : Having been informed of your arrival in Paris, I take the liberty 
of writing to ask from your courtesy the favor of a short interview. I have 
since several years heard of all the work you have done in behalf of woman- 
kind, and I need not say how happy I would be to meet a person who has so 
often been praised in my presence. Hoping you will forgive my intrusion, 
and have the great kindness to let me know when I may have the honor to 
call, I am, madam, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

[Of Le Soir.] A. Salvadob. 

Airr.— 86 



562 LIFB AND WORK Oy S^SAN B. ANTHONY. 

Paris, May 20. 

My Dear Mrs. Spofford : I have jast come from a call on Mademoiselle 
Habertine Auclert, editor of La CitoyBnne. I can not tell yoa how I con- 
stantly long to be able to speak and understand French. I lose nearly all the 
pleasure of meeting distinguished people, because they are as powerless with 
my language as I with theirs. We called also on Leon Richer, editor of La 
Femme. He thinks it inopportune to demand suffrage for women in France 
now, when they are yet without their civil rights. I wanted so much to tell 
him that political power was the greater right which included the less. . . . 

Miss Foster has gone to London for presentation at Court. She had the 
** regulation " dress made in Berlin — cream-white satin, low neck, fio sleeves 
at all, and a four-yard train I ... I have not decided when I shall go 
home, but before many months, for I long to be about the work that remains 
undone. The fact is, I am weary of mere sight-seeing. Amidst it all my 
head and heart turn to our battle for women at home. Here in the old 
world, with its despotic governments, its utter blotting out of woman as an 
equal, there is no hope, no possibility of changing her condition, so I look to 
our own land of equality for men, and partial equality for women, as the only 
one for hope or work. 

Paris, May 24. 

Mt Dear Rachel : I am glad to hear that you were not cheated out of 
teetering through the palace halls in front of the princess, and that you are 
not utterly prostrated by it. ... I attended the suffrage meeting last 
evening, and heard and saw several men speak — voellf I inferred from the 
cheering and shouting of " bravo I " 

This afternoon I visited the tomb of Napoleon. It surpasses every mauso- 
leum I have ever seen, not excepting that of Frederick the Third and Queen 
Louise in Berlin. It is well that his memory should be thus honored, for 
had he been born a hundred years later, when the march of civilization had 
pointed to some other goal to gratify his great nature than that of bloody con- 
quest of empire, I believe he would have stood at the head of those who 
strive to miJce free and independent sovereigns of all men and all women. 
Everywhere here are reminders of the ravages of war, the madness of igno- 
rance and unreason. I want to get away from them and their saddening asso- 
ciations. You will think I am blue. So I am, from having lived a purpose- 
less life these three months. I don't know but the women of America, 
myself in particular, will be the greater and grander for it, but I can not yet 
see how this is to be. . . . 

London, June 7. 

Mt Dear Sister : For the hundredth time I am going to beg you to shut up 
the house and come over here. It does seem as if now we two sisters, left so 
alone, ought to be able to travel and enjoy together. Yon can not know how 
I long to have yoa with me ; it hurca every minute to think of you treading 
round and round, with never a moment of leisure or enjoyment. Surely yoa 
have given a mother's love and care to our nieces for eight years, and now 
you can let them go out from under your eye. . . . 

Rachel and I came up from Basingstoke on Sunday to attend a small reoep- 



f 



» 



MISS Anthony's European letters. 563 

tion at Mrs. Jacob Bright's. Her husband has championed woman suffrage 
in Parliament for years, and she has led the few who have dared say, *' And 
married women, too, should have the franchise." When the powers that be 
forbade her to incUide married women in the Parliamentary Suffrage Bill 
now pending, Mrs. Bright withdrew and started a bill for their property 
tights, which was passed last session and is now in force. 

jfrtuf\ Ujl^ uU<£ 

Monday morning we went to Bedford Park and spent two hours at Moncure 
D. Conway's. His charming wife read us what a delegate here from the 
American Unitarians says of Emerson, Alcott, Frothingham and George Rip- 
ley— that all are wearying of their early theories and theologies and returning 
to the old faith. Today I had an hour with William Henry Channing, and he 
virtually told me this was true of himself ! I exclaimed : "Do you mean to 
say that you have returned to the belief in the immaculate conception of 
Jeeos and in the miracles— that you no longer explain all these things as you 
nsed to do in your Bible readings at Rochester?" He replied: "I never 
disbelieved in miracles. Man's levelling and tunnelling the mountains is a 
miracle." Well, I was stunned and left. Even if all these grand men, in old 
age, or when broken in body, decide that the conclusions of their early and 
vigorous manhood were false, which shall we accept as most likely to be true 
—the strong or the weakened thought ? It is very disheartening if we are so 
constitated that with our deepest, sincerest study we grope and dwell in error 
throagh our threescore and ten, and after those allotted years find all we be- 
lieved fact to be mere hallucination. It is — it must be — simply the waning 
intellect returning to childish teachings. 

That evening we visited the House of Commons and heard several members 
speak as we peeped through the wire latticework of the ladies' cage. The 
next afternoon we attended a large reception at Mrs. J. P. Thomasson's, 
daughter of Margaret Bright Lucas and wife of a member of Parliament. 
There we met the leading suffrage women. Wednesday morning I went to 
Tonbridge Wells— thirty miles— to see Mrs. Rose, who is trying the waters 



s: 



664 UFB AND WOBX OF 8U8AH B. AinHONT. 

there in hope of relief. ... I should have told yoa that I dined on Son- 
day with Margaret Lncaa—John Bri^^t's aiater— -and lunched today with 
Mrs. Mellen, mother-in-law of General Palmer, of Colorado, preddent of the 
Bio Grande B. B. — an elegant and wealthy woman. 



LoHDOH, Jane 22. 

Mt Dkab Sistkr: . . . Sonday morning we went to hear Stopford 
Brooke, a seceder from the established church. I could see no dimination in 
the poppings np and down, nor in the intonings and singsongs, bat when, af- 
ter a fall hoar of the incantations, he came to his sermon on the Christian 
daty of total abstinence, he gave as a splendid one. Before commencing he 
said that, from his reqaest the previoas Sanday, twenty members oat of his 
congregation of 600 came to the meeting to form a Charch Total Abstinence 
Society, and ten of those made special and earnest protest against the forma* 
tion of sach a society ! Can yoa imagine the chilliness of the spiritual air in 
that charch as he laid down the Christian's daty of denying himself that he 
might save his fellow who had not the power to drink moderately 7 

Afterwards, we called on Hon. William D. Kelley, wife and daaghter Flor- 
ence, of Philadelphia. We also attended a reception at Emily Faithfall's and 
metanamberof nice people; then took andeigroand railway for Bedford 
Park and had tea with Elisa Orme, England's first and only woman lawyer — 
or as nearly one as she can be and not have passed the Qaeen's Bench. Her 
mother was lovely and so proad of her daaghter and glad to see me. Miss 
Orme has a partner, Miss Bichardson, who is a member of the London school 
board and has visited oar schools in America. She says London has none^ 
pabiic or private, to compare with those of the United States. 

The next morning we went to hear Laara Cartis Ballard read her sketch of 
Mrs. Stanton, which is to go into Famoas Women, the same book for which 
Mrs. Stanton is writing me ap. In the afternoon we called on Miss Mailer, 
who parchased a hoase and lives in it that she may be a hoaseholder, as is 
neoftssary to hold office. She too is a member of the school board. Miss Mailer 
insisted that I shoald talk to the ladies there, aboat thirty of them, and so I did, 
sitting ander the trees in her garden, where we had oar tea. Thence we went 
to the women's saffrage parlors and met some fifty or sixty, and then to 
the Albemarle Clab of both ladies and gentlemen, the only one of the kind 
in London. Then came a meeting at the Somerville Clab—all ladies. A 
paper was read on the topic, " Sentiment is not foanded on reason and is a 
hindrance to progress," and followed by a bright discassion, in which both 
Bachel and I were invited to take part. A pretty fall afternoon and evening! 

Wednesday morning I stadiedon my speech for the 25th ander the anspices 
of the National Women's Saffrage Society. Harriot has so divided the sab- 
ject, that Mrs. Stanton is to take the edacational, social and religions depart- 
ments, and S. B. A. the indastrial, legal and political. That evening we 
went to the Coart Theater with Mrs. Florence Fenwick Miller, another mem- 
ber of the London school board. The nights are all days here now — daylight 
till after 9 o'clock and again at 3. Rachel and I lanched with Mr. and Mrs. 
Jacob Bright, and had a splendid visit; then went to the school board meet- 




MISS Anthony's European letters. 565 

ing. Saw there five of the 
seven women members, 
among them Miss Helen 
Taylor, stepdaughter of John 
Btoart Mill, and the senior wom- 
an membw of the board. Today 
I spent an hoar with Mrs. Lacas, 
sister of John and Jacob Bright, and this afternoon Rachel and I are going 
to a Women's Poor Law Guardian meeting, at which Mrs. Lacas is to preside 
and other ladies to speak. . . . 

Jnst back from the meeting. In all England there are thirty-one 
women poor law gaardians. There are 19,000 of the gaardians elected and 
1,000, mainly clergymen, are honorary. They have over 1,000,000 paapers to 
look after. The secretary, Mrs. Chamberlain, stated that in her section of 
London there were 16,000. The gaardians overlook everything aboat the 
workhoases and asylams, get no pay, and yet the pablic hesitates to pat women 
on the board. One man stirred ap the handfal present by saying, "suffrage 
not only for widows and spinsters, bat for married women.'' 

Jane 26. — ^Well, the ordeal is over and everybody is delighted. Moncare D. 
Conway said : " I have learned more of American history from yoar speech 
than I ever dreamed had been made daring the past thirty years." Even the 
timid ones expressed great satisfaction. Mrs. Stanton gave them the rankest 
radical sentiments, bat all so cushioned they didn't hart. Mrs. Duncan Mc- 
Laren came down from Edinburgh and Mrs. Margaret Parker from Dundee. 
Rachel said I made a good statement of the industrial, legal and political 
status of women in America. We went to tea with Mrs. Jacob Bright ; then 
I took dinner with Mrs. Stanton at Mrs. Mellen's, getting up from table at 
9:15 p. M. 

Saturday Rachel and I drove four hours in Miss Miiller's carriage and 
called on Lady Wilde, a bright, quaint woman. Sunday morning I went to 
Friends' meeting and had a look at John Bright, though I was not sure it was 
he until after the meeting was over ; then he was gone, and I not introduced 
to him ! In the afternoon I called on Miss Jane Cobden, daughter of Richard 
Cobden, a charming woman. Yesterday I presented her with a set of our 
History in 







t' 




memory of her 
noble father, 
and for her own sake also. 
I will not foreshadow the 
coming days but they are 
busy indeed. You will 
see that the Central Com- 
mittee have put both my 
name and Mrs. Stanton's on the card for the meeting of July 5. . . . 

London, June 28. 
Mt Dkab Sistbr : It is now just after luncheon and at 4 o'clock we are to 
be at Mrs. Jacob Bright's reception, tomorrow evening at one at Mrs. Thomas- 
son's, which she gives to friends for the special purpose of meeting Stanton 



566 LIFE AND WOBK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

and Anthony, and Saturday at Frances Power Ck)bbe's — and so we go. Yes- 
terday morning Miss Frances Lord — a poor law guardian — escorted us through 
Lambeth workhouse. It has 1,000 inmates and 700 more in the infirmary, 
and gives out-door relief to 2,000 besides. 

[Jacob Bright presided over the Prince's Hall meeting, and 
William Woodall over that at St. James' Hall.' All of the 
prominent newspapers in Great Britain contained editorials on 
the meetings, and noted especially the addresses of Miss An- 
thony and Mrs. Stanton, speaking of them in a dignified and 
respectful manner.] 

London, July 13. 

Mt Dbas Sistbb: My last letter was mailed the 3d. That afternoon I 
was at Rebecca Moore's reception. We dined at Miss MuUer's and after- 
wards went to Horn's assembly rooms to a suffrage meeting. Her sister Eva, 
wife of Walter McLaren, M. P., was one of the speakers. . . . At 9 p. m ., 
we went to a Fourth of July reception at Mrs. Mellen's, given in honor of 
Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony, and a brilliant affair it was. About 150 
were there; she had elegant refreshments; and the young American girls gave 
songs, recitations, violin music, etc. Grace Greenwood recited her '' Mistress 
O'Raflerty " — a woman's rights poem in Irish brogue — very rich and racy ; 
her daughter Annie sang, also Mrs. Carpenter, of Chicago ; Kate Hillard, of 
Brooklyn, Adelaide Detchon, the actress, and Mildred Conway recited ; 
Frank Lincoln impersonated ; Nathaniel Mellen sang a negro jubilee melody ; 
Maude Powell played the violin. She is not fifteen yet and is a charming 
player. The company did not disperse until after one. 

July 5, drove to Mrs. Mellen 's to a 10 o'clock breakfast, and worked on 
Rachel's report of my Prince's Hall speech— you'll find it in full in the 

> WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE. 

A Public Meeting will be held in 

ST. JAMES' HALL, PICCADILLY. 

Thursday, July &th, 1883, 

In Support of the Resolution to be moved by Mr. Mason in the House of Commons, on July 

6th, for extending the Parliamentary Franchise to Women who possess the qualifications 

which entitle men to Vote. 
Doors open at 7. On^n Recital 7 to 8. The Chair will be taken at 8 o'clock by 

WILLIAM WOODALL, ESQ., M. P. 
Mrs. Fawcett. W. S. Caine, Esq., M. P. Mrs. Oliver Scatcherd. 

Dr. Cameron, M. P. Mrs. Fenwick Miller. R.P.Blennerhassett,Esq.,M.P. 

Miss Tod. Arthur Arnold, Esq., M. P. Miss Eliza Stnrgo. 

J. p. Thomasson, Esq., M. P. Miss Becker. Thos. Roe, Esq., M. P. 

Mrs. Beddoe. A. Illiogworth, Esq., M. P. J. A. Blake, Esq., M. P. 

Mrs. E. Cady Stanton. Miss Mtdler. W. Summers, Esq., M. P. 

Miss Susan B. Anthony. C. H. Hopwood, Esq., M. P. Thos. Bart, Esq., M. P. 

Mrs. Ashford, Miss Bewicke, Miss C. A. Biggs, Miss Cobden, Mrs. Cowen, Mrs. Ormiston 

Chant, Mrs. J. R. Ford, Mrs. Hoggan, M. D., Mrs. Lucas, Miss Frances Lord, Miss Lupton, 

Mrs. McLaren, Mrs. Paterson, Miss E. Smith, Miss Stacpoole, Mrs. J. P. Thomasson, Miss 

Laura Waittle, and other Ladies and Gentlemen are expected to be present. 

Numbered Sofa Stalls, 28. 6d. Balcony and Reserved Seats, Is. Body of the Hall 

and Gallery Free. 



MISS Anthony's buropsan lettbrs. 567 

Englishwoman's Review. In the evening Mrs. Thomasson gave a splendid 
dinner-party, and afterwards took as all in carriages to the St. James' Hall 
saffrage demonstration, where there was a fine audience of about 2,000. . . 
Next morning I went to a meeting of the suffrage friends from various towns 
who had come up for the demonstration. At 8 p. h. Mrs. McLaren took me 
to the House of Commons, to witness Mr. Hugh Mason present the Women's 
Saffrage Bill ; so I heard all the speeches pro and con, up to 1 :30 a. h., and 
how tired I was I Mr. Jacob Bright's was the strongest and most earnest. 

The morning of July 7, at the suffrage rooms, I heard strong protests 
against the way Mr. Mason disclaimed all intention of enfranchising married 
women. He carried the matter too far even for the most timid. In the after- 
noon, we went to the Somerville Club, and Rachel spoke beautifully on the 
need of union and co-operation among women. I followed her, and Mrs. 
McLaren moved a vote of thanks. . . . Rachel left for Antwerp this 
evening, to meet her mother and sister, and I returned to my room, lonesome 
enough. Sunday I lunched with Mrs. Lucas and Mrs. McLaren. I had calls 
from three factory-women, who told a sad story of the impossibility of get- 
ting even a dollar ahead by the most frugal and temperate habits. 

Have I told you that I have a new dark garnet velvet 7 I wore it with my 
point lace at Mrs. Mellen's reception on the Fourth, and the India shawl I have 
worn today for the first time. . . . Tuesday I went with Mrs. Lucas to 
the Crystal Palace at Sydenham to a great national temperance demonstra- 
tion. More than 50,000 people passed the gates at a shilling apiece, and we 
saw a solid mass of 5,000 boys and girls from all parts of the kingdom seated 
in a huge amphitheater, singing temperance songs— a beautiful sight. Then 
in another part of the palace was an audience of 2,000 listening to speeches. 
Among the speakers was Canon Wilberforce, a grandson of the great Aboli- 
tionist but a degenerate one. He said the reason the temperance movement 
was now progressing so rapidly was because the persons who led it were 
praying people, and that the Lord had willed it, and all depended on whether 
it was kept in the Lord's hands— if not, then it would fall back like the old 
Washingtonian movement in America. Mrs. Lucas was very wroth, and so 
was I. He never spoke of woman except as " maiden aunt " or '' old grand- 
mother." and advised the boys to take a little wine for the stomach's sake. 

At 6 o'clock we went to Miss Muller's where I remained until today. She 
took me to the Gaiety Theater to see Sarah Bernhardt. What a magnificent 
actor ! I never saw any man or woman who so absolutely buried self out of 
sight and became the very being personated. Though I couldn't under- 
stand a single word, I enjoyed it all until the curtain fell at half-past eleven. 
I was tired beyond telling, but felt richly repaid by the seeing. She must be 
master of her divine art thus to impress one by action alone. Today Mrs. 
McLaren invites me to dine at her son's, Charles McLaren, M. P. All this 
is written in a hurry but is perhaps better than nothing. It is so difficult to 
clutch a moment to write. 

London, July 19. 
My Dear Rachel: . . . I am to attend a suffrage meeting at the West- 
minster Palace Hotel Hall this afternoon, and tomorrow at 10:25 a. ic. I 
start for Edinburgh with Mrs. Moore. I am bound to suck all the honey 



568 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

pcvsBible oat of everybody aud everything as they come to me or I go to them. 
It ifl sach anwisdom, such anhappinese, not to look for and think and talk of 
the best in all things and all people ; so you see at threescore and three I am 
still trying always to keep the bright and right side ap. I am expecting a 
great ferment at the meeting today, for those who agree with Mrs. Jacob 
Bright have asked Mrs. Stanton to confer with them about what they shall do 
now. She advises them to demand suffrage for all women, married and 
single ; but I contend that it is not in good taste for either of us to counsel 

public opposition to the bill before Parliament 

I wrote you about Miss . She is settled in the conviction that she 

never will marry any man — not even the one with whom she has had so close 
a friendship for the past ten years. She feels that to do the work for the 
world which she has mapped out she must eschew marriage, accepting 
platonic friendship but no more. I tell her she is giving her nature a severe 
trial by allowing herself this one particular friend, that if he does not in the 
end succeed in getting her to marry him, it will be the first escape I ever 
have heard of. She is a charming, earnest, conscientious woman, and I feel 
deeply interested in her experiment. 

[After being royally entertained in London and making 
many little trips into the beautiful country around, Miss 
Anthony left for Edinburgh July 20, carrying with her many 
pleasant remembrances of friends.] 

Edinburgh, July 22. 

Mt Dear Sister : Here I am In Huntley Lodge, the delightful home of 
Mrs. Elizaheth Pease Nichol, whose name we so often used to see in the 
Liberator and the Anti-Slavery Standard, and of whom we used to hear from 
Mr. Phillips and others who had visited England. We had a most cordial 
welcome from Mrs. Nichol — a queenly woman. She is now seven tynseven, 
and lives in this handsome house, two miles from the center of the city, with 
only her servants. . . . 

Mrs. Nichol has gone to her room to rest and Mrs. Moore and I are writing 
in the little, sunny southeast parlor. I have an elegant suite of three rooms, 
the same Mr. Garrison occupied when he visited here in 1867 and in 1877. 
Mrs. Nichol is one of the few left of that historic World's Anti-SIaveiy Con- 
vention of 1840. We are going to a "substantial tea "with Dr. Agnes 
McLaren, daughter of Duncan McLaren. She is very bright— spent four 
years in France studying her profession — has a good practice, takes a house 
by herself, and invites to it her friends. So many young Englishwomen are 
doing this, and indeed it is a good thing for single women to do. 

The suffrage society — Eliza Wigham, president, Jessie M. Wellstood, secre- 
tary — ^has invited a hundred or more of the friends to an afternoon tea on 
Tuesday next in honor of my visit, and I am to make a brief speech, so what 
to say and how to say it come uppermost with me again. . . . 



/dyJ^ /)L^^J£^ 



MISS Anthony's European letters. 569 

Thb Ravbn Hotel, Dboitwich, Aagast 5. 

Mt Dbab Fbibnd Susan B. Akthony : I have often wished to write thee 
since we parted in London, my heart has been so fall of loving thoaght. It 
has been a greater trial than I can describe that I have been denied the 
pleasore of receiving thee in my home in Edinburgh. If it had been only for 
an hour, I should have looked back on that hoar as one of great privilege. 
Bat even if we shoald not meet again, I have had a pleasure which seems 
almost like a dream to me, in having made the personal acquaintance of thy- 
self and dear Mrs. Stanton. . . . 

That thonshonldst have been on the 1st of August with the Elizabeth Pease 
of those grand anti« slavery times, revived in me the thought I expressed in 
moving a vote of thanks to thee and Mrs. Cady Stanton for the noble ad- 
dresses yoa gave at the Prince's Hall Meeting in London; . . . that 
yoa had been brought here to give us the hand of rejoicing fellowship ; and 
that it gave me great faith to believe the God of Justice was leading us on, 
and had brought England and America together by your presence amongst 
OS at this most critical and hopeful time of oar agitation. . . • 

I have addressed thee in the dear singular person, because it seemed to me 
in harmony with the noble simplicity of thy character,, and also more affec- 
tionate — ^just as I feel toward thee. Believe me, dear friend— I love so to 
call thee — thine very affectionately, Pbiscilla Bright McLaren. 

[The diary notes many teas and luncheons in Edinburgh, 
drives to Melrose Abbey, Holyrood Palace, Roslyn Castle, to 
the celebrated monuments, the old cathedrals and the university ; 
calls from distinguished professors and those interested in 
philanthropic movements, visits to public institutions, and 
lovely gifts from the new friends. Every day of the month 
was filled with pleasant incidents. The scenery through the 
lake and mountain regions Miss Anthony found so beautiful 
that, although there was a steady downpour of rain for days, 
she sat on the outside of boat or stage in order not to miss a 
moment of it. She hunted up the old home of Thomas Clark- 
son but could not find there a person who ever had heard of 
him. She went also to the Friends' meeting house at Ulvers- 
ton, presented to the Society by George Fox and completed in 
1688. To her such spots as these were more interesting and 
hallowed than towering castles and vine-clad abbeys.] 

Ballachulish Hotel, August 13. 

My Dear Sister: Miss Jalia Osgood and I are here, waiting for sunshine. 

.... While in Edinbargh Mrs. Nichol drove as oat to Craiginillar Castle, 

where I saw the very rooms in which Qaeen Mary lived. We bought for a 

shilling a basket of strawberries placked— no, ** palled " — the old man who 



570 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

sold them said, from the very garden in which berries and vegetables were 
** palled *' for Qaeen Mary three hundred years ago. One evening Professor 
Blackie, of the Edinburgh University, dined with Mrs. Nichol. At my recep- 
tion he had said he did not want to '' see refined, delicate women going down 
into the mnddy pool of politics," and I asked liim if he had ever thought that, 
since the only places which were too filthy for women were those where men 
alone went, perhaps they might be so from lack of women. At dinner Mrs. 
Nichol rallied him on the report that he had been converted, and he admitted 
that it was true ; so as he was leaving I said, " Then I am to reckon an Edin- 
boro' professor among my converts V* He seized my hand and kissed it, 
saying, *' I'll seal it with a kiss." Don't be alarmed— he is fully eighty years 
of age but blithe and frolicsome — sang and acted out a Scotch war-song in the 
real Gaelic. 

On August 1 we saw 200 medical students capped— and not a woman among 
them, because the powers ruled that none should be admitted. That after- 
noon we called on Professor Masson, a great champion of co-education. We 
took tea with Mrs. Jane and Miss Eliza Wigham. The stepmother, now 
eighty-two, was Jane Smeale in 1840. In their house have visited Henry G. 
Wright, Parker Pillsbury, and of course Mr. Garrison. Mrs. Nichol went 
with us to Melrose by rail, from which we drove to Abbotsford. . . . 

Tuesday at 2 o'clock Miss Osgood and I landed at Stirling. At 4 :30 we 
reached Callander, where I found no trunk, and not a man of them could give 
a guess as to its whereabouts. They give you no check here, but just stick a 
patch on your trunk. I had expected not to find it at every stop, and now it 
was gone for sure ; but the station-master was certain he could find it and for- 
ward it to me, so he wrote out its description and telegraphed in every direc- 
tion. Meanwhile we went to a hotel for luncheon and there in the hall was 
my trunk I Nobody knew why or how it got there and all acknowledged our 
American check system superior. I was raging at their stupidity, and no sys- 
tem at all, but laughingly said, "You ought to send this trunk free a thous- 
and miles to pay for my big scold at you." The man good-naturedly replied, 
'' Where will you have it sent 7 " I answered *' Oban," and he booked it. 

At 6 o'clock we took the front seat with the driver on a great high stage 
which we mounted by a ladder— they call the stage the " machine " — and 
drove a few miles to the Trossachs Hotel, past Loch Achray and Loch Ven- 
nachar. . . . While the rain rested this noon I took a walk up the 
ravine and it seemed very like going up the mountain at Grandfather An- 
thony's. Indeed, there is nothing here more beautiful than we have in 
America, only everything has some historic or poetic association. . . . 

BRUimsFiELD Lodge, Whitbhousb Loan, Edinburgh, August 23. 
My Dear Sister: Here am I, back in Edinboro' again, at Dr. Jex-Blake's 
delightful home— at least one hundred and fifty years old, with an acre or 
more of garden all enclosed with a six-foot wall. Lodge means a walled-in 
house ; loan means lane, and the street took its name from a white house 
which two hundred and fifty years ago stood in this road. Every day the 
doctor has taken me a long and beautiful ride in her basket-carriage, driving 
her own little pony. White Angel, or her bay horse, while her boy-groom 
rides in his perch behind. Today she drove me through Lord Rosebeiy's 



MISS Anthony's European letters. 571 

park of thouaands of acres. It is lovely as a native forest — ^the roads macad- 
amized all throagh-— and a palace-like residence set deep within. . . . 

Ambleside, Aagast 27. 

Mt Dbab Sisteb: Last Thursday I left Edinbargh for Penrith, which has 
a fine view of the lake and the hills beyond. Next morning I took steamer at 
Pooley Bridge. The trip the whole length of the lake was beautiful, but can 
not compare with Lake George —indeed, nothing I have seen equals that — but 
the hills (mountains, they call them here), the water and the sky all were 
lovely. At Patterdale I had a cup of tea, with bread and butter and the veri- 
table orange marmalade manufactured at Dundee. Thence I took a stage 
over Eirkstone Pass, and walked two miles up the hills to a small hotel with 
a signboard saying it is the highest inhabited house in England, 1,114 feet 
above the sea — not very much beside Denver's 6,000 and others in Colorado 
10,000 or 12,000. Arrived at Ambleside to find the hotel overflowing, so they 
sent me to a farmer's house where I had a good bed, splendid milk and sweet 
butter. Saturday morning I went by coach to Coniston, then railway to Fur- 
ness Abbey, a seven-hundred-year-old ruin of magnificent proportions. After 
four hours there, I took a train to Lakeside and then steamer up Lake Win- 
dermere back to Ambleside. The hotel still being full, *' the Boots," as they 
call the porter or runner, found me lodgings at a private house, where I am 
now. It is the tiniest little stone cottage, but they have a cow, so I am in 
clover. My breakfasts consist of a bit of ham, cured by the hostess, a boiled 
egg, white and graham bread with butter and currant jam, and a cup of tea. 

Saturday evening I strolled out and entered the gate of Harriet Martin eau's 
home. On the terrace I met the present occupants, Mr. and Mrs. William 
Henry Hills. They invited me to call in the morning, when they would be 
happy to show me over the house. In naming the hour they said: " We 
never go to church — we are Liberal Friends — real Friends." At that I 
immediately felt at home with them. I called and spent two hours sitting 
and chatting in the drawing-room where Harriet Martineau received her 
many distinguished guests, and in the kitchen saw the very same table, 
chairs and range which were there when she died, and sitting on the doorsill 
was the same black-and-yellow cat, said to be fourteen years old now. The 
Hills invited me to 5 o'clock tea, which we took in the library, where Miss 
Martineau ased to sit and study as well as entertain her guests at dinner. It 
seemed impossible to realize that I was actually in her house. It is not 
large and is covered with ivy, which grows most luxuriantly everywhere. 
It fronts on a large field, much lower than the knoll on which it stands, and 
fine bills stretch off beyond. The old gardener, who has been here more 
than thirty years, still lives in a little stone cottage just under the terrace. 






•/ M 




Mr. Hills is a great lover of America and its institutions. He is one of the 
very few I have met here who really love republicanism. Nearly every one 



572 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

clings to the caste and class principle, thinks the world can not exist if a 
portion of the people are not doomed to be servants, and that for the poor to 
have an ambition to rise and become something more than their parents 
makes them discontented. " Yes," I answer, " and that is jast what I want 
them to be, because it is only through a wholesome discontent with things as 
they are, that we ever try to make them any better." . . . 

Dublin, September 10. 
Mt Dkab Sister: ... I stayed in Belfast some days, and visited the 
Giant's Caaseway with Miss Isabella Tod, amidst sunshine and drenching: 
showers ; still it was a splendid sight, fully equal to Fingal's Cave. The day 
before, we went nearly one hundred miles into the country to a village where 
she spoke at a temperance meeting. Here we were guests of the Presbyterian 
minister—a cousin of Joseph Medill, of the Chicago Tribune — and a cordial 
greeting he and his bright wife gave me. They have three Presbyterian 
churches in that one little village. All welcomed the woman speaker most 
kindly, but not a person could be urged to vote down the whiskey shops, as 
these are licensed by a justice of the peace, appointed by the Loni Chancel- 
lor of Ireland, who receives his appointment from the Queen of England I 



^/&U/i^ IM4<4'VU'i,^ 




kt./< 




So all she could ask was that every one should become a total ab- 
stainer. I do not see how they can submit to be thus voiceless as to 
their own home regulations. 

Saturday I took tea with Mrs. Haslam, a bright, lovely " come-outer '' 
from the Friends. She had invited some twenty or thirty to be present at 
eight, and I spoke, they asking questions and I answering. Among them 
were a son of the Abolitionist Richard D. Webb, and ever so many nephews 
and nieces. Eliza Wigham's brother Henry and his wife had come ten miles 
to be there. . . . This afternoon I am going to the common council meet- 
ing with Alfred Webb, who is a member and a strong Home Buler. The 
question of electing their own tax collector is to be discussed. 

Cork, September 16. 
My Dear Sister: . . . Tour heart would break if you were here to see 
the poverty and rags, and yet the people seem cheerful under it all. Some- 
thing surely must be wrong at the root to bear such fruit. I have had an 
awfully " hard side of a board time " of ten hours in a third-class car, paying 
therefor just as much as I would on the N. Y. Central for a first-class ticket. 
I not only saved $4.25 by going third-class, but I saw the natives. Men, 
women, boys and girls who had been to the market towns with their produce 
were on the train, and to see them as they tumbled in toward evening, at town 



HISS aitthony's europkan letters. 573 

after town, one would think that whiskey and tobacco were the main articles 
they bought. Any namber of men and boys, and at least four women, were 
dmnk enough, and they brought bottles with them and added to their puling 
idiocy as they went on. Nothing short of a pig-sty could match the filth, 
but it is only in that class of cars that you see anything of the vast number of 
poor farmers and laborers. If they can not pay exorbitant rates, refined, 
educated men and women are thrust into pens and seated face to face with 
the smoking, drinking, carousing rabble. I have everywhere protested against 
this outrage and urged the women to demand that the railway companies 
should give them separate carSi with no smoking allowed. . . . 

Lbaminqton, October 1. 

Mt Dkab Rachxl: ... I must have told you of my good times at Bel- 
fast with Miss Tod, who gave a reception for me and I had a welcome all 
roond. 

Miss Osgood met me at Cork, and we went by rail to Macroom. Tuesday 
morning we visited the convent, nuns' schools, and the poorhouse with 400 
helpless mortals, old and young; then took an Irish jaunting-car, and were 
driven some forty miles through " the Gap " to Glengarifl. It rained almost 
all the way, much to our disgust. Next morning we packed into two great 
stages with thirty or more others, and started for the lakes of Killamey ; but 
soon the rain poured again, and as we were losing so much of the scenery we 
stopped half-way at Kenmare. We visited the convent and the Mother Ab- 
bess showed us every cranny. Thirty girls were at work on beautiful Irish 
point and Limerick lace. These nuns have 400 pupils, and give 200 of the 
poorest their breakfast and lunch— -porridge and a bit of bread. At two we 
took stage again, the sky looked promising, but alasl for half an hour it 
fairly poured. Then it grew lighter, and we got very fine views of hills and 
dales. Eillamey U lovely. . . . 

Saturday I sauntered along the streets of Eillamey, passed the market, 
and saw all sorts of poor humanity coming in with their cattle to sell or to 
buy. Many rode in two-wheeled carts without seat or spring, drawn by little 
donkeys, and nearly all the women and girls were bareheaded and bare^ 
footed. On the bridge I saw some boys looking down. I looked too and 
there was a spectacle — ^a ragged, bareheaded, barefooted woman tossing a wee 
baby over her shoulders and trying to get her apron switched around to hold 
it fast on her back. I heard her say to herself, "I'll niver do it," so I said, 
** Boys, one of you run down there and help her." At that instant she succeeded 
in getting the baby adjusted, and to my horror took up a bundle from the 
grass and disclosed a second baby I Then I went down. I learned that she 
had just come from the poorhouse, where she had spent six weeks, and be- 
fore going further had laid her two three-weeks-old boys on the cold, wet grass, 
while she washed out their clothes in the stream. The clothing was the merest 
rags, all scrambled up in a damp bundle. She had heard her old mother was 
ill in Milltown and had ** fretted " about her till she could bear it no longer, so 
had started to walk ten miles to her. I hailed a boy with a jaunting-car— told her 
to wait and I would take her home — got my luncheon— fed the boy's horse, 
bought lunch for boy and woman— and off we went, she sitting on one side of 



574 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

the car with her two babies, wet bundle, two milk bottles and robber ap- 
pendages, bare feet and flying hair, and I on the other, with the boy in front. 

For a long way both babies cried; they were blae as pigeons, and had on 
nothing bat little calico slips, no socks even. She had four children older 
than these — a hosband who went to fairs selling papers and anything he 
coald to support them all — and an aged father and mother who lived with 
them. She said if God had given her only one child, she could still help earn 
something to live on, but now He had given her two, she couldn't. When 
we reached Milltown I followed her home. It was in a long row of one-room 
things with a door — ^but no window. Some peat was smouldering under a hole 
in the roof called a chimney, and the place was thick with smoke. On the 
floor in one comer was some straw with a blanket on it, which she said was 
her bed ; in another were some boards fastened into bed-shape, with straw 
packed in, and this belonged to her father and mother. Where the 
four other children, with the chickens and the pig, found their places 
to sleep, I couldn't see. I went to the home of another tenant, and there 
again was one room, and sitting around a pile of smoking-hot potatoes on the 
cold, wet ground — not a board or even a flag-stone for a floor — ^were six ragged, 
dirty children. Not a knife, fork, spoon or platter was to be seen. The man 
was out working for a farmer, his wife said, and the evidences were that 
" God " was about to add a No. 7 to her flock. What a dreadful creature their 
God must be to keep sending hungry mouths while he withholds the bread to 
All them I . . . 

I went back to Killarney heart-sick ; wrote letters Sunday, and Monday 
took train for Limerick, where I roshed round for an hour or two. . . • 
Then went on to Galway. Tuesday morning took the mail-car to Connemara, 
and had company all the way — a judge, an Irish M. P., and two Dublin drum- 
mers—with whom I talked over the Irish problem. I had meant to make the 
tour of the western coast up to Londonderry, but my courage failed. It was 
to be the same soul-sickening sight all the way— only, I was assured, worse 
than anything yet seen. I took the stage back to Galway, every one saying 
it was sure to be a flne day, but it proved to be terrific wind and rain, and be- 
fore I had gone ten miles my seat was a pool of water audit took all my skill 
to keep my umbrella right side out. . . . Once while the driver changed 
horses I stood in front of a big fire on the hearth of the best farmer's house 
I have seen here. Everything was clean and cheerful — ^two rooms — a bed 
made up with a spotless white spread — the old father smoking and the wife 
cooking dinner. She lifted a wooden cover from a jar and proudly showed 
me her butter — ^patted down with her hands, I could see — and near by was 
another jar with milk. Think of butter being made in a room full of 
tobacco-smoke I Then I went my last ten out of the fifty miles, having been 
soaking wet for eight hours. At my hotel I had room and fire on a " double- 
quick," bath-tub and hot water, and put myself through a regular grooming. 
In the morning I rode around Galway, saw Queen's College and the bay, and 
then took train for Belfast. 



MISS Anthony's eubopban lbttbrs. 575 

From the diary : 

Sept. 11. — In Dablin. The ProfesBor of Arabic took me through Trinity 
College, with its library of 200,000 volomes. Thence to the old Parliament 
Hoose, now the Bank of Ireland. In the afternoon Alfred Webb went with 
me to the National League rooms and from there to Thomas Webb's for tea, 
where I saw the names of Garrison and N. P. Rogers written in 1840. We 
called on Michael Davitt, the leader of the Irish Land League, who impressed 
me as an earnest, honest man, deeply-rooted in the principles of freedom and 
equality, and claiming all for woman that he does for man. 

Sept. 16. — At Youghal. Visited the home of 8ir Walter Raleigh, Lady 
Hennessy, eighty years old, showing me around. Found in a library Child- 
ren of the Abbey, and read again the story of Lord Mortimer and Amanda. 
Once it thrilled my young soul, but now it seems inexpressibly thin. 

Sept. 20. — While I was talking in the car today with an Irishwoman about 
the poverty here, another behind me shouted: "It is very ill manners 
for an American to come over here and abuse the English government." 

Sept. 29. — In Belfast. 0, how I would like to purchase all the linen I 
want for myself and my friends! Have bought as much as I dared and 
after all perhaps I'm cheated— but it's done, so I won't worry. 

Sept. 30. — Landed at Fleetwood and went direct to Rugby. Walked all 
aroand the famous school, but had not courage to go in and introduce myself 
to Doctor Jex-Blake, whose sister's guest I had so recently been. 

Oct. 1. — At Leamington. Went direct to Eenilworth Castle, a grand old 
rain ; the home of Leicester, where Queen Elizabeth visited him in the olden 
days. 

Oct. 2. — ^Mrs. Mullinor called at our hotel and accompanied us to Warwick 
Castle, a splendid pile. We lunched with her, and when Mr. M. put fork into 
the roast he remarked: " Wife asked me what she should order for dinner 
and I said, ' a leg of mutton, for Americans never see such a thing at home.' " 
We smiled and ate it with a relish. 

Oct. 3. — At Stratford on Avon, and we have visited every spot sacred to 
the memory of Shakespeare, and walked through the meadows and down 
by the riverside. • . . 

Oct. 4. — In Oxford. I have visited many of the colleges, and as I saw 
where all the millions of dollars had been expended for the education of boys 
alone, I groaned in spirit and betook me to Somerville and 8t. Margaret's 
Halls, where at least there is a shelter for girls, and a beginning. 

Oct. 5. — In London; and how almost like getting home it seems to come 

back here. 

London, October 7. 

Mt Dbas Sistsb : Mrs. Stanton feels that she must stay with Hattie till the 
baby is a month old, and then have a week for farewell visits in London. 
Cousins Fannie and Charles Dickinson are here. Today I learned that I 
should have a chance to see and hear John Bright at a convention of the Lib- 
eral Party at Leeds, October 17 ; all these together have made me put off leav- 
ing a little longer. Since yesterday we have been in the midst of a genuine 
London fog. It is now 10 a. m. and even darker than it was two hours ago, 



576 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

when we dressed and breakfasted by gaslight. I saw smoky, foggy days here 
last March bat they coald not compare with this, and yet the people say, "O, 
this is nothing to what November will bring." • . . 

London, October 27. 

Mt Dkab Sistbr: Since I last wrote yon I have visited Leeds where I was 
the gaest of Mrs. Hannah Ford, who has an elegant home — Adel Grange. 
There were several other guests who had come to attend the great Liberal dem- 
onstration, among them Mrs. Margaret Priestman Tanner, a sister-in-law of 
John Bright, and his son Albert. Mrs. Alice Scatcherd, of Leeds, was the per- 
son who had the sagacity to get women sent as delegates and secure them ad- 
mission on terms of perfect equality. The amendment was a great triumph. 
She invited the friends to meet next day at her house, where I saw John 
Bright's daughter, Mrs. Helen Clark, and Richard Cobden's, Miss Jane Gob- 
den. Both made speeches at the convention, and most fitting it was they 
should — ^the daughters of the two leading Radicals of a half century ago. 

On Saturday, Mrs. Ford took me to Haworth, the home of the Bronte sisters. 
It is a bleak enough place now, and must have been even more so forty or 
fifty years ago when those sensitive plants lived there. A most sad day it was 
to me, as I looked into the little parlor where the sisters walked up and down 
with their arms around each other and planned their novels, or sat before the 
fireplace and built air-castles. Then there were the mouldering tombstones 
of the graveyard which lies in front and at one side of the house, and the old 
church-pew, directly over the vault where lay their loved mother and two sis- 
ters. And later, when Emily and Anne and the erring brother Branwell had 
joined the others, poor Charlotte sat there alone. The pew had to be removed 
every time the vault was opened to receive another occupant. Think of those 
delicate women sitting in that fireless, mouldy church, listening to their old 
father's dry, hard theology, with their feet on the cold, carpetless stones which 
covered their loved dead. It was too horrible ! Then I walked over the 
single stone pathway through the fields toward the moor, opened the same 
wooden gates, and was, and still continue to be, dipped into the depths of 
their utter loneliness and sadness, bom so out of time and place. How much 
the world of literature has lost because of their short and ill-environed lives, 
we can guess only from its increased wealth in spite of all their adverse con- 
ditions. 

From Leeds I went to Birmingham to attend an Anti-Contagious Diseases 
Acts conference, and there heard the serene, lovely Josephine E. Butler. 

Miss Muller has invited Mrs. Stanton and me to spend the rest of our time 
with her. Mrs. Lucas and some others are going to Liverpool to say good-by 
to us. The cordiality, instead of decreasing, grows greater and greater as the 
day of departure draws near. ... I dread stepping on shipboard, but 
long to set foot upon my native soil again. Only think, I shall have been 
gone over nine months when I land in New York I 



iciBS Anthony's European letters. 577 

From the diary : 

Oct. 13.~La8t evening at Mrs. Rose's I met the daaghter of Charles Brad* 
laogh, a talented young woman, whom the college refused to admit to botany 
lectures because of her father's atheism. 

Oct. 18. — At Leeds. Liberal party convention ; went this evening to hear 
John Bright remember to forget to mention the extension of suffrage to 
women in 1869 and 1870, and the property law for married women in 1882. 
He did not meet my expectations as a speaker, but far surpasses any other 
Englishman I have heard. None of them can touch Wendell Phillips. 

Oct. 28. — Had a four hours' row on the Thames today with some friends. 
This evening went to hear Mrs. Annie Besant. 

Nov. 2. — Have been out to Basingstoke to see the new baby. Mrs. Mona 
Caird lunched with us. Have heard Michael Davitt, Mr. Fawcett and Helen 
Taylor, all masterly speakers. 







London, November 6. 
Mt Dsar Sistbb: .... As soon as I finish this scribble I am to have 
5 o'clock tea with Frances Power Cobbe. Tomorrow I go shopping, Thursday 
Millicent Garrett Fawcett is to dine with us, and Mrs. Peter Taylor is to call 
here, and all are to take ''substantial tea" with dear, noble Mrs. Lucas, and 
then go to hear Henry Fawcett on the political issues. Friday afternoon we 
receive at Miss Mulier's. Saturday morning I leave for Bristol to visit Miss 
Mary Estlin, Mrs. Tanner and the Misses Priestman, three sisters-in-law of 
John Bright, who give a reception in my honor. The 12th I visit Margaret 
E. Parker, at Warrington, and the next afternoon Mrs. Stanton and I both 
go to Alderley Edge, near Manchester, to the home of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob 
Bright.* On the 14th we attend the annual meeting of the Manchester 

*A pleasant letter was reoeiyed afterwards fh>m Mrs. Bright, in which she made this 
playful referenoe to Miss Anthony's always depreciating herself in fayor of Mrs. Stanton : 

**We haye thought of yon often and hoped that the wind, which has been rough here, has 
been tempered on the Atlantic for yonr sakes. Apropos of the yery beautiful allusion you 
made to Mrs. Cady Stanton's popularity and the efifect produced by her personal appearance, 
I must tell you of a remark made by my little son John immediately after your departure. 
I found him sitting on the sofa in my bedroom, thinking deeply. 'Mamma,' he said, '1 
wish yon could get me a photograph of Miss Anthony. I think she has such a fine face. 
There is ffo^iwthlT^flr about it so firm and yet so kind.' I said, * Do you like her better than 
Mia. Stantont' *Oh dear, yes, much better,' replied Johnnie. So you see she does not 
monopolise all the admiration 1 " 
AnT.— 37 



578 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Women's SaSrage AsBOciation, and on the 16th go to liverpool where a recep- 
tion will be given oa in the afternoon. That evening we shall spend at our 



ilit/LiM*. *^, <*»M^ Vt>y 



r^**^ 




hotel with the friends who go to see as off, and on the 17th we give ourselves 
to old ocean's care in the Oonaider Servia. 

Don't worry now if yon do not hear from me again until I touch Yankee 
soil ; and don't worry if the wind blows or if you learn the vessel is late or 
lost. If the Servia fail to land me safe and sound, don't repine or stop 
because I am not, but buckle on a new and stronger harness and do double 
work for the good cause of woman. You have the best of judgment in oni 
work and are capable of doing much if only you had confidence in yourself, 
so whatever comes to me, do you be all the more for the lees that I am. 

Half of Miss Anthony's nine-months' trip abroad had been 
, spent in Great Britain. To her all the other attractions of the 
old world were as nothing compared with its living, breathing 
humanity. On the continent she was deprived of any ex- 
change of thought with its people because she spoke no lan- 
guage but her own, and this made her prefer England; but 
^ there was another and a stronger interest — the great progres- 
/ sive movement which was going forward in regard to woman. 
^ Here she found women of fine intellect and high social posi- 
tion engaged in the same work to which she had given more 
than thirty years of her own life ; and here she met sympathy 
and recognition which would have been impossible in any 
(Other country in Europe. Her central thought in going to 
Great Britain had been to secure the co-operation of English- 
women in holding an international suffrage convention. At 
first her proposition met with no response. The most radical 
of English women were conservative compared to those of 



MISS Anthony's European letters. 579 

America, but after they had become thoroughly acquainted 

with Mrs. Stanton and herself and prejudice had been sup- 

/ planted by confidence, the idea began to be more favorably 

( regarded. One serious difficulty in the way of the proposed 

convention lay in the fact that the suffrage women of England 

and Scotland were not themselves in thorough unison as to 

plans and purposes. No definite action was taken until the 

last afternoon of their stay, when, at the reception given in 

their honor by Dr. Ewing Whittle, in Liverpool, with the 

hearty concurrence of Mrs. McLaren, Mrs. Lucas, Mrs. Scatch- 

erd and Mrs. Parker, who had accompanied Miss Anthony 

and Mrs. Stanton to see them safely on board their vessel, a 

/strong committee was formed to promote international organi- 

/ zation. 

They sailed from Liverpool on the Servia, November 17, 
1888. Among their fellow voyagers were Mrs. Cornelia G. 
Hussey, of Orange, N. J., to whom the cause of woman suf- 
frage and Miss Anthony personally are deeply indebted ; and 
Mrs. Margaret B. Sullivan, of Chicago, the distinguished edi- 
torial writer. There was some lovely weather, which was 
greatly enjoyed, but heavy fogs impeded the ship and it was 
just ten days from the time of starting when, on November 27, 
they steamed into New York harbor and stepped again on the 
shores of loved America. 




CHAPTER XXXIII. 

CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS — VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 

1884-1885. 

OST of the newspapers had a welcome for Miss 
Anthony. In a two-column report in the Roches- 
ter Democrat and Chronicle she is quoted as saying : 

"I can scarcely tell yoa of the hospitality extended, the din- 
ners, teas and receptions given in oar honor. I had no idea 
we were so well-known in Great Britain or that there was such cordial feeling 
toward as. Of coarse, I met chiefly those known as Liberals and the sympa- 
thizers with oar caase. Pablic sentiment there is rapidly growing in our 
favor. In the discassion I heard in Parliament not a Conservative uttered a 
word against the suffrage already possessed by women but relied upon the 
hackneyed argument that when married women were included there would 
be trouble." 

" You saw the Queen, I suppose V* 

" No ; I thought more of seeing the Bright family than the Queen and I 
never happened to be near where she was. I really had very little leisure to 
look around. I am ashamed to say I did not visit Westminster until the 
morniug before I came away, but it was simply for lack of time. The social 
idea was of more importance to me." 

The New York Evening Telegram said editorially: ''The 
statement of Miss Susan B. Anthony, in another column, illus- 
trates the superb determination of that champion of woman's 
political rights. In the struggle which has constituted her 
life-work she has the rare advantage of not being able to com- 
prehend defeat. Battling under the inspiration of an enthusi- 
ast — of a fanatic, some may be disposed to say — she knows no 
such word as fail. The most disheartening reverses appear to 
her inspired imagination but steps in an undeviating march of 
' progress. It was enthusiasm such as this that made the career 

(581) 



582 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of Joan of Arc. Without it, not even the broad intellect and 
strong soul of Miss Anthony could sustain the burden of the 
struggle which she is called upon to lead." The Washington 
correspondent of the Cleveland Leader thus began a long in- 
terview : 

Basan B. Anthony is back from Earope, and is here for the winter's fight 
in behalf of woman suffrage. She seems remarkably well, and has gained 
fifteen poands since she left last spring. She is sixty-three, bat looks 
jast the same as twenty years ago. There is perhaps an extra wrinkle in her 
face, a little more silver in her hair, bat her blae eyes are jast as bright, her 
moath as serious and her step as active as when she was forty. She woald 
attract attention in any crowd. She is of medium height and medium form 
but her face is wonderfully intellectual, and she moves about like the woman 
of a purpose that she is. She says she experiences far different treatment 
by public men now from what she did years ago. The statesman of the 
past always came to her with a smirk on his face as though he considered 
woman's rights nonsensical and thought himself wonderfully condescending 
to take notice of her at all. *' Now," says she, " public men look upon our 
y mission as a matter of business, and we are considered from that standpoint." 



The interview closed : 



J 






One question more, Miss Anthony. Will yon please tell me what is your 
highest ideal of the woman of the future ?" 

'* It is hard to say," was the reply. " The woman of the future will far sur- 
pass the one of the present, even as the man of the future will surpass the 
one of today. The ages are progressive, and I look for a far higher manhood 
and womanhood than we now have. I think this will come through making 
the sexes co-equal. When women associate with men in serious matters, as 
they do now in frivolous, both will grow stronger and the world's work will 
be better done. I look for the day when the woman who has a political 
or judicial brain will have as much right to sit in the Senate or on the Su- 
preme Bench as men have ; when women will have equal property, business 
and political rights with men ; when the only criterion of excellence or po- 
sition shall be the ability and character of the individual ; and this time will 
come. All of the Western colleges are now open to women, and send forth 
more than 2,000 women graduates every year. Think of the effect upon the 
race to come ! The woman of the future will be a better wife, mother and 
citizen than the woman of today." 

There were, however, some discordant notes in the sym- 
phony of pleasant things which by 1883 had become customary 
in the newspapers. For instance, the Cincinnati Times-Star 
headed its interview : ' * Susan Speaks — ^Miss Anthony Cor- 



CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS — VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 583 

railed by a Times-Star Correspondent — ^The Old Lady Wears 
Good Clothes and Stops at First-class Hotels — Bubbling about 
the Ballot.'' The smart reporter described the size of her foot, 
devoted a paragraph to the question whether her teeth were 
natural or artificial^ and said : ' ' There must be money in being a 
reformer, for Miss Anthony lives at the Biggs House in good 
style, and expects to be there all winter, and this, after a sum- 
mer in Europe, would be a pretty severe drain on any but a 
long purse." When one thinks of Miss Anthony's uniform 
kindness and courtesy to reporters, always granting an inter- 
view no matter how tired or how busy she might be, and assist- 
ing them in every possible way with information and sugges- 
tions, it is astonishing that any one of them could indulge 
in petty, personal criticism and innuendoes. 

Miss Anthony had now another friend at court. Col. Halbert 
S. Greenleaf, of Rochester, having been elected to Congress. 
Both he and his wife were strong and influential advocates of 
suffrage, and her warm personal friends. The diary shows 
that every day of December she was conferring with officials 
and their wives who were friendly to the cause, making con- 
verts wherever possible and co-operating actively with the 
District committee in all the drudgery of detail necessary to a 
successful convention. It is only by reading her diary that 
f one can understand what a mental agony it was for Miss 
I Anthony to press this matter upon congressmen, year after 
year, to be repulsed by those who were opposed and only toler- 
ated by those in favor, who had many other matters on hand 
' which to them seemed of much greater importance. ''Oh, if 
men only could know how hard it is for women to be forever 
snubbed when they attempt to plead for their rights I It is 
perfectly disheartening that no member feels any especial in- 
terest or earnest determination in pushing this question of 
woman suffrage, to all men only a side issue," she writes in 
this little confidant ; but not even in her letters is there ever a 
. note of discouragement. To the world at large and to those 
who were associated with her, she was always brave, bright 
and hopeful. It causes a keen heartache to reflect upon how 



I 



584 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

she crucified herself for fifty years, unfaltering and uncom- 
plaining, in order to make conditions better for womankind. 
To Hon. William D. Kelley, of Pennsylvania, who believed 
in woman suffrage and voted for it, but did not feel enough 
interest to push the matter in Congress, she wrote, January 6, 
1884: 

No one j^rinks more from making herself obnoxious than I do, and but for 
the sake of aR women, your darling Florence incladed, I should never again 
say a word to yon on the subject of using your influence to secure the passage 
of a Sixteenth Amendment proposition. Last winter you put off my appeal 
for help with, "This is the short session and the tariff question is of moment- 
ous importance." Now, 'since this is the " long session," will you not take hold 
of this work, and with the same earnestness that you do other questions ? 

It is cruel for you to leave your daughter, so full of hope and resolve, to 
suffer the humiliations of disfranchisement she already feels so keenly, and 
which she will find more and more galling as she grows into the stronger and 
grander woman she is sure to be. If it were your son who for any cause was 
denied his right to have his opinion counted, you would compass sea and land 
to lift the ban from him. And yet the crime of denial in his case would be 
no greater than in that of your daughter. It is only because men are so 
accustomed to the ignoring of woman's opinions, that they do not believe 
women suffer from the injustice as would men ; precisely as people used to 
scout the idea that negroes, whose parents before them always had been 
enslaved, suffered from that cruel bondage as white men would. 

Now, will you not set about in good earnest to secure the enfranchisement 
of woman? Why do not the Republicans push this question? The vote on 
Keifer's resolution showed almost a party line. Of the 124 nays, only 4 were 
Republicans ; while of the 85 yeas, only 13 were Democrats. Even should 
you fail to get another committee, the discussion and the vote would array 
the members and set each man and party in their true places to be seen of all 
men, and all women too. 

The term of the select committee on woman suffrage having 
expired with the close of the Forty-seventh Congress, a new 
one was appointed by the Senate of the Forty-eighth. The 
House committee on rules refused to report such a committee 
but placed the question in the hands of Representative Warren 
Keif er, of Ohio, who made a gallant fight for it on the floor, dur- 
ing which he said : "Is not the right of petition a constitutional 
right ? Has not woman, in this country at least, risen above 
the rim and horizon of servitude, discredit and disgrace, and 
has she not a right, representing as she does in many instances 



CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS — VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 585 

great questions of property, to present her appeals to this na- 
tional council and have them wisely and judiciously consid- 
ered ? I think it is due to our wives, daughters, mothers and 
sisters to afford them an avenue through which they can legit- 
imately and judicially reach the ear of this great nation/' 

He was ably assisted by Mr. Belford, of Colorado. The 
measure to appoint this committee was bitterly opposed by Mr. 
Reagan, of Texas, who said in a long speech : ''When woman 
so far misunderstands her duty as to want to go to working on 
tbe roads and making rails and serving in the militia and go- 
ing into the army, I want to protect her against it." The 
vote resulted — ^yeas, 85, nays, 124 ; absent or not voting, 
112. 

Immediately after the return of members from the holiday 
recess, Miss Anthony wrote to each of the 112 asking how he 
would vote if the question came up again. To these letters 52 
replies were received, 26 from Republicans, all of whom would 
vote yes ; 26 from Democrats, 10 of whom would vote yes, 
10, no ; while 6 did not know how they would vote. As these 
36 affirmative votes added to the 85 yeas would so nearly have 
overcome the adverse majority, John D. White, of Kentucky, 
at the solicitation of Miss Anthony, made another earnest effort 
in February to secure the desired committee, but the Democrats 
refused to allow the question to come to a vote. She was 
greatly disappointed at the failure to get the select committee, 
but afterwards became of the opinion that it was more advan- 
tageous to return to the old plan of working through the judi- 
ciary committee. 

Miss Anthony had to be continually on the alert to head off 
zealous but injudicious women who were determined to com- 
mit the suffrage movement to the various ologies and isms of 
tbe day, and especially to personal matters. Even a woman so 
intellectually great as Mrs. Stanton could not be relied upon 
always to make her individual opinions subserve what was 
demanded of her position as president of the National Asso- 
ciation. In January Miss Anthony received a document which 
Mrs. Stanton had prepared as an '' open letter," to be signed 



586 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

by both of them ofScially and given to the press, congratulat- 
ing Frederick Douglass upon his marriage to a white woman 
and sympathizing with him because of the adverse criticism it 
had called out I She especially urged that he be given a 
prominent place on the program at the approaching conven- 
tion. Miss Anthony replied at once : 

I do hope yoa won't put yoar foot into the question of intermarriage of 
the races. It has no place on oar platform, any more than the qaestion of no 
marriage at all, or of polygamy, and, so far as I can prevent it, shall not 
be broaght there. I beg yoa therefore not to congratalate him pablicly. 
Were there a proposition to panish the woman and leave the man to go scot 
free, then we shoald have a protest to make against the invidious discrimina- 
tion. 

The qaestion of the amalgamation of the different races is a scientific one, 
affecting women and men alike. I do not propose to have it discussed on 
our "platform. Our intention at this convention is to make every one who 
hears or reads believe in the grand principle of equality of rights and 
chances for women, and if they see on our program the name of Douglass 
every thought will be turned toward the subject of amalgamation and away 
from that of woman and her disfranchised. Neither you nor I have the right 
thus to complicate or compromise our question, and if we take the bits in our 
teeth in one direction we must expect our compeers to do the same in others. 
You very well know that if you plunge in, as your letter proposes, your en- 
dorsement will be charged upon me and the whole association. Do not 
throw around that marriage the halo of a pure and lofty duty to break down 
race lines. Your sympathy has run away with your judgment. Lovingly and 
fearfully years. 

It is hardly necessary to say that the " open letter '* was not 
published . 

Everybody's burdens were laid upon Miss Anthony's shoul- 
ders. In looking over the mass of correspondence it seems 
as if each writer wanted something and looked to her to sup- 
ply it. All expected her to take the lead, to do the planning, 
to bear the responsibility, and usually she was equal to the 
demand, but even her brave spirit could not resist an occasional 
groan on the pages of the diary. When a new accession to the 
ranks, from whom she expected great assistance, wrote, *' I 
do not know how to plan but tell me what to do and I will 
obey," she says, ''My heart sinks within me ; so few seem to 
use their brain-power on ways and means." And again : 



CONGRESSIONAL HEABINGS — VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 587 

V-This drain of helpless women, able and willing to work but 
iatterly ignorant of how to do it, wears me out body and soul." 
'She was greatly distressed because so many of the younger 
women were frequently incapacitated by illness, and writes : 
''O, the weak-bodied girls of the present generation, they make 
me heart-sick I ' ' 

But never did the women themselves know of these feelings. 
To the younger ones she wrote : *' Don't give up ' beat ' at any 
of those places till I have dropped my plummet into them. . . . 
Your young shoulders will have to learn to bear the crotchets 
of all sorts of people and not bend or break under them. . . . 
Put all the blame on me ; they may abuse me but not you. 
.... It makes my heart ache every minute to see you so 
tired. . . . Vent all your ill-feelings on me but keep sweet 
as June roses to everybody else. It does not pay to lose your 
temper. . . . You will have to learn to let people pile injustice 
pn you and then trust to time to right it all." If on rare occa- 
/sions she spoke a word of censure, it was followed by a letter 
in the next mail, full of sorrow and repentance. She always 
signed herself, even in the darkest hours, '* Yours with love 
and hope.'' Beautiful optimism, sublime courage I 

Sunday, February 3, 1884, Miss Anthony read in the morn- 

\ing papers of the sudden death of Wendell Phillips. He had 

been to her always the one being without a peer, the purest, 

sweetest, best of men. The news overwhelmed her with grief 

and she wrote at once to Robert Purvis : 

How cat down I am at the telegram, ** Wendell PhillipB is dead," and I 
know you are equally so. I hope you can go on to Boston to the faneral, and 
help tenderly to lay away that most precious human clay. Who shall say the 
fitting word for Wendell Phillips at this last hour as lovingly and beautifully 
as he has done so many, many times for the grand men and women who have 
gone before him ? There seem none left but you and Parker Pillsbury to pour 
out your souls' dearest love in his memory. Would that I had the tongue of 
an angel and could go and bear my testimony to the grandeur of that noblest 
of God's works I I can think of no one who can rightly and fully estimate 
that glorious character. What a sad hour for his beloved wife I He said to 
me on my last visit : '' My one wish has come to be that I may live to bury 
Ann." He doubtless knew of his impending disease of the heart. On whose 
shoulders will fall the mantle of Wendell Phillips ? When will the children 



588 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of men ever listen to each a matchless voice 7 How poor t he world seems t 
In sorrow I am with you. 

She could not stay away and, inclement as was the weather , 
went to Boston three days later to look for the last time upon 
the loved face. 

At the request of many ladies in Washington the National 
Convention was held in March, instead of earlier in the win- 
ter, to avoid the social distractions which always precede the 
Lenten season. The ladies were pleasantly received by Presi- 
dent Arthur.* This was an exceptionally brilliant convention, 
a noteworthy feature being the large number of letters contain- 
ing the greetings of the distinguished men and women of Great 
Britain, whom Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton had met and 
interested during their trip abroad. The following was read 
from Matthew Simpson, senior bishop in the Methodist church, 
among his last public utterances, as he died a few months 
later : 

For more than thirty years I have been in favor of saffrage for woman. I 
was led to this position, not by the consideration of the question of natural 
rights or of alleged injustice or of inequality before the law, but by what I be- 
lieved would be her influence on the great moral questions of the day. Were 
the ballot in the hands of women, I am satisfied that the evils of intemperance 
would be greatly lessened ; and I fear, without that ballot, we shall not suc- 
ceed against the saloons and kindred evils in large cities. You will doubtless 
have many obstacles placed in your way ; there will be many conflicts to sus- 
tain ; but I have no doubt that the coming years will see the triumph of your 
cause, and that our higher civilization 
and morality will rejoice in the work 
which enlightened women will ac- 
complish.' 



5- ,mX^. y^^^^n^^^iO-HTu/ 



Both Senate and House committees granted hearings, and 
eloquent addresses were made by delegates from many States. 
Miss Anthony said in part : 

This is the fifteenth year we have appeared before Congress in person, and 
the nineteenth by petitions, asking national protection for women in the ex- 

^An official request was sent to the heads of the departments to permit the women em- 
ployes to attend one session of this convention but it was refused. A few days later per^ 
mission was given them to go to Mrs. McElroy's reception at the White House, and the 
male employes were given a half-holiday to attend the exercises on St. Patrick's Day. 

'The Methodist bishops Bowman, Warren, Newman, Haven, Turner and Walters haf<B 
favored woman suffrage. 



CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS — VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 589 

ercise of their right to vote. In the winter of 1865 and 1866 we sent yoat 
honorable body a ten-thousand prayer, asking yoa not to pat *' male " in the 
second section of the proposed Fourteenth Amendment ; and again we ap- 
pealed to you by thousands of petitions that you would add ''sex" after 
" race or color " in the Fifteenth, but all to no avail. Then by an eighty-thou- 
sand petition in 1871 we demanded the enactment of a declaratory law that 
women had the right to vote under the first section of the Fourteenth Amend- 
ment. This, too, was denied us, not only by Congress but by the Supreme 
CJourt, which held that the framers of the amendment had only "colored 
men " in their thought, therefore none others could come within its purview. 
From 1876 to the present we have from year to year poured into Congress 
handreds of thousands of petitions asking you to take the initiative step for 
another amendment which shall specifically prohibit the disfranchisement of 
women. 

But, you say, why do you not go to your several States to secure this right? 
I answer, because we have neither the women nor the money to make the 
canvasses of the thirty-eight States, school district by school district, to edu- 
cate each individual man out of the old belief that woman was created to be 
his subject. Four State legislatures submitted the question of striking ' ' male ' ' 
from their constitutions— Kansas, Michigan, Colorado and Nebraska — and 
we made the best canvass of each which was possible for a disfranchised class 
outside of all political help. Negro suffrage was again and again overwhelm- 
ingly voted down in various States ; and you know, gentlemen, that if the 
negro had never had the ballot until the majority of white men, particularly 
the foreign born, had voted ** yes," he would have gone without it until the 
crack of doom. It was because of this prejudice of the unthinking majority 
that Congress submitted the question of the negro's enfranchisement to the 
legislatures of the several States, to be adjudicated by the educated, broadened 
representatives of the people. We now appeal to you to lift the decision of 
our question from the vote of the populace to that of the legislatures, that 
thereby you may be as considerate and just to the women of this nation as 
yon were to the freedmen. 

Every new privilege granted to woman has been by the legislatures. The 
liberal laws for married women, the right of the wife to own and control her 
inherited property and separate earnings, the right of women to vote at 
school elections in a dozen States, full suffrage in two Territories, all have 
been gained through the legislatures. Had any one of these beneficent prop- 
ositions been submitted to the vote of the rank and file do you believe a 
majority would have placed their sanction upon it 7 I do not ; and I beg you, 
Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, that you will at once recom- 
mend to the House the submission of the proposition now before you, and 
thus place the decision of this great constitutional question of the right of 
one-half the people of this republic to a voice in the government, with the 
legislatures of the several States. You need not fear that our enfranchise- 
ment will come too suddenly or too soon by this method. After the proposi- 
tion shall have passed Congress by the requisite two-thirds vote, it may 
require five, ten or twenty years to secure its ratification by the necessary 



590 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

three-foarths of the State legislatures ; bat, once sxibmttted by Congress, it aU 
ways toill stand until ratified by the States, 

It takes all too many of us women from our homes and from the works of 
charity and education in our respective localities, even to come to Washing- 
ton, session after session, until Congress shall have submitted the proposition, 
and then to go from legislature to legislature, urging its adoption. But when 
you insist that we shall beg at the feet of each individual voter of every one 
of the States, native and foreign, black and white, learned and ignorant, you 
doom us to incalculable hardships and sacrifices, and to most exasperating 
insults and humiliations. I pray you to save us from the fate of waiting and 
working for our freedom until we shall have educated the ignorant masses of 
men to consent to give their wives and sisters equality of rights with them- 
selves. You surely will not compel us to await the enlightenment of all the 
freedmen of this nation and the newly-made voters from the monarchial gov- 
ernments of the old world ! 

Liberty for one's self is a natural instinct possessed alike by all men, but to 
be willing to accord liberty to another is the result of education, of self -disci- 
pline, of the practice of the golden rule. Therefore we ask that the question 
of equality of rights to women shall be decided by the picked men of the 
nation in Congress, and the picked men of the several States in their respec- 
tive legislatures. 

The Senate committee again submitted a majority report in 
favor Of a Sixteenth Amendment enfranchising women, signed 
by T, W. Palmer, Blair, Lapham and Anthony. The minor- 
ity report, by Joseph E. Brown, Cockrell and Fair, began: 
*'The undersigned believe that the Creator intended that the 
sphere of the males and females of our race should be differ- 
ent," etc. 

The House Judiciary Committee gave a majority report in 
the negative.* The minority report in favor was signed by 
Thomas B. Reed, Maine; Ezra B. Taylor, Ohio; Thomas M. 
Browne, Indiana ; Moses A. McCoid, Iowa. It is one of the 
keenest, clearest expositions of the absurdity of the objections 
against woman suffrage that ever has been made, and ends 
with this trenchant paragraph : 

It is sometimes asserted that women now have a great influence in politics 
through their husbands and brothers. That is undoubtedly true. But this is 
just the kind of influence which is not wholesome for the community, for it is 
influence unaccompanied by responsibility. People are always ready to 

* Signed by Maybnry, Miehiffan; Poland, Vermont; Tacker, Virginia; Hammond, Geor- 
gia ; Cnlbertson, Texas ; Monlton, Illinois ; Broadhead, Missouri ; Dorsheimer, New York ; 
Collins, Massachasetts; Seney, Ohio; Bisbee, Florida. 



CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS — ^VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 591 

recommend to others what they would not do themBelves. If it be trae that 
women can not be prevented from exercising political inflaence, is not that 
only another reason why they shoald be steadied in their political action by 
that proper sense of responsibility which comes from acting themselves 7 We 
conclade then, that every reason which in this country bestows the ballot 
apon man is equally applicable to the proposition to bestow the ballot upon 
neoman, and in oar judgment there is no foundation for the fear that woman 
will thereby become unfitted for all the duties she has hitherto performed. 

Miss Anthony mailed 500 packages of copies of this report 
to different points for distribution. Upon the urgent invita- 
tion of the suffrage association of Connecticut she went there 
for a few days to assist at their State convention, but in a let- 
ter to Mrs. Spofford she said: ''I shall return tomorrow 
night, if possible. I keep thinking of those men at the Capi- 
tol not doing what I want them to." She afterwards wrote to 
May Wright Sewall : 

My plan is to get away from here the minute I can do so without letting 
oar work suffer in Congress. A week ago the House Judiciary Committee 
voted down a motion to print our ** hearing " speeches. Yesterday I went up 
and called out a Democrat who I knew had voted ''no," and hence could 
move to reconsider, and he promised to go hack and thus move, and did so, 
and Mr. Browne, of Indiana, asked leave of the House to print them. I wish 
you would write to Mr. Browne that he is splendid and our main help now 
in the committee. Cockrell has heen trying to prevent printing the Senate 
" hearing," hut Blair, Lapham, Palmer and Anthony are hound it shall he 
printed. Still, all would fall flat and dead if some one were not here to keep 
them in mind of their duty to us. 



^n^u^L^ /■ 




Miss Anthony remained in Washington till April 14, man- 
aging her forces like an experienced general until the last gun 
had been fired. When she returned home ready to begin 
work on the History, she found to her amazement that the 



592 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

oflBcer who had been charged with preparing the report of the 
Sixteenth National Suffrage Convention, a woman of great 
literary ability, had given it up in despair, declaring that it 
would be utterly impossible to make anything creditable out 
of such a mass of unsatisfactory material, most of which would 
have to be entirely re-written. Miss Anthony did not stop to 
sit down and weep, but wrote her at once to send to Rochester 
every document she had in her possession. Then, taking all 
of them to Mrs. Stanton, who had gone to her old paternal 
home at Johnstown, they arranged, edited, re-wrote and put 
into shape the conglomerate of letters, speeches, etc., and in 
less than two weeks prepared and sent to the printer the most 
complete report ever made of a National convention.^ 

The middle of May, after two years' interruption, Miss 
Anthony and Mrs. Stanton set themselves diligently to finish 
the third volume of the History of Woman Suffrage, all the 
boxes and trunks of material having been shipped from Tena- 
fly. Although submerged in the avalanche of old documents. 
Miss Anthony's mind was full of current events. She 
writes in her journal June 2 : "I wait with bated breath thfe 
news from Oregon, where today the men are voting on the 
question of woman's enfranchisement. My heart almost 
stands stills. I hope against hope, but still I hope." When 
the news of the defeat comes, she says : '* Dear Mrs. Duni- 
way, with all that debt left on her shoulders, which she 
assumed to carry on the campaign I I felt so agonized for her 
that on the very day of election I rushed to the bank and 
sent her $100. We must not leave her to carry it alone, after 
all her brave work. I have written a dozen letters to friends 
asking them to give her assistance. I feel like a lion champ- 
ing the bars of his cage, shut up here digging and delving 
among the records of the past when I long to be out doing the 

' Miss Anthony's letters show how desirous she was that everybody who assisted at these 
conventions should have foil measure of credit: "They are earnest and anzioos to do for 
woman's cause and I want them treated fairly and leniently as to all mistakes." Again she 
writes : " Since Oregon was never before represented in our oonventionsi her speakers must 
have more room in the report than we old stagers." 



CONGBBSBIONAL HBARINOS VISIT TO HEW ORLEANS. 



a letter received from Senator 



work of the present." In 
Palmer at this time he says : 

I fallf Bfinpathize wiUi joar regret and chagrin over the reverse in Oregon 
bat hardly with yoar coDclosioD, viz., that "the women should atop asking 
legislatures to Bubniit this qnestion to the elect- 
ors, to have it killed by the majority, made up of 
^^ ignorance and whiakey, native and foreign, and 

^bC all go to Congress for succesa," etc. It seems to 

\^ me that nothing is to be lost and much to be 

gtuned by local diacusaions and temporary defeats. 
Yon know in 1850 Webster, in his unfortunate 
Revere House speech, stigmatized the anti-slavery 
, movement as " a rub-a-dub agitation," and Wen- 
' dell Phillips closed his masterly philippic thereon 
with what was accepted as a motto: Agitatel 
I Agitated Agitate! 1 1 Anotber decade of that 
I rab-a-dah a^tation sufficed to divide the continent 
' in a political earthquake and from out the chasm 
the negro emerged to citizenship. It may still 
require years to educate a majority of our women 
I to demand the franchise and a majority of our 
men or their representatives in Congress and the 
legislatures, to proclaim it, but that the way leads 
through constant agitation I make no doubt. The 
still pool casta nothing to shore. 

She watches events across the water 
andwriteson July 7 : "Well, the House 
of Lords is today discussing whether 
2,000,000 farm laborers shall have the 
ballot placed in their hands, while the 
half-million, more or less, women who 
employ them are left without it. What 
an outrage that Mr. Gladstone refused 
to allow Mr. Woodall's amendment to 
his hill to be at least voted upon I He 
applied the party whip and made voting 
for the woman suffrage amendment dis- 
loyalty to the government, and over 
one hundred Liberals, who had previ- 
ously declared themselves in favor of 
women's sharing in this new extension 




594 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of the franchise, voted against allowing them to do so. I do not 
believe a more humiliating abnegation of principle at the behest 
of a party leader ever was witnessed in our Congress." 
/ The national political conventions in the summer of 1884 
jfreceived the usual appeal to recognize the claims of women. 
The Republican, Democratic, Anti-Monopoly and Greenback 
parties equivocated, although the last two nominated Benjamin 
F. Butler, an avowed advocate of woman suffrage ; the Prohi- 
bition convention relegated the question to the States.* The 
American party put in a plank and nominated S. C. Pomeroy, 
a champion of woman suffrage, but it had too small a follow- 
ing to offer any hope of success. Blaine was not a friend, Lo- 
gan was an earnest one ; Cleveland was not acceptable to many 
women, Hendricks had never shown himself favorable. In 
the midst of such a conglomeration the wise thing for all 
women would have been to remain non-partisan and take 
no share in the campaign. Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stan- 
ton, however, watching events from their secluded nook, 
issued a manifesto urging women to stand by the Repub- 
lican party. They were led to take this action by the ten- 
dency of large numbers to rush to the support of the Prohi- 
bitionists, because of their suffrage plank ; and they believed 
that if women were determined to work for some political party, 
the Republican at that time held out most hope. This aroused 
the antagonism of the Prohibitionists and Democrats, both 
men and women, and afforded the strongest possible object les- 
son to Miss Anthony of the wisdom of henceforth adhering to 
her policy of non-partisanship until one of the dominant parties 
should declare unmistakably for woman suffrage and advocate 
it by means of press and platform. 

* When Miss Anthony learned that this action had been taken with the sanction of Frances 
E. Willard, she pointed out to her in vigorous language how the Prohibition-Republicans 
had left that party this year because a temperance resolution had failed in the platform 
committee and had gone over to the Prohibition party, charging that the Republicans were 
cowardly. Tet the very first act of this Prohibition convention, to which Miss Willard was 
a delegate, was to abandon the idea of National Supremacy and accept that of State Rights 
in order to conciliate the soathem members. She further said : " When the time comes in 
which it wUl be political expediency f6r the Prohibition party to throw woman suffrage 
overboard altogether, over it will go." Miss Willard lived to see this prophecy fulfilled at the 
National Prohibition Convention of 1888. 






CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS — VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 595 

In August occurred the death of Sarah Pugh, the gentle 
Quaker and staunch Abolitionist, her old and faithful friend. 
It was followed by that of Frances D. Gage a few months later ; 
and in December passed away the true and helpful ally, Wil- 
liam Henry Channing. Each left a void in her heart, and yet 
the memory of these great souls impelled to renewed effort. 
There was no cessation of the work on the History, which was 
slowly evolved through the heat of summer and the beautiful 
days of early autumn, but by the end of October the funds were 
exhausted, the money left by Mrs. Eddy was still in litigation, 
and Miss Anthony again went on the lecture platform, speak- 
ing almost every night through November and December. 

She did not fail, however, to look carefully after the inter- 
ests of the Seventeenth National Convention which met as 
usual in Washington, January 20, 1885. A letter from Clarina 
Howard Nichols was sent to be read at this meeting, but the 
hand which penned it was stilled in death before it was 
received. Of all the pioneer workers with whom Miss Anthony 
had been associated in the early days so full of scorn, ridicule 
and abuse, Mrs. Nichols was among the nearest and dearest, a 
forceful speaker and writer, a tender, loving woman. It was 
in this convention that the resolution denouncing dogmas and 
creeds was introduced by Mrs. Stanton, and caused much com- 
motion and heated argument. Miss Anthony opposed it, say- 
ing: 

I object to the words *' derived from Jadaism." It does not matter where 
the dogma came from. I was on the old Garrison platform, and found long 
ago that the settling of any question of human rights by people's interpreta- 
tion of the Bible is utterly impossible. I hope we shall not go back to that 
war. We all know what we want, and that is the recognition of woman's 
perfect equality. We all admit that such recognition never has been granted 
in the centuries of the past ; but for us to begin a discussion here as to who 
established this injustice would be anything but profitable. Let those who 
wish go back into their history, but! beg it shall not be done on our plat- 
form.* 

^ Apropos of this diaouasion, an amnsins anecdote is related of Miss Anthony. When con- 
fronted, in an argnment, with the passage of scripture, "Wives, submit yonrselves nnto your 
own husbands," etc., she replied : "Gentlemen, no one objects to the husband being the head 
of the wife as Christ was the head of the churoh-^to crucify himself; what we object to is 
his crucifying his wife." 



596 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

The public, which always longed for a sensation at these 
suffrage conventions and was disappointed if it did not come, 
seized upon this resolution, and press and pulpit made it a 
text. The following Sunday W. W. Patton, D. D., president 
of Howard University, preached in the Congregational church 
of Washington a sermon entitled, *' Woman and Skepticism." 
He took the ground that as soon as women depart from their 
natural sphere they become skeptical if not immoral. He gave 
as examples Hypatia, Madame Roland, Harriet Martineau, 
Frances Power Cobbe and George Eliot I Then turning his 
attention to America he said that 'Hhe recent convention of 
woman suffragists gave evidence of atheism and immorality," 
and that ''Victoria WoodhuU was the representative of the 
movement in this country."* And this when Mrs. WoodhuU 
had not been on the suffrage platform for thirteen years I Miss 
Anthony and Mrs. Stanton occupied front seats and at the 
close of the sermon went forward, shook hands with the 
preacher and Miss Anthony remarked earnestly : '* Doctor, 
your mother, if you have one, should lay you across her knee 
and give you a good spanking for that sermon." " O, no," 
said Mrs. Stanton quickly, *' allow me to congratulate you. I 
have been trying for years to make women understand that the 
worst enemy they have is in the pulpit, and you have illus- 
trated the truth of it." Then, while the great divine was try- 
ing to recover his breath, they walked out of the church. The 
nine days' commotion which this produced can be imagined 
better than described. After some reflection Miss Anthony 
regretted that she should have been provoked into her remark, 
but Mrs. Stanton wrote: ''Don't worry a moment. The 
more I think about it, the better I like it, because it was the 
most contemptuous thing which could have been said. Like 
that shot at Lexington, it will go round the world." 
/' On February 6, Thomas W. Palmer called up in the Senate 
/ the resolution for a Sixteenth Amendment and supported it by 
f that masterly speech which ever since has been one of the 

^ This acconnt of the sennon is taken from the reports of half a dosen reputable new»- 
Mipers. 



CONGBBSSIONAL HEARINGS VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 597 

^strongest suffrage campaign documents. At the request of 
Miss Anthony thousands of copies were sent out under his 
frank. She went from Washington to Boston to attend a meet- 
ing of the National branch of the Massachusetts association, 
and soon afterwards, on March 2, started for the New Orleans 
Exposition. She was warmly welcomed by Mrs. Caroline E. 
Merrick, wife of Judge E. T. Merrick, at whose lovely home 
she was entertained during part of her stay. It was her first 
visit to the CrescentCity and she was soon deluged with invi- 
tations to speak and received many charming tokens of the 
justly-famed southern hospitality. 

She spoke before the Woman's Club in the hall of the Con- 
tinental Guards, with May Wright Sewall, representative from 
Indiana ; gave seven addresses, in as many days, before 
schools and colleges and, by invitation of the Press Association, 
spoke in Agricultural Hall at the exposition and visited the 
headquarters of the different papers. The next day, by request 
of Commissioner Truman, she gave an address and held a re- 
ception at the New York headquarters. Her last appearance 
was at Tulane Hall under the auspices of the teachers of the 
city schools. She was everywhere beautifully received, al- 
though her doctrines were new and unpopular, and at the close 
of each meeting her audience crowded about her with words of 
appreciation and cordiality. Miss Anthony here met for the 
first time *' Catherine Cole," of the editorial staff, and Mrs. 
Eliza J. Nicholson, owner and manager of the Picayune. The 
latter presented her with an Indian basket filled to overflowing 
with orange blossoms, and this tribute was paid in her paper : 

Thb Apostle op Woman's Rights. — Miss Sasan B. Anthony has made a most 
favorable impression upon the New Orleans public, and has by her gentleness 
and courtesy won many friends for herself and her cause. She came here a 
total stranger, and recognized the fact that there were many who did not ap- 
prove of her or her doctrines. She has been sincere, truly polite and simply 
womanly in all her dealings with the southern people, and by these very quali- 
ties has commanded the respectful esteem of all. Miss Anthony has not 
striven to make herself ** solid " with the people who give the best dinners. 
. . . The workingwoman, the unfashionable woman, have been made as 
heartily welcome as the leader of society ; and for their appreciation they have 



598 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

been repaid by the friendship and esteem of one of the grandest old maids 
that ever lived. 

The Times-Democrat and Daily States also gave full and 
favorable reports of her visit and lectures. The two weeks 
allowed for this holiday sped quickly away and Miss Anthony 
left for the North on March 20, laden with luncheon, flowers and 
many tokens of affection from the women of New Orleans. 
At Marshall, Tex., she dined with President and Mrs. Culver, 
of Bishops' University, and reached St. Louis Sunday even- 
ing, where she was the guest of her nephew, Arthur A. 
Mosher, and his wife. The next four or five weeks were spent 
in the lecture field at hard work, under the management of the 
Slay ton Bureau. In answer to her letter of regret at not 
meeting Mrs. J. Ellen Foster at an Iowa convention, as she 
had requested, Mrs. Foster wrote : '* I was sorry enough not 
to see you but I gave the people your message in the evening. 
Dear soul, how long you have stood for the truth delivered 
unto you 1 God bless your words and works. I do not see 
creeds and dogmas just as you see them, I do not believe in all 
that you do, but I believe in you I " 

The last of April came the long-expected summons to Boston 
to receive the legacy of Mrs. Eddy, the courts having sustained 
the will. While eastward bound, crossing the State of Illi- 
nois, newspapers were brought on the train announcing the 
death of Grant, and she writes : *' The weather is lovely and 
springlike today, but how still and solemn it seems out here on 
these broad prairies with that great general gone forever I " 
The case had been in litigation three years, Benjamin F. 
Butler appearing for Miss Anthony and Lucy Stone. His fees 
were very reasonable but several thousand dollars were 
swallowed up in the suit. The legacy, in first-class securities, 
stocks, bonds, etc., was paid April 27, each receiving $24,125.^ 
Miss Anthony gives an amusing account, in one of her let- 
ters, of the awful nightmare she had on board the sleeper 

> This is the only instance where a woman has bequeathed a large amount of money to the 
caase of eqnal rights, although a number of small bequests have been made. Women have 
given millions of doUars to churches, charities, and ooUeges for men but comparatiTely noth- 
ing to secure freedom for those of their own sex. 



CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS — VISIT TO NEW ORLEANS. 599 

going home, when she dreamed that a woman was at the head 
of her berth stifling her while a man knelt in front, his hand 
cautiously creeping toward the inside pocket where she had 
sewed the money and bonds. She awoke with a scream and 
did not go to sleep again. 

If this bequest had been left to Miss Anthony for her own per- 
sonal use, she could not have felt one-half the joy she now ex- 
perienced in having the means to carry on the work which always 
had been so seriously impeded for lack of funds. Of course its re- 
ceipt was heralded far and wide by the papers, and appeals be- 
gan to pour in from all sides, nor were they always appeals, 
but often demands. Scores of women considered themselves 
entitled to a share because the money had been left to further 
the cause of woman. One wanted it to help lift a mortgage on 
her home, others to educate their children, to pay a debt, to 
reward them for the valuable services they had given to woman 
suffrage, to start a paper, to carry one already started, and so 
on without end. The men also were willing to relieve her of a 
portion. " I am terribly oppressed by it all," Miss Anthony 
writes, '* and nothing would make me happier than to respond 
to every one, but my money would melt away in a month." It 
f was ludicrous and yet pitiful to see certain persons who had 
; repudiated her in days gone by because she was too radical 
I and too aggressive, discovering all at once how much they 
: always had valued her and how anxious they had been for a long 
/ time to renew the old friendship— the common story, ancient 
as the world. 

The one thing she was determined to do first of all was to 

Complete the History of Woman Suffrage, upon which she and 

Mrs. Stanton had spent all the days that could be spared for 

.nearly ten years. The work had been delayed by the many 

{other demands upon their time, by their trips abroad, but 

; more than all else by lack of money. The authors were to pay 

' for composition, stereotyping, the making of the plates for the 

engravings and the printing of the same ; Fowler & Wells for 

the paper, press-work, binding and advertising. Miss Anthony 

and her co-workers were to receive only 12 }i per cent, com- 



600 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

mission on the sales. It readily may be seen that she did 
not go into this as a money-making scheme. Her only thought^ 
her only desire, was to collect the facts in connection with the 
movement to secure the rights of women, before they should 
be scattered and lost, and to preserve and put them into shape 
for reference. 

In preparing the first two volumes she had used every doUa. 
she had been able to earn and all she could obtain from gener- 
ous friends, and there were still large unpaid bills. Now, with 
flenty of money at her command, she bought out the rights of 
owler & Wells, and engaged Charles Mann, of Rochester, tc 
rint the third volume. Mrs. Stanton had returned to Ten- 
afly, and there Miss Anthony again sent all the trunks and 
boxes of precious documents. She completed her lecture en- 
gagements and the first of June, 1885, found the two women 
once more hard at work. 

**I really think of you with pity these hot midsummer days," 
wrote Mrs. Sewall to Mrs. Stanton, '' under the lash of blessed 
Susan's relentless energy; but the reflection that she applies it 
with the most vigor to her own back enables one to regard that 
instrument, after all, with more admiration than terror." It 
was indeed true that Mrs. Stanton's luxury and eaee-loving 
nature required much urging,^ and while Miss Anthony took 
upon herself all the drudgery possible and all the financial 
anxiety and burden, she was compelled to keep Mrs. Stanton 
keyed up to do a great portion of the literary work. ** It is 
the one drawback at every turn," she writes, ''that I have not 
the faculty to frame easy, polished sentences. If I could but 
do this, I would finish up the History without asking aid of 
anyone." And again: ''It has been the bane of my life 
that I am powerless to put on paper the glimpses of thoughts 
which come and go like flashes of lightning." As has been 
said before in these pages, she is a perfect critic and delightful 
letter-writer, but finds difficulty in doing what is called "liter- 
ary work." Practice undoubtedly would have enabled her to 

' In one of Miss Anthony's letters she relates ^th amnsement that Mr. Stanton had Just 
come in and, seeing his wife lying on the eonoh, remarked, "Ah, resting, I see.*' " No," she 
replied, *' I am exercising by lying down." 



MISS ANTHONY AND MRS. STANTON. 

V/nnma the Histobv of Woman SuFrnnoe 



C0N0BS8SI0NAL HEARINGS — ^VISIT TO NEW OBLBANS. 601 

overcome this, but she felt always that her chief strength lay 
in executive ability. 

Early in June Miss Anthony slipped away from the work 
long enough to go to the Progressive Friends' meeting at Een- 
nett Square, Penn., where she was the guest of Deborah Pen- 
nock and met, for the first time, Sarah J. Eddy. In her diary 
she says: '^ Last evening as I sat on the sofa Miss Eddy put 
her arms around me and said, ' I am so glad I love you; I 
should have felt very sorry if I had not.' And so should I, 
for the sake of her dear mother and grandfather, who had so 
much confidence in me." The two went on to New York to- 
gether and then over to Mrs. Stanton's for a little visit, and 
the friendship formed at that time has been maintained ever 
since. Later when Miss Eddy was going to Rochester to a 
convention. Miss Anthony wrote Mrs. Hallowell : "I am sure 
you would be glad to entertain her; she is a sweet, lovely little 
woman ; thoroughly sympathizing with everything and every- 
body that suffers injustice. I am very sorry that sister Mary 
and I must be*away and can not have the dear girl with us." 

Miss Anthony experienced a great disadvantage in being so 
far away from her publisher, the more especially as she had to 
send a chapter at a time, read proofs of each as soon as it was 
set up, send back corrected proof, get the revises, etc., and she 
soon found it necessary to spend about half her time in 
Rochester. The women who were preparing the chapters for 
their respective States delayed the work, neglecting to send 
them when promised ; many occupied twice as much space as 
had been assigned them and were highly indignant when Mrs. 
Stanton used the blue pencil unsparingly on their productions. 
They vented their feelings on Miss Anthony, knowing that 
nothing they could say would ruffle Mrs. Stanton's equipoise, 
and she writes in her diary : "To decide between the two has 
almost torn me in twain. People who can write are so tena- 
cious, each thinking her own style better than any other, 
while poor I don't know which is the best." 

Every few weeks she was obliged to rush over to Fayette- 
ville to confer with Mrs. Gage, who was industriously pre- 



602 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

paring her part of the work. Urgent appeals came from 
women in Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Kansas and Indi- 
ana that they could not possibly make a success of their 
State conventions unless she came to their assistance, but she 
steeled her heart against them and stuck closely to her task. 
From the lecture bureau came a list of ten engagments at $50 
a night, but she refused them. Some of the expressions in 
her letters of those busy days show the state of her mind 
better than could volumes of description : 

All the work of today pat aside to grope into the old past. I feel like 
rashing to yoa this very minaie, bat here Mrs. Stanton and I are, scratching, 
scratching every hoar, not each other's eyes bat the History papers. I am a 
fish oat of water. ... It makes me feel growly all the time. ... I 
can not get away from my ball and chain. ... I think we'll make things 
snap and crackle a little. . . . This is the biggest swamp I ever tried to 
wriggle throagh. . . . We'll both pat on oar thinking caps and I gaess 
get qaite a lot of fannies in the reminiscences. . . . Now here is the pah- 
Usher's screech for money. ... 0, to get oat of this History prison I 
. . . . I am too tired to write — I mean too lazy. . . No warhorse ever 
panted for the rash of battle more than I for oateide work. I love to make 
history bat hate to write it. 

On November 12 Mrs. Stanton's seventieth birthday was 
celebrated by a large reception held in the parlors of Dr. 
Lozier in New York, where Mrs. Stanton read a charming 
paper on " The Pleasures of Old Age." Her daughter, Har- 
riot Stanton Blatch, sent the following bright and breezy mes- 
sage : 

. . . How I wish I coald give my congratalations in the flesh I Distance 
is the foe of love. Kiss dear Sasan and let her kiss yoa for me. On Novem- 
ber 12 I shall think of yoa both, for yon two are not easily separated in my 
mind, and there will be a tenderness in my thoaghts and a thankf alness that 
yoa both have lived. In year worries over the History, remember that at 
least one woman appreciates the fact that her life has been made easier be- 
caase of yoar combined pablic work. Yoa oaght to be overflowing with grat- 
itade for each other's existence, for neither withoat the other woald have 
achieved the work yoa have accomplished. Every day of yoar lives let yoar 
hearts praise the good fortane that broaght yoa together. Friendship is the 
grandest relation in the world, and I feel infinitely blessed in having two 
sach women as friends. Yoa and dear Sasan are not yet to be sainted ; yoa 
have no end of work in yoa still, and mast labor on for many a long year, 
and gain many a triumphant victory. I throw ap my cap and cry hurrah for 



CONQBBS8IONAL ^EARINGS — ^VISIT TO NEW OBLBANS. 603 

yoa two grand old warriors I The carl is from Nora's little head. She shall 
be taaght to reverence her Qaeen Mother and Maid of Honor Sasan. Now 
farewell, dear ladies ; I am wishing yoa on birthdays and every day a long 
and happy life. 

The next morning came the cablegram announcing the 
sudden death in Switzerland of the mother of Julia and Rachel 
Foster. Miss Anthony dropped all work when the sisters 
arrived at New York, went with them to Philadelphia and 
rendered every possible consolation and assistance. But not 
even to go to Washington to push the work in Congress and 
arrange for the National Convention would she delay the task 
she was so anxious to finish. She wrote scores of letters, how- 
ever, in regard to both, and the congressmen particularly had 
reason to feel that she had not forgotten their promises. Her 
long and persistent labors were rewarded, for the close of 1885 
found the whole third volume of the History in the hands of 
the printers. 




CHAPTER XXXIV. 

MANY TRIPS — FIRST VOTB ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 

1886—1887. 

ISS ANTHONY started for Washington toward 
the last of January, 1886, with a lighter heart than 
she had possessed for many years. The dreadful 
burden of the labor on the History was lifted, all 
the bills were paid, she had given a helping hand 
to several of the old workers, which made her very happy, 
and she had one or two good dresses in her trunk. There was 
nothing which the paragrapher who hated what Miss Anthony 
represented, liked so well as to make disagreeable flings at her 
clothes, and yet it is an indisputable fact of history that she 
was one of the most perfectly dressed women on the platform, 
although her tastes were very plain and simple. A lady once 
wrote her asking if it would not be possible to make the suf- 
frage conventions a little more aesthetic, they were so painfully 
practical. She sent the letter to Mrs. Stanton, who com- 
mented : ** Well now, perhaps if we could paint injustice in 
delicate tints set in a framework of poetical argument, we 
might more easily entrap the Senator Edmunds and Oscar 
Wilde types of Adam's sons. Suppose at our next convention 
all of us dress in pale green, have a faint and subdued gaslight 
with pink shades, write our speeches in verse and chant them 
to a guitar accompaniment. Ah me I alas I how can we reform 
the world aesthetically ? " 

The members of Congress always knew when Miss Anthony 
had arrived in Washington. Other women accepted their 
word that they were going to do something, and waited patiently 
at home. Miss Anthony followed them up and saw that they 

(605) 



606 



LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 



did it. If she could not find them at the Capitol, she went to 
their homes. If they promised to introduce a certain measure 
on a certain day, she was in the gallery looking them squarely 
in the face. If they failed to do it, they found her waiting 
for them at the close of the session. Senator Blair wrote this 
humorous note January 15 : ''I thought just as likely as not 
you would come fussing round before I got your amendment re- 
ported to the Senate. I wish you would go home. Cockrell has 
agreed to let me know soon whether he won't allow the report 
to be made right off without any bother, and I have been to 
him several times before. I don't see what you want to med- 
dle for, anyway. Go off and get married I " 



^0<*f>. 



A^-C^ ^-v^ 




^ Miss Anthony has been directly connected with every action 
' taken by Congress or by any congressional committee on the 
question of woman suffrage. There are on file among her papers 
hundreds of letters from members during the past thirty years, 
showing her energy and persistence in compelling attention to 
this subject, in learning who were its friends, in attempting to 



MANY TRIPS — FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 607 

convert the doubters and in spurring the believers to effort. 
This is something for the women of the future to remember. 

/The Eighteenth Annual Convention opened February 17. 
Prominent features were a fine address by Rev. Rush R. Ship- 
pen, of All Souls church, and the first appearance on the plat- 
form of Mary F. Eastman, Ada C. Sweet, the pension agent, 
the eloquent southern speakers, Mrs. Elizabeth A. Meriwether 
and Mrs. Sallie Clay Bennett, and the talented German, 
Madame Clara Neymann. Among many letters was one from 
George W. Childs to Miss Anthony, saying : ''I am always 
glad to hear from you and I keep track of your continued good 
work. Do not be discouraged. I take pleasure in sending 
the enclosed check ($100) with my sincere regards and very 
best wishes. '' 

The crowds were so great that policemen had to be stationed 
at the door to prevent late comers from trying to enter during 
the evening sessions. The resolutions scored the bill before 
Congress proposing to disfranchise all Utah women, both Gen- 
tile and Mormon, to punish the crime of polygamy. The 
usual hearing was granted before the congressional commit- 
tees. The fight for woman suffrage in the Forty-ninth Con- 
gress was conducted by Ezra B. Taylor, of Ohio, who prepared 
the favorable minority report of the House Judiciary Commit- 
tee. The adverse majority report was signed by John Ran- 
dolph Tucker, of Virginia. 

On March 25 " the general " slipped up to New York City, 
to assist her forces at the State convention, and then hastened 
back to Washington to direct the main line of attack. The 
diary says : 

March 30.— Went to Hoase of Bepreaentatives, saw Messrs. Tacker and 
Taylor of jadiciary committee ; both promised to report soon. Then went to 
Senate, saw Messrs. Blair, Stanford and Bowen ; all agreed to work to bring 
ap oar bill by May 1. In the evening took a cab and went in a pouring rain 
to Senator Stanford's, where I spent an hour. How keen and tme are bis 
perceptions in regard to public questions I 

March 81. — ^Pouring rain, dark and muggy. I went to the Senate ; sat with 
Mrs. Dolph and Mrs. Stanford ; heard Senator Dolph's fine speech on the 
admission of Washington Territory as a State and his splendid word for 
woman suffrage. Mrs. Dolph took me home in her carriage. 



608 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

April 1. — Went to the Senate again to secure pledges for votes and speeches 
for the Sixteenth Amendment Bill. Got Senator Dolph's strongest para- 
graphs, and at 8 p. m. went to the top floor of the Associated Press rooms and 
gave them to Mr. Boynton, who sent them over the wires. 

April 9.— The United States Senate today voted down Eustis' motion 
to refuse to admit Washington Territory unless the woman suffrage clause 
were eliminated from its constitution, 26 to 12. Senator Ingalls was the only 
Republican who voted with the enemy. 

A few days later Miss Anthony received the following from 
Mrs. Caroline E. Merrick, of New Orleans : *'. . . I feel 
defrauded that I never knew you until last year. Judge Mer- 
rick says you are the most sensible person he ever met ( with- 
out any sex qualifications, of course). Like you, I was indig- 
nant at Mr. Eustis in regard to his course toward Washington 
Territory. I was ashamed and blushed for my Louisiana sen- 
ator that time. Thanks for your sympathy in my illness. 
When my head lies low I pray that you may find another and 
even better friend in my State, who will come to the front in 
the cause of equal rights for women." An extract from a let- 
ter of Rev. Olympia Brown to Mrs. Stanton shows how much 
the old workers as well as the young depended upon Miss An- 
thony: '* I wish to inquire what has become of Susan? You 
know she is my North Star. I take all my bearings from her, and 
when I lose sight of her I wander helplessly, uncertain of my 
course.'* 

The diary of April 30 says: ''Heard Phcebe Couzins had 
been taken to Hot Springs, terribly crippled with rheumatism. 
Wrote her at once and enclosed $100, telling her I wanted it 
used to provide delicacies and make her comfortable. I have 
thought it would be Phoebe whom I should take with me on 
my southern tour next year, but I fear her work is done.'* 

By the middle of May, 1886, the last bit of History proof 
was read, and unlimited leave of absence was granted Miss 
Anthony by her publisher, while the indexer and binder com- 
pleted the work which was begun in 1876. On the 19th she 
started for Kansas, stopping for the usual visit in Chicago with 
her cousins. In Kansas she visited her brothers at Leaven- 
worth and Fort Scott for nearly two months, making an oc- 



MANY TRIPS FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 609 

casional speech. On the morning of July 4^ under the aus- 
pices of the W. C. T. U., she addressed a large audience at 
Salina on, ** The powerlessness of woman so long as she is de- 
pendent on man for bread." In the hot afternoon, as she was 
about to enjoy a nap, word came that a hundred people had united 
in a request that she should speak again, as they had come 
from ten to twenty miles on purpose to hear her ; so she re- 
turned to the grove, and Mrs. Griffith, State evangelist, kindly 
yielded her hour. On July 11 Miss Anthony went again to 
Chicago, and on the 14th spoke at Lake Bluff Gamp Meeting, 
which was under the management of Frances E. Willard. She 
then visited the summer homes of her cousins and of Elizabeth 
Boynton Harbert, at Lake Geneva. On this trip she was ac- 
companied by her dearly-loved niece, Susie B., who went with 
her to Rochester and spent the summer. The diary briefly re- 
cords : 

September 28.— Left Chicago at noon and lunched with Miss Willard at 
Rest Cottage, Evanston. Her mother bright and charming at eighty-two, and 
Anna Gordon sweet as ever. It was very good to see Miss Willard un- 
der her own roof. Beached Bacine in time for the State convention, was 
met by a delegation of ladies and taken to the home of Martha Parker Din- 
gee, niece of the great Theodore Parker, a lovely woman. Fine audiences. 

October 2. — Beached St. Louis at 8 a. m. As I was looking for my trunk I 
heard some one cry out, ''Is that you, Susan?" and there were Phoebe 
Couzins and her father. I had made my trip that way for the special purpose 
of seeing her, expecting to find her confined to the house ; so I went home 
and breakfasted with them. 

October 4.— Beached Leavenworth and found Mrs. Colby and Mrs. Saxon 
ready to begin the campaign for arousing public sentiment to demand a 
bill from the next legislature to secure Municipal suffrage for women. Dr. 
Ruth M. Wood is the mainspring of the movement here. 

This series of conventions was held in the congressional dis- 
tricts from October 5 to November 3, Mrs. Laura M. Johns, 
manager, assisted by Mrs. Anna C. Wait, president of the 
State Association, and by a number of capable and energetic 
Kansas women at each place visited. Under date of October 
11, Miss Anthony wrote to eastern friends : " We are having 
the loveliest weather you ever dreamed of and the most mag- 
Ant.— 39 



610 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

nificent audiences — no church or hall holding them. If our 
legislators, State or national, could only see these gatherings 
and look into the earnest faces of these people, coming so 
many miles in wagons to see and hear and get fresh courage, 
they would surely answer our demands by something else than 
silence/' The press corroborated this description and the fol- 
lowing special dispatch may be taken as a fair specimen : 

The seventh district convention, the third of the series, has jast closed in 
Lincoki, and was a beaatifal ovation to Miss Anthony. Crowded hooses 
greeted her— every available foot of space filled with chairs, window-sills 
utilized for seats, and conveyances drawn ap outside of windows and filled 
with listeners. People came thirty, forty and fifty miles in buggies and 
wagons to shake hands with the pioneer suffragist. Grizzly-headed opposers 
succumbed to Miss Anthony's logic and came up to grasp her hand and say God 
bless her, and proved the depth of their fervor by generous financial aid to 
the cause she so ably represents. It is seldom that the beginner of a great 
reform lives to see such fruitage of her labors as does she. People often 
descant upon the indifference of women to the question of their own enfran- 
chisement and to political matters generally ; but there is serious doubt of 
greater interest ever having been shown by men in political meetings than 
women exhibit in these conventions. • . . 

On the evening of the second day the house was so densely packed that a 
messenger for a glass of water had to go out through a window. But in spite 
of all discomfort and the many standing, the audience maintained perfect 
order and gave the utmost attention throughout Miss Anthony's speech of 
two hours. Learning that she would remain in Lincoln over Sunday the 
people importuned her to speak that afternoon in the Presbyterian church, 
which she did to a large audience. 

The diary relates : * 'A mother brought her four- weeks-old 
girl baby twenty-five miles in a carriage, so she might tell it, 
when grown, that Susan B. Anthony had taken it in her 
arms. 'And the trip has not hurt baby a particle,' she said 
brightly. '^ And again it tells, with a good deal of gusto, that 
one Baptist minister was determined th« suffrage speakers 
should not have his church and only yielded after several of 
the richest pew-holders declared they never would pay another 
dollar towards his salary if he did not. He then made his ap- 
pearance at the meeting, opened it with his blessing and closed 
it with his benediction ! Miss Anthony was not always able 
to speak to her own satisfaction. At Salina she lectured for 



MANY TRIPS FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 611 

the Y. M. C. A. and writes : "I went to the opera hoase and 
^ found a fine audience. Tried to give ' Moral Influence vs. 
Political Power/ but the spirit wouldn't soar; its wings 
flapped on the earth perpetually for the whole hour. I took 
my $25 from the treasurer and went home with a heavy heart. 
It is beyond my knowledge why, after speaking every day for 
a whole week, freely and decently, my wits should desert me 
and my tongue be tied just at the time when I am most anx- 
ious to do my best." 

Two days' meetings were held at Abilene, Florence, Hutch- 
inson, Wichita, Anthony, Winfield, Independence, Lawrence 
and Fort Scott. The speakers were entertained by prominent 
families, suffrage societies were formed at each place, the vast 
majority of public sentiment seemed favorable, and the collec- 
tions paid all the expenses of the conventions. 

In November and December a number of other speakers 
made a canvass of the State, and the following winter the 
legislature passed a bill conferring Municipal suffrage upon 
the women of Kansas. The bill was introduced in the Senate 
by R. W. Blue (Rep.) of Linn county ; and in the House by 
T. T. Taylor (Rep.) of Reno county. It passed the Senate, 25 
ayes, all Republicans ; 13 noes, 10 Republicans and 3 Demo- 
crats ; in the House 90 ayes, 84 Republicans and 6 Democrats ; 
21 noes, 5 Republicans and 16 Democrats. The bill was 
signed by Governor John A. Martin, February 15, 1887 ; and 
under its provisions women in that State have voted ever since 
at Municipal elections.^ 

Without a day's rest, Miss Anthony went direct from Kan- 
sas to Sandwich, 111., to attend the State convention. After 
three days there and a Sunday in Chicago, Monday, November 
8, foui)d her at Racine, Wis., ready to begin a tour of conven- 
tions in every congressional district. That evening a reception 
was given her by Hon. and Mrs. M. B. Erskine, and the hos- 
pitality of their handsome home was offered for every day 
which she could spend in the city. 

' Mi88 Anthony Aotes in her diary that ehe made her first Kansas campaign in '07 and the 
suffrage bill was signed on her sixty-seventh birthday. She received a letter of congratola- 
tk>n on the signing of the bill from Chief -Jnstioe Horton, of Kansas. 



612 LIFB AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

With Mrs. Colby and Rev. Olympia Brown, assisted by local 
speakers, meetings were held at Waukesha, Ripon, Oshkosh,^ 
Green Bay, Grand Rapids, Eau Claire, LaCrosse, Evansville, 
Milwaukee and Madison. At the last place the ladies spoke in 
the Senate chamber of the State House to an audience contain- 
ing a number of dignitaries, among them President Bascom, 
of the State University, and his wife, who from this time were 
Miss Anthony's steadfast friends. Mrs. Colby gives a graphic 
description of Miss Anthony's sudden outburst here, when 
several members had exasperated her by their remarks, which 
closes : ''I was writing at the secretary's desk and as I looked 
up I realized the full grandeur of the scene. It was woman 
standing at the bar of the nation, pleading for the recognition 
of her citizenship. Miss Anthony seemed positively Titanic 
as she leaned far over from the speaker's desk. Her tone and 
manner were superb, and the vast and sympathetic audience 
caught the electric thrill. . . ." In this city she was the 
guest of an old schoolmate, Elizabeth Ford Proudfit. The 
meetings closed December 3, and Miss Anthony wrote Mrs. 
Spofford : 

I intend now to make straight for Washington without a stop. I shall 
come both ragged and dirty. Think of two solid months of conventions, 
speaking every night ! Don't worry about me. I was never better or more 
fall of hope and good work. Thoagh the apparel will be tattered and torn, 
the mind, the essence of me, is soand to the core. Please tell the little milli- 
ner to have a bonnet picked oat for me, and get a dressmaker who will patch 
me together so I shall be presentable. Now for the Washington convention : 
Before settling upon the Universalist charch, yon woald better pocket the 
insults and refusals of the Congregational church powers that be and send 
your most lovely and winning girls to ask for that. If you can't get it or 
the Metropolitan or the Foundry or the New York Avenue or any large 
and popular church, why take the Universalist, and then tell the saints of the 
fashionable churches that we dwell there because they refused us admission 
to their holy sanctuaries. Don't let us go into the heterodox houses, much 
as I love them, except because we are driven away from the orthodox. 

In December the third volume of the History of Woman 
Suffrage at last was ready for the public, another book of nearly 
1,000 pages. It completed the story up to 1884, and like its 
predecessors was cordially received by the press. The money 



MANY TRIPS — FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 613 

swallowed up by this work hardly will be credited. Mrs. 
Stanton not being able or willing to revise the last volume un- 
til it was put into proof slips, and then making extensive 
changes, the cost for re-setting type was over $900. The fifty 
fine steel engravings and the prints made from them cost over 
$6,000. For proof reading $500 was paid, and for indexing, 
$250. Mrs. Stanton and Mrs. Gage, seeing that there never 
would be any profits from the books and that Miss Anthony 
proposed to give most of them away, sold out their rights to 
her, the former for $2,000 and the latter for $1,000. She also, 
as has been stated, bought out the interest of Fowler & Wells. 
When the first edition of the three mammoth volumes finally 
came into her sole possession, they represented an outlay on 
her part of $20,000. 

While there were many criticisms from certain quarters as 
to various errors and so-called misstatements, and many threats 
to write a history which should be free from all imperfections, 
the fact remains that, although fifty years have passed since 
the inception of the great movement to secure equal rights for 
women, there never has been another attempt to preserve the 
story. But for Miss Anthony's careful collecting and saving 
of newspaper accounts, manuscripts of speeches, published re- 
ports and the correspondence of half a century, her persistent 
and determined effort for ten years to have them put into read- 
able shape, and Mrs. Stanton's fine ability to do it, the student 
never would have been able to trace the evolution of woman 
from a chattel in the eye of the law to a citizen with legal and 
social rights very nearly equal to those of man. While there 
is necessarily some repetition, so long a time elapsing between 
the writing of the different volumes, and perhaps a little pro- 
lixity, there is not a dull page in the whole work and the 
reader will find it difficult to reach a place where she is will- 
ing to stop. It contains a resum6 of early conditions ; the perse- 
cutions endured by the pioneers in the struggle for freedom ; 
the progress in each separate State, and in foreign countries ; 
the action taken by different legislatures and congresses ; the 
grand arguments made for equal rights ; the position of woman 



614 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

in church and State. Into whatever library the student may 
go seeking information upon this question, it is to these vol- 
umes he must look to find it in collected and connected form. 
If Miss Anthony had done no other work but to produce this 
History, she would deserve a prominent place on the list of im- 
mortal names. 

It was necessary to put so high a price upon it , $15 a set in cloth 
and $19.50 in leather binding, as to make a large sale impos- 
sible. Miss Anthony did not undertake it as a money-making 
scheme, and when the receipt of Mrs. Eddy's bequest enabled 
her to discharge all indebtedness connected with it, she felt her- 
self at liberty to use it as a most valuable means of educating the 
people into an understanding of the broad principle of equality 
of rights. At her own expense she placed the History in over 
1,000 of the libraries of Europe and America, including the 
British Museum, the university libraries of Oxford, Edin- 
burgh, Dublin, Paris, Berlin, Finland, Melbourne, Toronto, 
and many of the university and public libraries of the United 
States. The members of the Senate and House Judiciary Com- 
mittees in several Congresses were presented with sets, and 
there are hundreds of letters on file from prominent per- 
sons in England and this country acknowledging the receipt 
of the books. 

Chapters might be made of commendatory letters received 
from officials, writers, public workers and friends in private 
life. A few spec- ^ ^ ^ i^ 

imens must suf- /r\X^K.,^^H>^^^A..^^ j^^Ut-A- 

fice. A letter \J ^ ^^^ 

from Senator H. B. Anthony ^ 

to his '' dear cousin,'' closed 
by saying: *'The three 
volames form a valuable 
history of the important en- 
terprise in which you have borne so conspicuous and honor- 
able a part, and you have added to the reputation of the name 
that we both bear." 




MANY TRIPS — FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 615 

Mary L. Booth, the gifted editor of Harper's Bazar, thus 
expressed her opinion of the work : 

Yoa and yoar colleagues have industriously placed on record a copious mass 
of documentary evidence which will be of the utmost value when the time 
arrives to sum up the final results. When this era comes, you will be fore- 
most among the band of heroic pioneers who have endured discomfort, 
obloquy and privation of much that is dear to women for the sake of those 
who will profit by your labors while failing to recognize them. Posterity 
will do you this justice, whether your contemporaries do or not ; but indeed, 
it is universally known to those with any knowledge of the facts, that among 
all the champions of women, none has been more distinguished for utter self- 
abnegation, single-heartedness and devotion to her life-work than Susan B. 
Anthony. 

As you know, I have always felt the deepest interest in the elevation of 
women, which is synonymous with that of humanity, for man must be always 
on the plane of his wife, sister and mother. . . . The antagonism to 
political equality is rapidly disappearing, as it is beginning to be recognized 
that in politics, as in everything else, woman's help is needed, and the repub- 
lic can not afford to have her stand aloof. But this phase of the subject haa 
been so much misunderstood, both by men and women, that time is needed 
to clear away the mists of misconception which envelop it ; and to prove that 
the co-operation of women in political life is not only just and expedient, but 
absolutely indispensable to the public weal. 




%r^ CUaJL ^i'^vTS'^^ 




iUi^i^ /I /Jrrt^^ 




No family in Rochester stood more steadfastly by Miss An- 
thony during all her long and eventful life than the Wilders — 
Carter, Samuel, Mrs. Maria Wilder Depuy and D. Webster. 
The last, in acknowledging the receipt of the books, wrote : 
•* How much you have contributed to history in this grand 



616 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

publication I With woman as a part of humanity, what a 
revolution will be wrought I Changes every where— in social 
life, in morals, politics, business — ^and all for the better. In 
this world- revolution you have done a great work. My chil- 
dren are proud of the fact that you are my personal friend. I 
fully appreciate your gift. It will be a Bible in my home." 
From the philanthropist, Sarah B. Cooper, revered for her 
work in the kindergartens on the Pacific coast, came this tri* 
bute : 

This book is the fruitage of all the years of year faith and work. It tells of 
the long preparation — ^the opening ap of the forest ; the blazing of the trail ; 
the clearing of the anderbrosh ; the deep sab-soiling ; the lying fallow ; the 
ploaghing, sowing, harrowing, the patient tillage — and now comes the harvest. 
What courage, endarance, fidelity and faith ! The pioneers of new thoaghts 
and principles are the loneliest of mortals. Those who live ahead of their 
time mast wait for the honors and plaudits of posterity to get their full meed 
of appreciation and reward. But after all, dear, honored friend, the richest 
reward of such a life as yours is to have lived U, 

The History also was given to the libraries of those towns 
whose women would raise a certain amount towards various 
State suffrage campaigns, and in every possible way it always 
has been used for missionary work.* 

The first week in 1887, in most inclement weather and 
against the protest of friends. Miss Anthony went all the way 
to Nebraska, to keep a promise to Mrs. Colby and other 
women of that State to attend their annual convention, Janu- 
ary 7. She found a pleasant letter awaiting her at Lincoln, 
from her old friend, Mary Rogers Kimball, daughter of the 
noted Abolitionist, Nathaniel P. Rogers, and wife of the General 
Passenger Agent of the Union Pacific R. R., now living at 
Omaha, which closed : " How I wish you could come to us 
and rest a few days. Mr. Kimball would welcome you, as 
would every one of this household. You ought to make our 
home happy by coming once in a while. . . . Mother, who is 
able to walk a little and is interested in all you do and say, 

* The total amount received from sales has been only $7,000. Now, however, in order to 
erive the History the widest possible circulation, the price has been so reduced as to enable 
it to be placed in the hands of the reading public. It is the hope of Miss Anthony to pabliah 
the fourth Tolume in the year 1900, bringing the History up to that date. 



MANY TRIPS — FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 617 

sends her love and hopes to see you." She spoke at Chicago, 
January 13, in the First Methodist church, where she was in- 
troduced by the well-known Rev. H. W. Thomas.* She went 
from there to the Michigan convention at Lansing, January 
14, and here was presented to the audience by Governor 
Cyrus Q. Luce. 

/^ She reached Washington January 17, 1887, and rushed the 
preparations for the Nineteenth National Convention, which 
I opened on the 25th at the Metropolitan M. E. church. Zerelda 
G. Wallace gave a noteworthy address; Senator Carey, of 
Wyoming, made an able speech and Mrs. Carey sat by Miss 
Anthony during the proceedings. The second day of the con- 
fVention, January 26, marked a great epoch, the first vote ever 
I taken in Congress on a Sixteenth Amendment. The previous 
month, December 8, 1886, Henry W. Blair had asked the 
Senate to consider the following joint resolution : " The 
rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be 
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on 
account of sex.''* He supported this in a long and compre- 
hensive speech covering the whole ground on which the de- 
mand is based, quoting from the favorable reports of the 
judiciary committees, exposing the weakness and fallacy of the 
objections, and making an unanswerable argument on the 
justice of granting political liberty to women. 

At the urgent request of opposing senators the matter had 
been postponed until January 25, when it was again called up 
by Mr. Blair. The opposition was led by Joseph A. Brown, of 
Georgia, who described in detail the intentions of the Creator 
when he made woman, and declared that females had not the 
physical strength to perform military duty, build railroads, 
raise crops, sit on juries or attend night caucuses, but that 

' At this meeting a yellow dog came on the platform and Miss Anthony is quoted as after- 
wards making this apt comment : " She says that, at least where women are concerned, 
the reporters are sure to seize npon some triviality and ring its changes to the exclusion of 
serious matters. She mentioned that when she spoke in Chicago last a dog ran across the 
stage and, springing up, laid his nose on her shoulder. * I prophesied to the audience then,' 
she continued, ' that the dog would figure in the press reports more conspicuously than 
anything that was said or done, and so he did. He occupied half of the space in nearly every 
paper.' " 



618 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

God had endowed men with strength and faculties for all these 
things. He stated that it was a grave mistake to say that 
woman is taxed without being represented, and added, ''It is 
very doubtful whether the male or the female sex has more in- 
fluence in the administration of the affairs of government and 
the enactment of laws I ' ' He asserted that ' ' the baser class 
of females would rush to the polls, and this would compel the 
intelligent, virtuous and refined females, including wives and 
mothers, to relinquish for a time their God-given trust and go, 
contrary to their wishes, to the polls and vote to counteract the 
other class ; " and followed this by saying that " the ignorant 
female voters would be at the polls en masse, while the refined 
and educated, shrinking from public contact, would remain at 
home. " He continued : "The ballot will not protect females 
against the tyranny of bad husbands, as the latter will compel 
them to vote as they dictate ; ' ' then in the next breath he de- 
clared : '' Wives will form political alliances antagonistic to 
the husbands, and the result will be discord and divorce." In 
his entire speech Senator Brown ignored the existence of un- 
married women and widows. He closed with copious extracts 
from " Letters from a Chimney Corner," written by some Chi- 
cago woman. 

Senator Dolph, of Oregon, followed in a clear, concise argu- 
ment, brushing away these sophistries by showing that such 
evils did not exist where women were enfranchised and voted 
at every election. He was interrupted by Senator Eustis, of 
Louisiana, who inquired whether he thought '* it would be a 
decent spectacle to take a mother away from her nursing in- 
fant and lock her up all night with a jury ? " Senator Dolph 
replied that there was not a judge in the world who would not 
excuse a woman under such circumstances, just as there were 
many causes which exempted men. He continued : 

Government is bat organized society. ... It can only derive its just 
powers from the consent of the governed, and can be established only ander 
a fandamental law which is self-imposed. Every citizen of saitable age and 
discretion has, in my jadgment, a natural right to participate in its formation. 
The fathers of the republic enunciated the doctrine " that all men are created 



MANY TRIPS— FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 619 

equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights." 
It is strange that any one in this enlightened age should be found to contend 
that this is true only of men, and that a man is endowed by his Creator with 
inalienable rights not possessed by a woman. The lamented Lincoln immor- 
talized the expression that ours is a government *' of the people, by the peo- 
ple, and for the people," and yet in reality it is far from that. There can be no 
government by the people where half of them are allowed no voice in its 

organization and control God speed the day when not only in all 

the States of the Union and in all the Territories, but everywhere, woman 
shall stand before the law freed from the last shackle which has been riveted 
upon her by tyranny, and the last disability which has been imposed upon her 
by ignorance ; not only in respect to the right of suffrage, but in every other 
respect the peer and equal of her brother, man. 




Senator Vest, of Missouri, came to the rescue of Senator 
Brown and in the course of his speech said : 

I pity the man who can consider any question affecting the influence of 
woman, with the cold, dry logic of business. What man can, without aver- 
sion, turn from the blessed memory of that dear old grandmother, or the 
gentle words and caressing hand of that blessed mother gone to the unknown 
world, to face in its stead the idea of a female justice of the peace or town- 
ship constable ? For my part, I want when I go to my home — when I turn 
from the arena where man contends with man for what we call the prizes of 
this paltry world — I want to go back, not to be received in the masculine em- 
brace of some female ward politician, but to the earnest, loving look and 
touch of a true woman. I want to go back to the jurisdiction of the wife, the 
mother ; and instead of a lecture upon finance or the tariff, or upon the con- 
struction of the Constitution, I want those blessed, loving details of domestic 
life and domestic love. 

I have said I would not speak of the inconveniences to arise from woman 
suffrage. I care not whether the mother is called upon to decide as a jury- 
man, or a jurywoman, rights of property or rights of life, whilst her baby is 
<' mewling and puking '' in solitary confinement at home. There are other 
considerations more important, and one of them to my mind is insuperable. 
I speak now respecting women as a sex. I believe that they are better than 
men, but I do not believe they are adapted to the political work of this world. 
I do not believe that the Great Intelligence ever intended them to invade the 
sphere of work given to men, tearing down and destroying all the best influ- 
ences for which God has intended them. The great evil in this country today 
is emotional suffrage. Women are essentially emotional. What we want in 



620 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

this coontry is to avoid emotional suffrage, and what we need is to put more 
logic into public affairs and less feeling.^ 

He presented a remonstrance against giving the ballot to 
women, signed by nearly 200 New England men, headed by 
President Eliot, of Harvard University, and including nearly 
fifty names prefixed by * ' Rev. ' ' He next drew from his budget a 
letter from Clara T. Leonard, of Boston, praying that the suf- 
frage should not be granted to women, and Mr. Hoar remarked 
that the lady herself had been holding public office for a num- 
ber of years. 

Continuing Senator Vest said : '* If we are to tear down 
all the blessed traditions, if we are to desolate our homes and 
firesides, if we are to unsex our mothers, wives and sisters, 
and turn our blessed temples of domestic peace into ward 
political assembly rooms, pass this joint resolution I '' He 
now produced a document, entitled ''The Law of Woman 
Life,'' and said: ''This is signed Adeline D. T. Whitney — 
I can not say whether she be wife or mother. It contains not 
one impure or unintellectual aspiration. Would to God that 
I knew her so I could thank her in behalf of the society and 
politics of the United States. I shall ask that it be printed, 
as my strength does not suffice for me to read it." * It proved 
to be a long and involved essay begging that the ballot should 
not be given to women, and saying : ' ' Are the daughters and 
granddaughters about to leap the fence, leave their own 
realm little cared for, undertake the whole scheme of outside 
creation, or contest it with the men ? Then God help the men ! 
God save the commonwealth ! " Mr. Vest concluded with a 
blood-curdling picture of the French Revolution which would 
be repeated in this country if women were enfranchised. 

Senator Blair then offered the appeal of the W. C. T. U. for 
the ballot, representing over 200,000 women, presented by Ze- 
relda G. Wallace, who had reared thirteen children and grand- 

* Both Senator Vest and Senator Brown had appealed wholly to the emotions in their 
speeches npon this question, which were overflowing with sentiment and " gnsh." 

* This hardly corresponds with Senator Brown's glowing description of the physical 
strength conferred by the Creator on man so that he oonld do the voting for the family. 



MANY TRIPS FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 621 

children, among them the author of Ben Hur. He submitted 
also the matchless arguments which had been made by the most 
intellectual women of the nation before the congressional com- 
mittees from year to year, including that of Miss Anthony in 
1880, and urged that the question should be submitted to the 
legislatures of the various States for settlement. 

The vote was taken on the question of submitting a Sixteenth 
Amendment to the Constitution to the State legislatures for 
ratification, and resulted in 16 yeas and 34 nays, 26 absent.^ 
y Of the affirmative votes, all were Republican ; of the negative, 
L 24 Democratic and 10 Republican. Senator Farwell, of Illi- 
nois, was roundly denounced by the Chicago Tribune for his 
affirmative vote. Senators Chace, Dawes and Stanford, who 
were paired, and Plumb, who was absent, announced publicly 
that they would have voted " aye." 

Over fifty of the distinguished women in attendance at the 
convention were in the Senate gallery during this debate. The 
most sanguine of them had not expected the necessary two- 
thirds, but had worked to obtain a vote simply for the prestige 
of a discussion in the Senate, the printing of the speeches in 
the Congressional Record and the wide agitation of the ques- 
tion through the medium of press and platform which was 
sure to follow. They felt especially incensed at Senator In- 
galls, as the sentiment of his State had just shown itself to be 
overwhelmingly in favor of woman suffrage, and they did not 
hesitate to score him in public and in private. As soon as the 
news of tho vote reached the convention Miss Anthony roundly 
denounced him from the platform. In the evening she re- 
ceived a note from him saying : ** Will you do me the favor 
to designate an hour at which it would be convenient for you 
to give me a brief interview ? " She did not answer, and on the 

* Yecu: Blair, Bowen, Cheney, Conger, Cnllom, Dolph, Farwell, Hoar, Manderson, Mitch- 
ell of Oregon, Mitchell of Pennsylvania, Palmer, Piatt, Sherman, Teller, Wilson of Iowa. 
Nays: Beck, Berry, Blackbam, Brown, Call, Gockrell, Goke,Colqnitt, Enstis, Evarts, George, 
Gray, Hampton, Harris, Hawley, Ingalls, Jones of Nevada, McMillan, McPherson, Mahone, 
Morgan, Morrill, Payne, Pugh, Sanlsbnry, Sawyer, Sewell, Spooner, Vance, Vest, Walthall, 
Whitthome, Williams, Wilson of Maryland. Abient: Aldrich, Allison, Bntler, Frye, Gibson, 
Gorman, Miller, Plumb, Ransom, Camden, Cameron, Chace, Dawes. Edmunds, Fair, Hale, 
Harrison, Jones of Arkansas, Jones of Florida, Kenna, Mazey, Biddleberger, Babin, Stan- 
ford, Van Wyck, Voorhees. 



/ 

/ 



/ 



622 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

31st she received another : "I called Thursday and Friday 
mornings, but was not able to reach you with my card. My 
errand was personal and I hope I may be more fortunate when 
you are again in the city." When she did see him she found 
his purpose was to declare a truce, which she declined, as he 
already had done the cause all the harm possible for him. 

From Washington Miss Anthony went to assist at a conven- 
tion in Philadelphia, and '* felt guilty for days," she says in 
her diary, because she refused to go on to Connecticut. She 
enjoyed a brief visit with Professor Maria Mitchell at Vassar 
College ; and hastened to Albany to address the legislature in 
regard to the Constitutional Convention, *' just as I did twenty 
years ago in the old Capitol," she writes. Then back to Wash- 
ington to look after matters there, and thus on and on, never 
allowing herself to be delayed by weather, fatigue or social de- 
mands, month after month, year after year, with but one object 
in vie;, never losing sight of it for a moment, and making all 
else subservient to this single purpose. 

In April she was terribly distressed at the malicious false- 
hoods which were sent out from Leavenworth in regard to the 
first voting of the women in Kansas, and says, '' It will take 
oceans of breath and ink to counteract the baneful efifects." 
On May 11, 1887, Frances E. Willard wrote her : •' Will you 
please send me the form of resolution which would be the least 
that would satisfy you as a plank in the platform of the Prohi- 
bition party, or as a resolution to be adopted by the W. C. T. 
U.? I write this without authorization from any quarter, 
simply because I would like to find out what is the angle of 
vision along which you are looking." To this Miss Anthony 
replied : 

What is the fall significance of *' would satisfy yoa ? " Do you mean so sat- 
isfy me that I would work, and recommend all women to work, for the suc- 
cess of the Third party ticket ? Or do you mean the least that I think it 
should say for its own sake ? If the first, I am not sure that the fullest en- 
dorsement would cause me to throw all my sympathies and efforts into line 
with the Prohibition party, any more than if the same full suffrage plank 
snould be put into the platform of the great Labor or Fourth party, which is 
pretty sure to take part in the presidential contest of 1888. 



MANY TRIPS FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 623 

I can not answer for others, bat I shall not pray or speak or work for the de- 
feat of the nominees of the party of which every United States Senator who voted 
for as last winter is a leading member, and to which belongs every man but six 
in the Kansas Legislature who made the overwhelming vote giving manic- 
ipal sofirage to the women of that State. Not until a third party gets into 
power or is likely to do so, which promises a larger per cent, of representa- 
tives on the floor of Congress and in the several State legislatures who will 
speak and vote for woman's enfranchisement, than does the Republican, 
shall I work for it. You see, as yet there is not a single Prohibitionist in Con- 
gress, while there are at least twenty Republicans on the floor of the United 
States Senate, besides fully one-half of the members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, who are in favor of woman suffrage. For the women of Kansas or 
Iowa to work for any third party would be ungrateful and suicidal. 

Since I hope to live to see a Sixteenth Amendment Bill through Congress 
and three-fourths of the State legislatures, I do not propose to work for the 
defeat of the party which thus far has furnished nearly every vote in that 
direction. If you will pardon me, I think it will be quite as suicidal a policy 
for the temperance women of the nation to work to defeat the party which 
contains so nearly all of their best friends and helpers. What it seems to me 
should be done by all women who want reforms in legislation, is to appoint 
committees to confer with leading Republicans asking them to make pledges 
in the direction of suffrage and temperance, with the assurance of our sup- 
port in case of the insertion of the planks we ask in their platform. I 
fear, however, you are already pledged to the Third party, come what may, 
and if so it is of no use for me to advise.^ 

In May Miss Anthony again journeyed westward, though 
she says in her diary : ' ' It never was harder for me to start. 
A heavy nothingness is upon head and heart. ' ' She went first to 
the State Sufifrage Convention at Indianapolis, where as usual 
she was a guest in the beautiful home of Mr. and Mrs. Sewall. A 
reception was given her at the Bates House and she was cor- 
dially greeted by several hundred ladies. She went to meet- 
ings at Evansville, Richmond and Lafayette, and then to the 
Ohio convention at Cleveland ; here, as always, the guest of 
her loved friend, Louisa South worth. 

She writes May 26 : '^ Arrived home at 8 p. m. and found all 
well — the all consisting of sister Mary, the only one left.*' 
She was invited to meet with a large and conservative society 
of women who did not believe in equal sufifrage. All made 
nice little addresses and when Miss Anthony was called on she 
said : ** Ladies, you have been doing here today what I and a 

' The skeptioal can not bat wonder whether the Bepublican party ever will have the 
grace and wisdom to justify the confidence which Miss Anthony has steadfastly placed in 
it, as regards this question, from the day of its birth* 



624 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

few other women were denounced as 'unsexed' for doing 
thirty years ago— speaking in public ;" and then proceeded to 
point the moral. She attended the commencement exercises 
of a young ladies' seminary, whose principal would not ac- 
knowledge a handsome gift from her pupils by a few remarks 
because she *' considered it would look too strong-minded.'' 
Miss Anthony comments on the graduates' essays : *' They had 
as much originality as Baedecker's Guide-book." 

In July she went as the guest of her friend Adeline Thom- 
son, of Philadelphia, for two weeks at Cape May and here had 
her first experience in sea-bathing, although she always had 
lived within a short distance of the ocean. She says : ** This is 
my first seaside dissipation. It seems very odd to be one of 
the giddy summer resort people I " She tjok Miss Thomson 
with her up into the Berkshire hills of northwestern Massa- 
chusetts to Adams, her birthplace, and visited the home of her 
grandfather. In the early days of her peregrinations she used 
to come often to this picturesque spot, but it now had been 
twenty years since her last visit. Time does not bring many 
changes to the New England nooks or the people who live in 
them, and she greatly enjoyed the nine days spent with uncles, 
aunts and cousins, exploring the well-remembered spots. 
They went from here to Magnolia for a two weeks' visit at 
the seaside cottage of Mr. and Mrs. James Purinton, of Lynn, 
Mass. At this time, in answer to a request for advice, Miss 
Anthony wrote to Olympia Brown and Mrs, Almedia Gray, of 
Wisconsin : 

I have your letters relative to bringing suits under the school suffrage law, 
and hasten to say to you that Mrs. Minor's and my own experience in both 
suing and being sued on the Fourteenth Amendment claim leads me to 
beseech you not to make a test case unless you know you will get the broadest 
decision upon it. If you get the narrow one restricting the present law sim- 
ply to school-district voting, there it will rest and no judge or inspector will 
transcend the limit of the decision. My judgment would be to say and do 
nothing about the law, but through the year keep up the educational work, 
showing that such and such cities allowed women to vote for mayor, common 
council, etc., and by the next election many others will let women vote; and 
so in a few years all will follow suit. Let what you have alone and try for 
more ; for all your legislature has power to give. It will be vastly more likely 
to grant municipal suffrage than your supreme court will be to give a decision 



MANY TRIPS — FIRST VOTE ON SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. 625 

that the school law already allows women to vote for mayor, coancil, gover- 
nor, etc. 

They thought best, however, to bring the suits ; the exact 
results which were predicted followed, and the school suffrage 
even was restricted until it was practically worthless. 

During this summer Miss Anthony undertook to arrange 
her many years' accumulation of letters, clippings, etc., and 
knowing her reluctance ever to destroy a single scrap, Mrs. 
Stanton wrote from Paris : ^' I am glad to hear that you have 
at last settled down to look over those awful papers. It is 
well I am not with you. I fear we should fight every blessed 
minute over the destruction of Tom, Dick and Harry's epistles. 
Unless Mary, on the sly, sticks them in the stove when your 
back is turned, you will never diminish the pile during your 
mortal life. (Make the most of my hint, dear Mary.)" It is 
safe to say it was just as large at the end of the examination as 
at the beginning. 

In September, 1887, Miss Anthony again made a circuit of 
cbnventions in every congressional district in Wisconsin and 
then turned her attention to Kansas. The officers of the State 
fssociation had arranged a series of conventions for the pur- 
pose of demanding a constitutional amendment conferring ftdl 
^suffrage on women. Miss Anthony, with Mrs. Johns, Mrs. 
Letitia V. Watkins, State organizer, Rev. Anna Shaw and 
Rachel Foster, gave the month of October to this canvass. Sen- 
ator Ingalls, in a speech at Abilene, had attempted to defend 
his vote in the Senate against the Sixteenth Amendment, and 
Miss Anthony took this as a text for the campaign. She had 
ample material for the excoriating which she gave him in 
every district in Kansas, as the Senator had declared : 1st, 
that suffrage was neither a natural nor a constitutional right, 
but a privilege conferred by the State; 2d, that no citizens 
should be allowed to participate in the formation of legisla- 
tures or the enactment of laws, who could not enforce their 
action at the point of a bayonet; 3d, that no immigrants 
should be allowed to enter the United States from any country 

on earth for the next twenty-five years ; 4th, that negro suf- 
Ant.— 40 



626 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

frage had been an absolute and unqualified failure ; 5th , that 
while there were thousands of women vastly more competent 
than men to vote upon questions of morality, they never should 
be allowed to do so— simply because they were women. 

It hardly need be said that Miss Anthony found little diffi- 
culty in reducing to tatters these so-called arguments, and that 
her audiences were in hearty sympathy. To borrow her own 
expression, she '' tried to use him up so there was not an inch 
of ground under his feet.*' When the convention was held at 
Atchison Mrs. Ingalls invited sixteen of the ladies to a hand- 
some luncheon, where the senator placed Miss Anthony at his 
right hand and made her the guest of honor. She proposed 
that he debate the question of woman suffrage with her but he 
refused on the ground that he could not attack a woman, so 
she served up this objection in her speech that evening. To a 
reporter he is said to have given the reason that he *' would 
not stoop to the intellectual level of a woman." 

The month of November was given to holding a two days' 
convention in each of the thirteen congressional districts of 
Indiana. These meetings were arranged by the State secretary, 
Mrs. Ida H. Harper, and the strong force of speakers. Miss 
Anthony, Mrs. Wallace, Mrs. Sewall and Mrs. Gougar, aroused 
great enthusiasm and made many converts.^ This ended three 
months of constant travelling and speaking almost every day and 
evening. On the first of December Miss Anthony writes : '* I 
have laid me down to sleep in a new bed nearly every night of 
this entire time." 

But the 10th found her in Washington fresh and vigorous for 
the work of the coming winter. She was anxious to know whether 
the reports of the Senate debate had been franked and sent out as 
promised and, to her inquiry, Senator Blair answered with his 
usual little joke : '^ I have had the speeches, etc., attended to 
and trust that the mails will do you justice if the males do 
not. But remember that men naturally fight for their lives, 
and on the same principle, you shall for yours 1" 

*Conyention8 were held at Evansville, Vincennes, Bloomington, Kokomo, Logansport, 
Wabash, Lafayette, Soath Bend, Fort Wayne, Muncie, Anderson, Madison and New Albany. 
The largest of the series was at Terre Hante, where the opera house, donated by the oitiBens, 
was crowded both evenings with an andienoe representing the culture and intelligence of the 
city, and the convention was welcomed by the mayor, Jacob C. Kolsom. 




CHAPTER XXXV. 

UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 

1888. 

* PRECEDING chapter described the forming in 
1869 of the American Woman Suffrage Associa- 
tion at Cleveland, 0., the overtures for union by 
the National Association the next year, and 
their rejection. No further efforts were made 
and each body continued to work in its own way. At the 
annual meeting of the American Association in Philadelphia, 
October 31, 1887, the following resolution from the business 
committee was unanimously adopted : 

Whbbbas, The woman suffragists of the United States were all united antil 
1868 in the American Eqaal Bights Association ; and tohereas, The causes of 
the subsequent separation into the National and American Woman Suffrage 
Societies have since been largely removed by the adoption of common princi- 
ples and methods ; therefore 

Resolvedf That Mrs. Lucy Stone be appointed a committee of one from the 
American Woman Suffrage Association to confer with Miss Susan B. Anthony 
of the National and, if on conference it seems desirable, that she be author- 
ized and empowered to appoint a conmiittee of this association to meet a simi- 
lar committee appointed by the National to consider a satisfactory basis of 
union, and refer it back to the executive committee of both associations for 
final action. Hemrt B. Blackwsll, 

Corresponding Secretary , A. W. S, A. 

After conferring with the officers of the National Associa- 
tion , Miss Anthony informed Mrs. Stone that she would meet 
her in Philadelphia any time until December 9^ and after that 
in Washington. She replied that she was not able to travel 
even so far as Philadelphia and, after some correspondence, 
Miss Anthony agreed to go to Boston. On the afternoon of 

(627) 



628 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

December 21, 1887, accompanied by Rachel Foster, corre- 
sponding secretary of the National, she met Mrs. Stone and 
Alice Stone Blackwell, at No. 3 Park street, Boston, and held 
an extended conference in regard to the proposed union. Two 
days later Mrs. Stone sent to Miss Anthony, who was still in 
that city, the following : 

In thinking over the points raised at oar informal conference, it seemfl to 
me that the substantial outcome is this : The committees appointed by us 
respectively, if we conclude to appoint them, must each agree upon a common 
name, a common constitution and a common list of officers for the first year. 
A subsequent acceptance of these by each association will thereafter consti- 
tute the two societies one society. If you think there is a fair probability of 
coming to an agreement I will proceed to appoint my committee. 

As the formal overtures for union have come from the American Associa- 
tion, it will be appropriate that our committee should draw up the plan for 
union which appears to them the most feasible, and forward it to Miss Foster, 
to be submitted to yours. Then your committee will suggest such modifica- 
tions as they may think needful ; and, if a mutually satisfactory result can be 
reached, the name, constitution and list of officers will go to the executive 
committee of each association for final action. 

Christmas Day Miss Blackwell sent to Miss Foster a compre- 
hensive plan for a union of the two societies, closing as fol- 
lows : ' * Since many members of the National society regard 
Mrs. Stone as the cause of the division, and many members of 
the American regard Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony as the 
cause of it, Mrs. Stone suggested that it would greatly promote 
a harmonious union, for those three ladies to agree in advance 
that none of them would take the presidency of the united as- 
sociation.'' Early in January this formal announcement and 
letter were sent to Miss Foster : 

The committee of the National to sit in counsel with that of the seven ap- 
pointed by Lucy Stone, of the American, shall be: May Wright Bewail, 
Cfuxirman, Harriette R. Shattuck, Olympia Brown, Helen M. Gougar, Laura M. 
Johns, Clara B. Colby, Rachel G. Foster, Secretary} 

I hope all will sink personalities and exalt principles, seeking only the best 
good for woman's enfranchisement, and that surely will come through the 
union of all the friends of woman suffrage into one great and grand national 

* To these afterwards were added from the ezeontlTe oommittee, Isabella Beecher Hooker, 
Chairman, Matilda Joslyn Gage, Mary B. Clay, Sarah M. Perkins, Lillie I)e?ereaz Blake, 
Mary F. Eastman, Clara Neymann, Elizabeth Boynton Harbert. 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 629 

association which shall enable them to present a solid front to the enemy. 
This most be based on the principle of a genuine democracy, which shall 
give to each of its members a voice in all its deliberations, either in person or 
throogh representatives chosen by them, and to a constitation thas based I am 
sure each of my seven chosen ones will contribute her aid. Hoping that a 
consolidation of all oar forces will be the result of this overture from Lucy 
Stone and her society, I am, very sincerely, Susan B. Anthony. 

On January 18, Miss Foster received from Miss Blackwell 
the list of the conference committee appointed by Mrs. Stone : 
Julia Ward Howe, Chairman^ Wm. Dudley Foulke, Margaret 
W. Campbell, Anna H. Shaw, Mary F. Thomas, H. M. 
Tracy Cutler, Henry B. Blackwell, Secretary. 

Miss Anthony again wrote Miss Foster : ''I can not think 
of any stipulation I wish to make the basis of union save that 
we unite, and after that discuss all measures and ways and 
means, officers and newspapers, and cheerfully accept and 
abide by the rule of the majority. I do not wish to exact any 
pledges from Lucy Stone and her adherents, nor can I give 
any for Mrs. Stanton and her followers. When united we 
must trust to the good sense of each, just as we have trusted 
during the existence of the division. As Greeley said about 
resuming specie payment, ' tJie way to unite is to unite ' and 
trust the consequences." 

It is not essential for the completeness of this work to re- 
produce in detail the official proceedings, which extended 
through two years and caused Miss Anthony often to write, 
** I shall be glad when this frittering away of time on mere 
forms is past." A basis of agreement finally was reached, and 
the union was practically completed at the National Conven- 
tion which met in Washington, January 21, 1889. A commit- 
tee of thirteen was selected to confer with the committee from 
the American. This consisted of Miss Anthony and Mesdames 
Hooker, Minor, Duniway, Johns, Sewall, Perkins, Colby, 
Spofford, Brown, Blake, Gougar and Foster Avery. The Wo- 
man's Tribune thus described the result : 

At the business session, January 24, 1889, they reported in snbstance as fol- 
lows: 



630 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Name, etc.— The association to be called the National-American W. S. A. 
The annual convention to be held at Washington. 

Chronology.-— The next annaal meeting of the joint sobietyto be — as it 
woold be for the National— the twenty-second annaal Washington conven- 
tion. 

/ Work. — ^To be for National and State legislation protecting women in the 
Nexercise of their right to vote. 

BepresentcOion. — As provided in the new National constitntion. 

Where two associations exist in one State and will not unite, both are to be 
accepted as auxiliary societies. 

An earnest debate followed. Miss Anthony threw her influence strongly in 
favor of union and carried many with her, even those who openly expressed 
themselves that their judgment would be to continue the two societies. The 
vote was then taken on union, thirty voting for, eleven against. 

Miss Alice Stone Blackwell and Rev. Anna H. Shaw were present on be- 
half of the American Association, accepted the deviations from the proposi- 
tions as presented by that association, and felt reasonably certain that it 
would endorse their action. 

. No one person contributed so much toward effecting the 
iunion of these two societies as Alice Stone Blackwell. On 
February 17, 1890, both bodies met inWashington and it was 
decided that the official boards of the two should form the vot- 
ing force until the joint temporary organization was completed. 
Councils were held in the great parlor and dining-room of the 
Riggs House. Both Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton had been 
willing, from the beginning of negotiations, to accept the prop- 
osition of the Americans that neither one of them, nor Lucy 
Stone, should take the presidency of the united association, 
but from the Nationals in every part of the country came a 
cry of dissent. Letters poured in declaring that Miss Anthony 
and Mrs. Stanton had borne the brunt of the battle for forty 
years, that they had not once lowered the flag or made the 
question of woman suffrage subservient to any other, that they 
were the head and heart of the movement, and that for them 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 631 

to be deposed was out of the question/ It soon became evi- 
dent that unless this point were conceded all hope of union 
would have to be banished. While most of the delegates 
agreed that, in respect to seniority in years and work and also 
in consideration of her commanding ability, Mrs. Stanton 
should be president, there were many who thought that, 
because of her advanced age and the fact that she spent most 
of her time abroad, it would be better to elect Miss Anthony. 
The latter was distracted by such a thought and at the final 
meeting of National delegates preliminary to the joint conven- 
tion, with all the earnestness of her strong nature and in a 
voice vibrating with emotion, she said : 

I appeal to every woman who has any affection for the old National or for 
me not to vote for Susan B. Anthony for president. I stand in a delicate 
position. I have letters which accuse me of having favored the union solely 
for personal and selfish considerations, and of trying to put Mrs. Stanton out, 
Now what I have to say is, don't vote for any human heing hut Mrs. Stanton 
There are other reasons why I wish her elected, hut I have these personj..i 
ones : When the division was made twenty years ago, it was because ' /Ur 
platform was too broad, because Mrs. Stanton was too radical ; a tcloxh con- 
servative organization was wanted. If we Nationals divide now and Mrs. 
Stanton is deposed from the presidency, we virtually degrade her If you 
have any love for our old association, which, from the beginning^ nas stood 
like a rock in regard to creeds and politics, demanding that e/ery woman 
should be allowed to come upon our platform to plead for Ir tx freedom— if 
you have any faith in that grand principle — vote for Mrs. Stf yiton. . . . 

The National always has allowed the utmost liberty. Anything and every- 
thing which stood in the way of progress was likely to get knocked off our 
platform. I want every one who claims to be a National to continue to stand 
for this principle. We have come now to another turning-point and, if it is 
necessary, I will fight forty years more to make our platform free for the 
Christian to stand upon whether she be a Catholic and counts her beads, or a 
Protestant of the straitest orthodox creed, just as I have fought for the rights 
of the infidels the last forty years. These are the principles I want you to 
maintain, that our platform may be kept as broad as the universe, that upon 
it may stand the representatives of all creeds and no creeds — Jew or Christian, 
Protestant or Catholic, Gentile or Mormon, pagan or atheist. 

' Many letters are on file making these declarations. It is not practicable to quote them 
here, but a place may be made for an extract from that of Zerelda G. Wallace to Miss An- 
thony : "While they do not under-estimate the work of any of the pioneers, the hearts of the 
women all over the country are turning to you. They feel that they are yours, and you are 
theirs. The suffrage women look to you with as much loyalty and affection as the temper- 
ance women to Miss Willard. There are thousands of them who would rally around you 
with an enthusiasm which no one else can inspire. You will do me the credit to believe that 
I speak solely for the good of the work to which you have given your life." 



I 



632 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

At the joint executive session after the union was formally 
declared to be consummated, the vote was : For president, 
/Mrs. Stanton, 131 ; Miss Anthony, 90 ; for vice-president-at- 
riarge, Miss Anthony, 213. Lucy Stone was unanimously 
elected chairman of the executive committee; Rachel Foster 
Avery, corresponding secretary ; Alice Stone Blackwell, re- 
cording secretary ;* Jane H. Spofford, treasurer ; Eliza T. 
Ward and Rev. Frederick W. Hinckley, auditors. This uniting 
of the two associations was begun in 1887 and finished in 1890, 
in the most thoroughly official manner, according to the most 
\ highly approved parliamentary methods, and the final result 
\ was satisfactory to a large majority of the members of both 
Isocieties, who since that time have worked together in un- 
broken harmony. 

The action of the American Association was almost unani- 
mous, but the members of the National were widely divided. 
Letters of protest were received from many States, and several 
of its members attempted to form new organizations. The ex- 
ecutive sessions in Washington were the most stormy in the 
history of the association, and only the unsurpassed parlia- 
mentary knowledge of the chairman. May Wright Sewall, 
aided by the firm co-operation of Miss Anthony, could have 
harmonized the opposing elements and secured a majority vote 
in favor of the union. There had been no time during the 
twenty years' division when Miss Anthony was not ready to 
sink all personal feeling and unite the two societies for the 
sake of promoting the cause which she placed before all else in 
the world ; and from the first prospect of combining the forces, 
she used every effort toward its accomplishment. It was a source 
of especial gratification that this was practically assured by the 
winter of 1888, when the International Council of Women met 
in Washington, as it enabled the American Association to ac- 
cept the invitation and send representatives to this great con- 
vocation — which will now be considered. 

It had long been the dream of Miss Anthony and Mrs. 

^Mra. Avery and Miss Blackwell have contiiiued OTer sinoe to fill these positions most ac* 
oeptably to the association. 



(2^ 



■M^eie^ ^ VMUr^c^. 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 633 

yStanton to form an International Suffrage Association for pur- 
poses of mutual helpfulness and the strength of co-operation. 
During 1883, when in Great Britain, they discussed this sub- 
ject with the women there and, as a result, a large committee 
of correspondence had been established to promote the forming 
of such an association. After a time it was judged expedient 
to enlarge its scope and make it an International Council, 
which should represent every department of woman's work. 
This was called to meet at Washington in 1888, the fortieth 
anniversary of the first organized demand for the rights of 
women, the convention at Seneca Falls, and active prepara* 
tions had been in progress for more than a year. It was de- 
cided at the suffrage convention held the previous winter that 
the National Association should assume the entire responsi- 
bility for this International Council and should invite the par^ 
ticipation of all organizations of women in the trades, profes- 
sions, reforms, etc. 

Mrs. Stanton and Mrs. Spofford were in Europe and this 
herculean task was borne principally by Miss Anthony, May 
Wright Sewall and Rachel Foster.^ Miss Anthony stayed in 
Washington for two months preceding the council, perfecting 
the last arrangements. The amount of labor, time, thought 
and anxiety involved in this year of preparation can not be 
estimated. Nothing to compare with it ever had been at- 
tempted by women. Not the least part of the undertaking 
was the raising of the $13,000 which were needed to defray ex- 
penses, all secured by personal letters of appeal and admission 
fees, and disbursed with careful economy and judgment. The 

* The magnitude of the work of the connoil may be better appreciated by the mention of a 
fbw flgnree in this connection. There were printed and distributed by mail 10,000 calU and 10,- 
OOO appeals; sketches were prepared of the lives and work of speakers and delegates and 
eifcnlated by a press committee of oTer ninety persons in many States; March 10, the first 
edition (5,000) of the sixteen-page program was issued; this was followed by five other 
editions of 5,000 each and a final seventh edition of 7,000. About 4,000 letters were written. 
Including those concerning railroad rates, not less than 10,000 more circulars of yarious kinds 
weie printed and distributed. A low estimate of the number of pages thus issued gives 672,- 
OOO. During the week of the council and the week of the convention of the National W. S. A. 
the Woman's Tribune was published by Mrs. Colby eight times (four days sixteen pages, four 
days twelve pages), the daily edition averaging 12,500. 

An international convention of men, held in Washington the same year» cost in lonnd num. 
ben loaOOa-Oflteial Besort. 



634 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

intention was to give the suffrage association the same 
prominence as other organizations and no more. An entry in 
Miss Anthony's diary says : "I have just received proof of 
the 'call' for the council and struck out the paragraph saying, 
'no one would be committed to suffrage who should attend.' 
I can't allow any such apologetic invitation as that I There is 
no need to say anything about it." To her old friend Antoi- 
nette Brown Blackwell, who asked if only those women minis- 
ters who had been regularly ordained were to be heard, Miss 
Anthony wrote : 

I have felt all along that we oaght to give a chance for the expression of 
the highest and deepest religions thonghtof those not ordained of men. Yonr 
wish to give the result of year research opens the way for as to make the last 
day — Easter Sunday — ^voice the new, the parer, the better worship of the liv- 
ing God. We'll have a real symposium of woman's gospel. It is not fair to 
give only the church-ordained women an opportunity to present their religious 
thoughts, and now it shall be fixed so that the laity may have the same. I 
don't want a controversy or a lot of negations, but shall tell each one to give 
her strongest affirmation. This forever saying a thing is false and failing to 
present the truth, is to me a foolish wsuite of time, when almost everybody 
feels the old forms, creeds and rituals to be only the mint, anise and cumin. 

So, my dear, I am very, very glad that you and Lucy are both to be on our 
platform, and we are to stand together again after these twenty years. But 
none of the past I Let us rejoice in the good of the present, and hope for 
more and more in the future. 

In response to her letter asking him to take part on Pioneer 
Day, Frederick Douglass wrote : 

I certainly shaU, if I live and am well. The cause of woman suffrage has 
under it a truth as eternal as the universe of thought, and must triumph if 
this planet endures. I have been calling up to my mind's eye that first con- 
vention in the small Wesleyan Methodist church at Seneca Falls, where Mrs. 
Stanton, Mrs. Mott and those other brave souls began a systematic and de- 
termined agitation for a larger measure of liberty for woman, and how great 
that little meeting now appears I It seems only yesterday since it took place, 
and yet forty years have passed away and what a revolution on this sub- 
ject have we seen in the sentiment of the American people and, in fact, of the 
civilized world ! Who could have thought that humble, modest, maiden con- 
vention, holding its little white apron up to its face and wiping away the tear 
of sympathy with woman in her hardships and the sigh of her soul for a 
larger measure of freedom, would have become the mother of an Interna- 
tional Council of Women, right here in the capital of this nation 7 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 



635 



Maria Mitchell, who was in feeble health (and died the next 
year) in expressing her regrets said : ''I am taking a rest. 
I have worked more than a half-century and, like stronger 
people, have become tired. I am meaning to build my small 
observatory and keep up a sort of apology for study — ^because 
I am too old to dare do nothing. I wish I felt able to take 
the journey and hear what others have to say and are ready to 
do. The world moves, and I have full faith it will continue 
to move and to move, for better and better, even when we have 
put aside the armor." 




During the winter, Mrs. Stanton had written Miss Anthony: 
*' We have jogged along pretty well for forty years or more. 
Perhaps mid the wreck of thrones and the undoing of so many 
friendships, sects, parties and families, you and I deserve some 
credit for sticking together through all adverse winds, with so 
few ripples on the surface. When I get back to America I in- 
tend to cling to you closer than ever. I am thoroughly 
rested now and full of fight and fire, ready to travel and speak 
from Maine to Florida. Tell our suffrage daughters to brace 
up and get ready for a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull 
all together when I come back." 

What then were her amazement, anger and grief to receive an- 
other letter from Mrs. Stanton a short time before the council, 
saying that a voyage across the Atlantic so filled her with dread 



636 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

that she had about decided not to undertake it I A fortieth 
anniversary of the Seneca Falls convention without the 
woman who called it I And this when she had counted on 
Mrs. Stanton to make the greatest speech of the whole meet- 
ing and cover the National Association with immortal glory I 
She says in her journal : ' ' I am ablaze and dare not write 
tonight. '* The next entry : "I wrote the most terrific letter 
to Mrs. Stanton ; it will start every white hair on her head.*' 
And then the following day the little book records : "Well, 
I made my own heart ache all night, awake or asleep, by my 
terrible arraignment, whether it touches her feelings or not.'' 
Ten days later she writes : " Received a cablegram from Mrs. 
Stanton, ' I am coming,' so she has my letter. My mind is so 
relieved, I feel as if I were treading on air." 

On Mrs. Stanton's arrival a few days before the convention, 
Miss Anthony learned, to her consternation, that she had pre- 
pared no speech for the occasion I She shut her up in a room 
at the Riggs House with pen and paper, kept a guard at the 
door, permitted no one to see her, and when the time arrived 
she was ready with her usual magnificent address. 

The council opened Sunday, March 25, in Albaugh's new 
opera house, with religious services conducted entirely by 
women, Revs. Phebe A. Hanaford, Ada C. Bowles, Antoinette 
Blackwell, Amanda Deyo, and a matchless sermon by Rev. 
Anna H. Shaw, " The Heavenly Vision." It would be wholly 
impossible to enter into a detailed account of this council, the 
greatest woman's convention ever held.^ Although twenty- 
five cents admission was charged, and fifty cents for reserved 
seats, the opera house was crowded during the eight days and 
evenings, and seats were at a premium. Miss Anthony pre* 
sided over eight of the sixteen sessions. While every speaker 
was allowed the widest latitude, there was not at any time the 
slightest friction. Letters were read from celebrated people in 

^ Odo session each was given to BdneatioQ, Philanthropy, Temperanoe, Indnstries, Profeo* 
sions, Orfiranisations, Legal Conditions, Social Purity, Political Conditions, etc., which were 
discassed by the women most prominent in the several departments. Fifty-three different 
national organizations of women were represented by eighty speakers and forty-nine dele- 
gates from England, France, Norway, Denmark, Finland, India, Canada and the United 
States. 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 637 

most of the countries of Europe and all parts of America. At 
the pioneer's meeting were eight men and thirty-six women 
who had been connected with the movement for woman suf* 
frage forty years/ 

Among the social courtesies extended to this distinguished 
body of women, were a reception at the White House by Presi- 
dent and Mrs. Cleveland; handsome entertainments by Sena- 
tor and Mrs. Leland Stanford, and Senator and Mrs. T. W. 
Palmer ; a reception at the Riggs House ; many smaller part- 
ies, dinners and luncheons ; and numerous social gatherings 
of women doctors, lawyers, etc. At all of the large functions 
Miss Anthony, Mrs. Stanton and Lucy Stone stood at the left 
hand of the hostess, while the other officials and the foreign 
delegates were also in the '* receiving line." At the White 
House Miss Anthony made the presentations to the President. 
As every newspaper in the country had complimentary notices 
of this council and the prominent ladies connected with it, it is 
scarcely possible to discriminate. The Baltimore Sun said : 

The coancil b^gan its deliberations in the finest hamor with everybody, 
particularly with that prime favorite, Sasan B. Anthony. This lady daily 
grows upon all present ; the woman saflragists love hrr for her good works, 
the andience for her brightne^ and wit, and the maltitnde of press represen- 
tatives for her frank, plain, open, bosiness-like way of doing everything con- 
nected with the council. Miss Anthony when in repose looks worn with the 
conflict she has waged, though when she goes into action her angular face 
loses its tired look and becomes all animation. Her word is the parliamentary 
law of the meeting. Whatever she says is done without murmur or dissent. 
The women of the council are saved any parliamentary discussions such as 
arise in the meetings of men ; they acknowledge that she is an autocrat. All 
are agreed that no better system than the absolute control of Susan B. An- 
thony can be devised. 

The New York World commented : 

If ever there was a gay-hearted, good-natured woman it is certainly Miss 
Anthony. From the beginning of this council it is she who has kept the fun 
barometer away up. The gray-headed friends of her youth are all " girls" to 
her, and she is a girl among them. Parliamentary rules have been by no 

1 The fine stanographio reports of this eoonoil were made by Mary F. Seymour and a corpe 
of women assistants. The official proceedings, with speeches In fall, may be obtained of the 
corresponding secretary of the National-American W. S. A 



638 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

means so severe as to keep even the regular proceedings free from her lively 
interpolation and comment. When Miss Anthony has felt the public palse 
or looked at her watch and seen that a speech has gone far enough, she says 
under her breath, ''Your time's about up, my dear." If the speaker con- 
tinues, the next thing is, '* I guess you'll have to stop now ; it's more than ten 
minutes." When this fails, she usually begins to hang gently on the orator's 
skirt, and if pluckings and pullings fail, she then subsides with a quizzical 
smile, or stands erect and uncompromising by the speaker's side. There is 
none of the rude beating of the gavel, nor any paraphrase of ''The gentleman's 
time is up," which marks the stiff proceedings of men " in congress assem- 
bled." To an unprejudiced eye this free-and-easy method of procedure might 
lack symmetry and dignity, but there is not the slightest doubt that Miss An- 
thony has been as wise as a serpent while being as gentle as a dove. 

When Frances E. Willard rose to address the council, she 
laid her hand tenderly on Miss Anthony's shoulder and said : 
" I remember when I was dreadfully afraid of Susan, and Lucy 
too; but now I love and honor them, and I can not put into 
words my sense of what it means to me to have the blessing of 
these women who have made it possible for more timid ones 
like myself to come forward and take our part in the world's 
work. If they had not blazed the trees and pioneered the way, 
we should not have dared to come. If there is one sin^e 
drop of chivalric blood in woman's veins, it ought to bring a 
tinge of pride to the face that Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Julia Ward Howe and these other 
grand women, our leaders and our foremothers, are here for 
us to greet; that they, who heard so much that was not 
agreeable, may hear an occasional pleasant word while they are 
alive." Very few of the speakers failed to express their deep 
feeling of personal obligation and the indebtedness of all 
women to the early labors of Miss Anthony and the other 
pioneers. 

In her letter to the Union Signal, Miss Willard gave this bit 
of description : *' The central figure of the council was Susan 
B. Anthony, in her black dress and pretty red silk shawl, with 
her gray-brown hair smoothly combed over a regal head, 
worthy of any statesman. Her mingled good-nature and firm- 
ness, her unselfish purpose and keen perception of the right 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — ^INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 639 

thing to do, endeared her alike to those whom she admonished 
and those whom she praised. In her sixty-ninth year, dear 
'Susan B.' seems not over fifty-five. She has a wonderful 
constitution, and the prodigies of work she has accomplished 
have forever put to rout the ignorant notion that women lack 
physical endurance." 

In the year of preliminary work for this great council, the 
thought came many times to May Wright Sewall that it ought 
to result in something more than one brief convention, and 
she conceived the idea of a permanent International and also 
a permanent National Council of Women. During the week 
in Washington she presented her plan to a large number of the 
leaders who regarded it with approval. Miss Anthony, 
chairman of the meeting, by request, appointed a committee of 
fifteen who reported in favor of permanent councils, and Miss 
Willard presented an outline of constitutions. After a num- 
ber of meetings of the delegates the councils were officially 
formed, March 31, 1888, " to include the organized working 
forces of the world's womanhood," in the belief that ** such a 
federation will increase the world's sum total of womanly 
courage, efficiency and esprit de corps, widen the horizon, cor- 
rect the tendency of an exaggerated impression of one's own 
work as compared with that of others, and put the wisdom and 
experience of each at the service of all." A simple form of 

(constitution was adopted, and it was decided that the National 
Council should meet once in three years and the International 
once in five.* 

Immediately upon the close of the council, the National 
Suffrage Association held its twentieth annual convention and, 
as many of the delegates remained, the meetings were nearly 
as crowded as those of the council had been. A local paper 
remarked '' that it seemed as if the Washington people could 
never hear enough about woman suffrage." A fine address 
by Caroline E. Merrick was an especial feature, as it presented 

'National Comioil: PretidenU Frances B. Willard; vtce-pTeaidenUU-targe^ Susan B. 
Anthony; correaponding secretary. May Wright Sewall; recording secretary, Mary F. 
Eastman ; ireotsurer, M. Lonise Thomas. 



640 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY^ 

the question from the standpoint of a southern woman. The 
Senate committee granted a hearing, the speakers being pre- 
sented by Miss Anthony. Mrs. Stanton made the principal 
address, a grand plea for human equality, and the grave and 
dignified committee gave her a round of applause. She was 
followed by Frances E. Willard and Julia Ward Howe; Laura 
Ormiston Chant and Alice Scatcherd, England; Isabella Boge- 
lot, France ; Sophia Magelsson Groth, Norway; AUi Trygg, 
Finland ; Bessie Starr Keefer, Canada. 

Miss Anthony received many pleasant letters after the coun- 
cil ; among them one from her friend Mrs. Samuel E. Sewall, 
of Boston, in which she said : '' We want to congratulate you 
upon the very satisfactory and gratifying result of the council. 
I hear from the delegates on all sides most enthusiastic 
accounts of the whole affair, and of your wonderful powers and 
energy. Mr. Blackwell is loud in your praise. All this might 
be expected from the delegates, but what pleases me still more 
is the respectful tone of nearly all the newspapers. Even the 
sneering Nation has admitted an article in praise of the coun- 
cil." In all Miss Anthony's own letters there was not the 
slightest reference to any feeling of fatigue or desire for rest, 
but she seemed only to be stimulated to greater energy. It was 
impossible for her to respond to half the invitations which 
came from all parts of the country, but usually she selected 
the places where she felt herself most needed, without any 
regard to her own pleasure or comfort. She did, however, 
accept a cordial invitation to attend the annual Boston Suffrage 
Festival, and was royally entertained for several days. 

On the afternoon of June 9, Central Music Hall, Chicago, 
was packed with an audience of representative men and 
women. Frances E. Willard presided,* prayer was offered by 
Rev. Florence Kollock, and Mrs. Ormiston Chant gave a won- 
derfully electric address on the '' Moral Relations of Men and 
Women to Each Other." She was followed by Dr. Kate Bush- 
nell in a thrilling talk on ' ' Legislation as it Deals with Social 

* This meeting was arranged by Dr. Frances Dickinson, who had persuaded Miss Anthony 
to malce the journey to Chicago in order to preside over it. On the way to the hall she was 
detained at a drawbridge and Miss Willard kindly took her plaoe. 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 641 

Purity." .Miss Anthony closed the program with a ringing 
speech showing the need of the ballot in the hands of women 
to remedy such evils as had been depicted by the other speak- 
ers. No abstract can give an idea of her magnetic force when 
profoundly stirred by such recitals as had been made at this 
meeting. 

A few days afterwards a largely-attended reception was 
given by the Woman's Club of Chicago to Miss Anthony, Isa- 
bella Beecher Hooker and Baroness Gripenberg, of Finland. 

In the summer of 1888| the National Association as usual 
/ sent delegates to each of the presidential conventions, asking 
I for a suffrage plank, and as usual they were ignored by Re- 
publicans and Democrats. Miss Anthony and Mrs. Hooker 
had headquarters in the parlors of Mrs. Celia Whipple Wal- 
lace, at the Sherman House, Chicago, during the Republican 
convention in June. They issued an open letter citing the 
record of the party in regard to women, and asking for recog- 
nition, but received no consideration. In the Woman's Trib- 
une, Miss Anthony made this forcible statement : 

Had the best representative saSrage women of every State in the Union 
been in Chicago, established in national headquarters, working with the men 
of their State delegations, as well as with the resolation committee, I have 
not a doabt that the Repablican platform woald have contained a splendid 
plank, pledging the party to this broad and trae interpretation of the Constita- 
tion. Every other reform had its scores and hundreds of representatives 
here, pleading for the incorporation of its principles in the platform and 
working for the nomination of the men who would best voice their plans. 
Women never will be heard and heeded until they make themselves a power, 
irresistible in numbers and strength, moral, intellectual and financial, in all 
the formative gatherings of the parties they would influence. Therefore, I 
now beg of our women not to lose another opportunity to be present at every 
political convention during this summer, to urge the adoption of woman suf- 
frage resolutions and the nomination of men pledged to support them. 
" Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty " for women as well as for men. 

From Chicago Miss Anthony went directly to Indianapolis 
and, with Mrs. Sewall, called at the Harrison residence. She 
says : ^' We met a most cordial reception and while the gen- 
eral did not declare himself in favor of woman's enfranchise- 

Ant. — 41 



642 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 



99 



ment, he expressed great respect for those who are seeking it. 
The two ladies then addressed an open letter to General Harri- 
son, urging that in accepting the nomination he would inter- 
pret as including women that plank in the Republican platform 
which declared: '* We recognize the supreme and sovereign 
right of every lawful citizen to cast one free ballot in all pub- 
lic elections and to have that ballot duly counted ; " ' but this 
reasonable request was politely ignored. 

Sarah Knox Goodrich and Ellen Clark Sargent, of Califor- 
nia, sent the following telegram to their fellow-citizen, Morris 
M. Estee, chairman of the National Republican Convention : 
"Please ascertain, for many interested women, if the clause 
in the platform concerning the sovereign right of every law- 
ful citizen to a free ballot, includes the women of the 
United States." To this Mr. Estee telegraphed reply, " I do 
not think the platform is so construed here." This ended the 
battle of 1888, as far as women were concerned, and those who 
might have been the ablest advocates which any political party 
could put upon its platform were relegated to silence dur- 
ing the campaign. 

On August 7, Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton spoke at 
Byron Center, and were entertained by Mrs. Newton Green. 
Miss Anthony addressed a large audience at Jamestown on the 
10th and was the guest of Mrs. Reuben E. Fenton. During 
part of the summer, for a little recreation, she took hold of the 
great heterogeneous mass of bills and receipts of the National 
W. S. A. for the past four years and compiled them into a neat, 
accurate financial report of seventeen pages, in which every 
dollar received and disbursed during that time was acknowl- 
edged and accounted for, without any '^ sundries" or other 
makeshifts for the sake of accuracy. As the total amount 
reached nearly $18,000, a large part of which had been re- 
ceived in sums of one or two dollars, the labor involved may 
be appreciated. Miss Anthony did this, as she did many other 
disagreeable things, not because they were officially her duty, 
but because they ought to be done and there was no one else 

* See Appendix for full text of letter. 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 643 

ready to undertake them. She always was restive under red 
tape regulations. For many years she was forced to take the 
lead in all departments of the suffrage work and when they 
finally became systematized, with a head at each, she some- 
times grew impatient at delay and usurped the functions of 
others without intending any breach of official etiquette. And 
so when this financial statement was completed, she published 
it without waiting for money or authority, and wrote to the 
national treasurer, Mrs. Spofford, who had recently returned 
from Europe : 

Andrew Jackson-like, I decided to assame the responsibility of sending to 
each member of the association a copy of the Coancil Report with one of the 
National's financial statement. I am writing a personal letter to all, explain- 
ing oar doable keeping of oar pledge and asking them to retarn contributions, 
if they are able, for this permanent and nice report. I do not know what 
results in cash will come of it to the National, bat I do know that the poor- 
est and hardest-working women who pinched oat their dollars to send, think 
that we promised them therefor this book-report of the coancil. So all in all 
I decided, against Miss Foster, Mrs. Stanton and your own dear self, to give 
each the report, leaving her to do as she feels most comfortable aboat send- 
ing to the treasurer payment in retarn. 

A few days later she writes : ''I mailed 800 letters yester- 
day, and we have sent over 1,500 Reports, with 800 more 
promised." Could any pen give an adequate idea of the 
amount of work accomplished by that tireless brain and those 
never-resting hands ? 

Miss Anthony spoke on Woman's Day, October 12, at the 
Centennial Celebration in Columbus, 0. A newspaper corre- 
spondent drew this contrast between her address and those of 
the women of the W. C. T. U.: 

Each prayer started heavenward was weighted with politics— political pro- 
hibition. When the eloquent speakers of the afternoon dealt a stinging blow 
under the belt to one of the leading political parties, the applause was tre- 
mendous, cheers and ** amens " mingling in a sacrilegious chorus of approval. 
On the other hand, when Miss Anthony made her calm, strong and really 
logical argument in favor of woman suffrage, giving each party, so far as 
related to action of States, just praise or censure, she was received coldly. It 
did not seem to count for anything that she had been a pioneer in the cause 



644 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of temperance. That white record was stained becaase she cast their idol 
down— she showed that prohibition had failed in Kansas in the large cities, 
whether ander a Democratic or a Republican governor, or nnder St. John, 
the Prohibition governor; in every administration it was a failure, because 
even there women had only a restricted vote, and public sentiment without 
the ballot counted for naught. There were no little graves in her speech, no 
weeping willows by winding streams where lay broken hearts in tombs un- 
marked. It was a simple statement of the cause a brave woman had at heart. 

She attended the State conventions at Ames, la., and at Em- 
poria, Kan., where she was the guest of Senator and Mrs. 
Kellogg. From there she went to Leavenworth, and later to 
Omaha for the Nebraska convention. She then engaged for 
the fall and winter with the Slayton Lecture Bureau at $60 a 
night, and began again the tiresome round throughout the 
Western States. 

In this autumn of 1888, Miss Anthony received a severe 
shock in the announcement of the approaching marriage of 
Rachel Foster to C5yrus Miller Avery, of Chicago. He had at- 
tended the International Council the preceding spring with his 
mother, Rosa Miller Avery, known prominently in suffrage 
and other public work in Illinois. Here he had seen Miss 
Foster in her youth and beauty, carrying a large part of the 
responsibility connected with that important gathering, and 
had fallen in love with her at first sight. During her long 
life Miss Anthony had seen one young girl after another take 
up the work of woman's regeneration, fit herself for it, grow 
into a power, then marry, give it all up and drop out of sight. 
'* I would not object to marriage," she wrote, '* if it were not 
that women throw away every plan and purpose of their own 
life, to conform to the plans and purposes of the man's life. I 
wonder if it is woman's real, true nature always to abnegate 
self." Miss Foster had developed unusual ability and for a 
number of years had been Miss Anthony's mainstay in the 
suffrage work, and had grown very close into her heart ; it is 
not surprising, therefore, that she learned of the coming mar- 
riage with dismay. She accepted the situation as gracefully 
as possible, however, and, although too far away to attend the 



UNION OF ASSOCIATIONS — INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL. 645 

wedding, sent most cordial wishes for the happiness of the 
newly-married.* 

The year 1888 brought to Miss Anthony many honors, but 
it brought also the usual quota of the bereavements which 
come with every passing year when one nears threescore and 
ten. Her cherished friend, Dr. Clemence Lozier, had passed 
away; Edward M. Davis, whose faithful friendship never had 
failed, was no more ; A. Bronson Alcott and his daughter 
Louisa had gone to test the truth of the new philosophy ; and 
other dear ones had dropped out of the narrowing circle. But as 
a partial compensation, there had come into her life some new 
friends who were destined, if not to fill the place of those who 
were gone, to make another for themselves in her affections 
and her labors quite as helpful and important. Chief among 
these was Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, who, from the time of the 
International Council, gave her deepest love and truest allegi- 
ance. Until then she had not been near enough Miss An- 
thony to realize the nobility and grandeur of her character, 
but thenceforth she accorded to her all the devotion and rever- 
ence of her own strong and beautiful nature. In a letter writ- 
ten after she had returned to her home in Boston, she said : 
" From my heart I pray that I may always be worthy your 
love and confidence. To know you is a blessing ; to be trusted 
by you is worth far more than my efforts for our work have 
cost me." 

'Mrs. Foster Arery has proved an exception to the mle and, during the ten yean since 
her marriage, has performed as mach work, to say the least, as any of tbo younger gener* 
ation of women, besides contributing thousands of dollars. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 




CONVENTIONS FROM WASHINGTON TO SOUTH DAKOTA. 

1889. 

HE eleventh of January, 1889, found Miss Anthony 
in her usual pleasant suite of rooms at the Riggs 
House. She plunged at once into preparations for 
the approaching convention, interviewing con- 
gressmen, calling at the newspaper offices and 
conferring with local committees. The Twenty-first Na- 
tional Convention opened January 21, in the Congregational 
church, with the speakers as bright and full of hope as they 
had been through all the score of years. The opening address 
was given by Hon. A. G. Riddle and, during the sessions, ex- 
cellent speeches were made by Hon. William D. Eelley, Sena- 
ator Blair, y\ y ^ 

and State ^ / C:::^ ^^ 

Senator Blue, of Kan- 
sas. Rev. Anna H. 
Shaw made her first 
appearance on the National platform and delivered her splen- 
did oration, '' The Fate of Republics." Laura M. Johns gave 
a practical and pleasing talk on ''Municipal Suffrage in Kan- 
sas ; " and there was the usual array of talent. Miss Anthony 
presided, putting every speaker to the front and making a sub- 
stantial background of her own felicitous little speeches, each 
containing an argument in a nutshell. 

While in Washington she was entertained at dinner by the 
'' Six O'clock Club," and seated at the right hand of its presi- 

(647) 



/^<^/lx^^ 



648 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

dent, Dr. Wm. A. Hammond. The subject for the evening 
was ''Robert Elsmere " and, in giving her opinion, she said 
she had found nothing new in the book ; all those theological 
questions had been discussed and settled by the Quakers long 
ago. What distressed her most was the marriage of Robert 
and Catherine, who, any outsider could have seen, were utterly 
unfitted for one another, and she wondered if there could be 
any way by which young people might be able to know each 
other better before marrying. 

On February 11, Miss Anthony spoke in Cincinnati to an 
audience of 2,000, under the management of A. W. Whelpley, 
city librarian.* The Commercial Gazette commented : '* Miss 
Susan B. Anthony had every reason for congratulation on the 
audience, both as to quality and quantity, which greeted her Sun- 
day afternoon at the Grand Opera House. Her discourse proved 
to be one of the most entertaining of the Unity Club lectures this 
season, and if she did not succeed in gaining many proselytes to 
her well-known views regarding woman's emancipation, she cer- 
tainly reaped the reward of presenting the arguments in an inter- 
esting and logical manner. Every neatly turned point was re- 
ceived with applause and that good-natured laughter that car- 
ries with it not a little of the element of conviction. As of old, 
this pioneer of the woman's cause is abundantly able to return 
sarcasm for sarcasm, as well as to present an array of facts in 
a manner which would do credit to the most astute of our poli- 
ticians." 

Miss Anthony was much gratified at the cordial reception 
given her in Cincinnati and the evident success of her speech, 
and Tuesday morning, with a happy heart, took the train for 
her western lecture tour. She settled herself comfortably, 
glanced over her paper and was about to lay it aside when her 
eye caught the word ''Leavenworth." A hasty glance told 
her of the drowning the day before of Susie B. Anthony, while 
out skating with a party of schoolmates I Susie B., her name- 

** > In response to a letter of introdaction from Mr. Spofford, of the Biggs, Miss Anthony was 
the guest of the Bnmet House with a fine suite of apartments. In a letter home she writes : 
"The chambermaid said, ' Why, you have had more calls than Mrs. Hayes had when she oo« 
copied these rooms.* " 



CONVENTIONS FROM WASHINGTON TO SOUTH DAKOTA. 649 

sake, her beloved niece, as dear as a daughter, and with many 
of her own strong characteristics — she was almost stunned. 
Telegraphing at once to cancel her engagements, she hastened 
to Leavenworth. Just six months before, Colonel and Mrs. 
Anthony had lost a little daughter, five years old, and now the 
sudden taking away of this beautiful girl in her seventeenth 
year was a blow of crushing force. She found a stricken 
household to whom she could offer but small consolation out of 
her own sorrowing heart. After the last services she attempted 
to fill her engagements in Arkansas, speaking in Helena, 
Fort Smith and Little Rock ; at the last place being introduced 
to the audience by Governor James B. Eagle. She was so 
filled with sympathy for her brother and his wife that she 
gave up her other lectures and returned to Leavenworth, where 
she remained for two months, going away only for two or three 
meetings. 

She lectured in Memorial Hall, St. Louis, March 5,^ and a bril- 
liant reception was given her at the Lindell Hotel. On March 9, 
she spoke at Jefferson City, where the Daily Tribune contained 
a full synopsis of her address, beginning as follows : " The 
hall of the House of Representatives was crowded last night 
as never before, with ladies and gentlemen — State officials, 
members of the general assembly, clerks of the departments 
and of the legislature, and all the students from Lincoln Insti- 
tute. . . . Miss Anthony was received with applause, and 
plunged at once into the subject which for many years has 
made her name a household word in every English-speaking 
country on the globe.'' 

Leavenworth was in the midst of an exciting municipal cam- 
paign and Colonel Anthony had been nominated for mayor by 
the Republicans. Miss Anthony made a number of speeches, 
at Chickering Hall, the Conservatory of Music, the different 
churches, meetings of colored people, etc. The night of the 
last great rally she writes in her diary : ''It does seem as if 
the cause of law and order and temperance ought to win, but 

* Mrs. Biinor managed this meeting and also tried to arrange for Hiss Anthony to addresa 
a large Catholic gathering bnt was nnsnocessfol. She writes : *' The vioar-general was on the 
side of yonr leotnie and spoke in complimentary terms of yon and your work." 



650 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

the saloon element resorts to such tricks that honest people 
can not match them." So it seemed in this case, and Colonel 
Anthony was defeated. The Republicans, both men and women, 
were divided amongst themselves with the usual results. 

Her grief over the untimely death of Susie B. was still 
fresh, and in a letter to a friend who had just suffered a great 
bereavement, she said : '' It is a part of the inevitable and the 
living can not do otherwise than submit, however rebellious 
they may feel ; but we will clutch after the loved ones in spite 
of all faith and all philosophy. By and by, when one gets far 
enough away from the hurt of breaking the branch from its 
tree, there does, there must, come a sweet presence of the spirit 
of the loved and gone that soothes the ache of the earlier 
days. That every one has to suffer from the loss of loving and 
loved ones, does not make our anguish any the less." 

To the sorrowing father she wrote after she returned home : 
^'Can you not feel when you look at those lonely mounds, that 
the spirits, the part of them that made life, are not there but 
in your own home,*in your own heart, ever present ? It surely 
is more blessed to have loved and lost than never to have loved. 
. . . Which of us shall follow them first we can not tell, but 
if it should be I, lay my body away without the heartbreak, 
the agony that must come when the young go. Try to believe 
that all is well, that however misunderstood or misunderstand- 
ing, all there is clear to the enlarged vision. Whenever I have 
suffered from the memory of hasty or unkind words to those 
who have gone, my one comfort always has been in the feeling 
that their spirits still live and are so much finer that they un- 
derstand and forgive." 

/ Miss Anthony went from Leavenworth to Indianapolis for a 
few days' conference with Mrs. Sewall on matters connected 
with the National Suffrage Association and National Council 
/of Women. She writes in her diary: "Mrs. Sewall intro- 
duced me to the girls of her Classical School as one who had 
dared live up to her highest dream. I did not say a word 
for fear it might not be the right one." From here she jour- 
neyed to Philadelphia, stopping, she says, " with dear Adeline 



CONVENTIONS FROM WASHINGTON TO SOUTH DAKOTA. 651 

Thomson, whose door is always open to those who are work- 
ing for women ; ' " thence to New York for the State convention 
April 26. 

The preceding evening a reception was tendered Miss An* 
thony at the Park Hotel, where she notes, '*! wore my gar- 
net velvet and point lace." This did not suit the correspond- 
ent of the Chicago Herald, who said : '^ Her futile efforts to 
adjust her train with the toe of her number seven boot, instead 
of the approved backward sweep of heel, demonstrated that she 
certainly was not * to the manner born.' *' He then continued 
to sneer at the suffrage women for ** adopting the social ele- 
gancies of life inaugurated by Mrs. Ashton Dilke, at the coun- 
cil last winter;'' evidently unaware that Miss Anthony had 
been wearing her velvet gown since 1883. But the same day 
the New York Sun had a long and serious editorial to the effect 
that '* equal suffrage never would be successful until it was 
made fashionable." This illustrates how hard it is to please 
everybody, and also how prone men are to make a woman's 
work inseparable from her garments, always giving more 
prominence to what she wears than to what she says and does, 
and then censuring her because she '' gives so much time and 
thought to her clothes." Even from far-off Memphis the 
Avalanche tumbled down on Miss Anthony for wearing point 
lace ''when the women who wore their lives out making it 
were no better than slaves." Doubtless the editor abjured 
linen shirt-bosoms because the poor Irishwomen who bleach 
the flax are paid starvation wages. The Brooklyn Times also 
jumped into the breach and, in a column editorial, attempted 
to prove that * ' the ballot for woman is as superfluous as a 
corset for a man." Thus does the male mind illustrate its 
superiority I 

On May 17, Miss Anthony addressed the Woman's Political 
Equality Club of Rochester, in the Unitarian church, which 
was crowded to its capacity. She spoke in Warren, 0., May 
21, the guest of Hon. Ezra B. Taylor and his daughter, Mrs. 

*In a letter Miss Thomson wrote: "I want yon to know that my heart Is wanner for 
yon than for any other mortal, my thoughts follow yon wheresoeyer yon go, and I am 
always glad when yonr footsteps tarn toward me." 



/ 



652 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Upton. The next day the two ladies went to the Ohio State 
Convention at Akron and were entertained at the palatial home 
of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Miller. A dinner was given to Miss 
Anthony, Mrs. Zerelda 6. Wallace and Rev. Anna Shaw by 
Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Schumacher. 

A report went the rounds of the newspapers at this time 

saying that ** Miss Anthony had renounced woman suffrage.'' 

Jt was started doubtless by some one who supposed her to be 

{ so narrow as to abandon a great principle because her brother 

' had been defeated in a city where women had the suffrage. 

The Portland Oregonian having used this alleged renunciation 

as the basis for a leading editorial, the ladies of Tacoma, 

Wash., where women had been arbitrarily disfranchised by 

the supreme court, sent a telegram to Miss Anthony asking if 

^the rumor were true. She telegraphed in reply: "Report 

/false ; am stronger than ever and bid Washington restore 

^ woman suffrage.'' 

She went to Philadelphia to attend the wedding, June 21, of 
one of her family of nieces, who filled the place in her great 
heart which would have been given to her daughters, had she 
chosen marriage instead of the world's work for all woman- 
kind. When her sister Hannah had died years before, Miss 
Anthony had brought the little orphan, Helen Liouise Mosher, 
to her own home, where she had remained until grown. 
For some time she had been a successful supervisor of kinder- 
garten work in Philadelphia and today she was the happy 
bride of Alvan James, a prominent business man of that city.' 
Miss Anthony was pleased with the marriage and the young 
couple started on their wedding tour with her blessing. 

In July a charming letter was received from Madame Maria 
Deraismes, president of the French Woman's Congress, convey- 
ing ' * the greetings of the women of France to the leader of 
women in America." On the Fourth Miss Anthony addressed 
a Grangers' picnic, at Lyons, held under the great trees in 
the dooryard of Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Bradley, who were 

^ A little inoident showed the family spirit. When her loyer was ahont to present her with 
a handsome diamond engagement ring, she requested that instead the money should he 
giyen to the National Suffrage Association, which was done. 



CONVENTIONS FROM WASHINGTON TO SOUTH DAKOTA. 653 

her hosts. One hot week this month was spent with Dr. Sarah 
A. Dolley, a prominent physician of Rochester , in her sum- 
mer home at Long Pond. Early in August, with her niece 
Maud, she took a very delightful trip through the lake and 
mountain regions of New York. After a visit at Saratoga 
they went up Mount McGregor, and Miss Anthony writes in her 
diary: **Here we saw the room where General Grant died, 
the invalid chair, the clothes he wore, medicine hottles, etc. — 
very repulsive. If the grand mementoes of his life's work 
were on exhibition it would be inspiring, but these ghastly re- 
minders of his disease and death are too horrible." 

They spent a few days at the Fort William Henry Hotel on 
beautiful Lake George, and she says : ** Several of the colored 
waiters formerly at the Riggs House recognized me the moment 
I entered the dining-room, and one of them brought me a 
lovely bouquet." They sailed through Lake Champlain to 
Montreal, stopping at the Windsor, visiting the grand cathe- 
drals and enjoying the glorious view from the summit of the 
Royal mountain. Then they journeyed to the Berkshire hills 
and enjoyed many visits with the numerous relatives scattered 
throughout that region. At Brooklyn they were the guests of 
the cousins Lucien and Ellen Hoxie Squier. 

Early in July Miss Anthony had accepted an invitation to 
address the Seidl Club, who were to give a luncheon at 
Brighton Beach, the fashionable resort on Coney Island. The 
invitation had been extended through Mrs. Laura C. Hollo- 
way, one of the editorial staff of the Brooklyn Eagle and a 
valued friend of many years' standing, who wrote : '* Not 
nearly all our members are suffragists, but all of them honor 
you as a great and noble representative of the sex. You can 
do more good by meeting this body of musical and literary 
women than by addressing a dozen out-and-out suffrage meet- 
ings. You will find many old friends to greet you, and a lov- 
ing and proud welcome from yours devotedly." She addressed 
the club August 30, after an elegant luncheon served to 300 
members and guests. She selected for her subject, '' Woman's 
Need of Pecuniary Independence," and her remarks were re- 



654 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

ceived with much enthusiasm. *' Broadbrim's " New York 
letter thus describes the occasion : 

The Seidl Clab had an elegant time down at Coney Island this week, and 
dear old Sasan B. Anthony addressed the members, many of whom are among 
the representative women of the land. It was the custom in years gone by 
for a lot of paper-headed ninnies, who write cheap jokes about mothers-in- 
law, to fire their paper bullets at Susan B. She has lived to see about one-" 
half of them go down to drunkard's graves, and the other half are either 
dead or forgotten, while she today stands as one of the brightest, cheeriest 
women, young or old, to be found in our own or any other land. What a tre- 
mendous battle she has fought, what a blameless life she has led, rejoicing 
in the strength which enabled her to mingle with the weak and erring of her 
sex when necessary without even the smell of smoke on her garments. She 
made an address, and what an address it was, with more good, sound, hard 
sense in it than you would find in fifty congressional speeches, and how the 
women applauded her till they made the roof ring I Susan B. Anthony waa 
by all odds the lioness of the day. 

A few days were given to Mrs. Stanton, who was spending 
the summer with her son Gerrit and his wife at Hempstead, 
L. I., and they prepared the call for the next national conven- 
tion. She reached home in time to speak on September 9 at 
Wyoming, where she was a guest at the delightful summer 
home of Mrs. Susan Look Avery for several days, as long as 
she could be persuaded to stay. She then hastened back to 
New York to visit Mrs. M. Louise Thomas, president of Soro- 
sis, for a day or two, and arrange National Council affairs, and 
down to Philadelphia to plan suffrage work with Rachel Foster 
Avery.* Just as she was leaving she received a letter from 
Margaret V. Hamilton, of Ft. Wayne, announcing that her 
mother, Emerine J. Hamilton, had bequeathed to Miss An- 
thony for her personal use $500 in bank stock, a testimonial of 
her twenty years of unwavering friendship. While grieved at 
the loss of one whose love and hospitality she had so long en- 
joyed, she rejoiced in the thought that from the daughters she 
still would receive both in the same unstinted degree. 

September 27 saw her en route for the West once more and 

.^In a letter to Mrs. Avery relatlTe to some pressing work, Miss Anthony wrote : " I would 
not for anything have you drudge on this during your husband's vacation. No, no, there is none 
too much of life and happiness for any of us, so plan to go and be and do whatever seemeth best 
unto the twain made so beautifully one." 



CONVENTIONS FROM WASHINGTON TO SOUTH DAKOTA. 655 

/by October 1 she was at Wichita, ready for the Kansas State 
Convention. The Woman's Tribune had said : ** It is the 
greatest boon to the president of a State convention to have the 
presence and counsel of Miss Anthony." At this meeting the 
committee reported a set of resolutions beginning, "We be- 
lieve in God," etc., when she at once protested on the ground 
that '^ the woman suffrage platform must be kept free from all 
theological bias, so that unbelievers as well as evangelical 
Christians can stand upon it." 

XThe 10th of October Miss Anthony, fresh, bright and cheery, 

Reported for duty at the Indiana State Convention held at 

Rushville. On October 14, strong and vigorous as ever, she 

iinnounced herself at Milwaukee, ready for the Wisconsin 

I State Convention, where she spoke at each of the three days' 

^sessions. In one of her addresses here she said that she did 

not ask suffrage for women in order that they might vote 

against the liquor traffic — she did not know how they would 

vote on this question — she simply demanded that they should 

have the same right as men to express their opinions at the 

ballot-box. Immediately the report was sent broadcast that 

Miss Anthony had said " as many women would vote for beer 

as against it." 

Then down to Chicago she journeyed to talk over the *' Isa- 
bella Memorial " with her cousin. Dr. Frances Dickinson, who 
was a prime factor of this movement. While there she had a 
charming visit with Harriet Hosmer, the great sculptor, who 
afterwards wrote her : 

It was a real treat to see yoa once more. . • . How well do I remember 
oar first meeting in the office of The Revolution. I do not know of anything 
that woald give me so mach pleasure as being present at the Washington con- 
vention, and if I am in America next January you may rest assured I shall be 
there. . . . Yes, yon are quite right ; there ought to be a National Art 
Association of women who are real artists, and it would be a good thing all 
round. There is nothing which has impressed me so much and so favorably 
since my return here as the number of helpful clubs and associations which 
are of modem growth, and one of the best fruits of the work that has been 
done among women. Not only are they full of pleasantness but where unity 
is there is strength. 



656 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Now that we have come together, don't let as permit a vacaam of twenty 
years to intervene again ; we have a great deal to say to each other. 




> 







Miss Anthony went from Milwaukee to the Minnesota State 
Convention at Minneapolis, and addressed the students of the 
university. She also visited the Bethany Home for the Friend- 
less and writes in her journal : * ' I saw there over forty 
fatherless babes, and twenty or thirty girls who must hence- 
forth wear the scarlet letter over their hearts, while the men 
who caused their ruin go forth to seek new recruits for the 
Bethany homes I " At Duluth she was the guest of her faith- 
ful friends. Judge J. B. and Sarah Burger Stearns, speaking 
here in the Masonic Temple. The judge introduced Miss An- 
thony in these words.: " The first quality we look for in men 
is courage ; the next, ability ; the third, benevolence. It is 
my pleasure to present to you tonight a woman who has ex- 
hibited, in a marked degree, all three." 
/ On November 11, 1889, at the beginning of the northern 
winter, she went from here to South Dakota. A woman suf- 
frage amendment had been submitted to be voted on in 1890, 
and Miss Anthony had been receiving urgent letters from the 
members of the State Suffrage Association to assist them in a 
preliminary canvass and advise as to methods of organization, 
etc. ** Every true woman will welcome you to South Dakota," 
wrote Philena Johnson, one of the district presidents. *'My 
wife looks upon you as a dependent child upon an indulgent 



CONVENTIONS FROM WASHINGTON TO SOUTH DAKOTA. 657 

parent; your words will inspire her/' wrote the husband of 
Emma Smith DeVoe, the State lecturer. *' We are very grate- 
ful that you will come to us," wrote Alonzo Wardall, the vice- 
president. 

Miss Anthony began the canvass at Redfield, November 12, 
introduced by Judge Isaac Howe. The Supreme Court decis- 
ion allowing ' ' original packages ' ' of liquor to come into the 
State had just been announced, and the old minister who 
opened this meeting devoted all of his prayer to explaining to 
the Almighty the evils which would follow in the wake of 
these ''original packages I" She held meetings throughout 
the State, had fine audiences and found strong friends at each 
place. There was much public interest and the comments of 
the press were favorable in the highest degree.^ 

She addressed the Farmers' Alliance at their State conven- 
tion in Aberdeen ; they were very cordial and officially en- 
dorsed the suffrage amendment. In a letter at this time she 
said : "I have learned just what I feared — the Prohibition- 
ists in their late campaign studiously held woman suffrage in the 
background. The W. C. T. U. woman who introduced me 
last night publicly proclaimed she had not yet reached woman 
suffrage. Isn't it discouraging? When I get to Washington, 
I shall see all of the South Dakota congressmen and senators 
and learn what they intend to do. The Republican party here 
stood for prohibition, and if it will stand for woman suffrage 
we can carry it, and not otherwise." Her fine optimism did 
not desert her, however, and to the Woman's Tribune she 
wrote: 

I want to help oar friends throughoat this State to hold the canvass for 

woman suffrage entirely outside all political, religious or reform questions — 

' that is, keep it absolutely by itself. I advise every man and woman who 

I wishes this amendment carried at the ballot-box next November to wear only 

' the badge of yellow ribbon — ^that and none other. This morning I cut and 

tied a whole bolt of ribbon, and every woman went out of the court-house 

adorned with a little sunflower-colored knot. 

* She spoke at Huron, Mitchell, Yankton, Sionz Falls, Madison, Brookings, DeSmet, Water 
town, Parker, Pierre. St. Lawrence and Aberdeen, and presented a foli set of the History of 
Woman Suffrage to libraries in each of these towns. 
Ant.— 42 



658 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

The one work for the winter before oar good friends in South Dakota, 
should be that of visiting every farmhouse of every school district of every 
county in the State ; talking and reading over the question at every fireside 
these long evenings ; enrolling the names of all who believe in woman suf- 
frage ; leaving papers and tracts to be read and circulated, and organizing 
equal suffrage committees in every district and village. With this done, the 
entire State will be in splendid trim for the opening of the regular campaign 
in the spring of 1890. 

She started eastward the very day her canvass ended, reach- 
ing Chicago on Thanksgiving evening, and went directly to 
Detroit where she spoke November 29, and was the guest of 
her old friends of anti-slavery days, Giles and Catharine F. 
Stebbins. Her nephew, Daniel R. Jr., came over from Michi- 
gan University to hear her and accompanied her back to Ann 
Arbor, where she was entertained by Mrs. Olivia B. Hall. He 
thus gives his impressions to his parents : 

Aunt Susan spoke here for the benefit of the Ladies, Library Association, 
and had an excellent audience; and Sunday night she spoke at the Unitarian 
church. It was jammed full and people were in line for half a block around, 
trying to get inside. At the beginning of her lecture Aunt Susan does not 
do so well ; but when she is in the midst of her argument and all her energies 
brought into play, I think she is a very powerful speaker. 

Dr. Sunderland, the Unitarian minister, invited her to dinner and, as I 
was her nephew, of course I had to be included. The Halls are very fine 
people and as I took nearly every meal at their house while she was here, I 
can also testify that they have good things to eat. I brought Aunt Susan down 
to see where I lived. It being vacation time of course the house was closed 
and hadn't been aired for a week, and some of the boys having smoked a 
good deal she thought the odor was dreadful, but that otherwise we were very 
comfortably fixed. 

Miss Anthony spoke at Toronto December 2, introduced by 
the mayor and entertained by Dr. Augusta S. GuUen, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Emily H. Stowe. She addressed the Political 
Equality Club of Rochester in the Universalist church, Decem- 
ber 5. During the past three months she had travelled several 
thousand miles and spoken every night when not on board the 
cars. Three days later she started for Washington to arrange 
for the National convention, and from there wrote Rachel 
Foster Avery : 



CONVENTIONS FROM WASHINGTON TO SOUTH DAKOTA. 659 

I have done it, and to my dismay Mrs. Colby has annoanced my high- 
handedness in this week's Tribune, when I intended to keep my assumption 
of Andrew Jackson-like responsibility a secret. One night last week the 
new Lincoln Hall was opened and when I saw what a splendid audience- 
room it is, I just rushed the next day to the agent and found our convention 
days not positively engaged ; then rushed to Mr. Kent and from him to Mr. 
Jordan and got released from the little church, and then back I went and had 
the convention booked for Lincoln Hall. I did not mean to have any notice 
of the change of place go out over the country, because it makes no differ- 
ence to friends outside of Washington. Well, no matter. I couldn't think 
of taking our convention into any church when we had a chance to go back 
to our old home, and that in a new and elegant house reared upon the ashes 
of the old. So if killed I am for this high-handed piece of work, why killed 
I shall be 1 

A letter will illustrate her efforts for South Dakota: ''I 
have 50,000 copies of Senator Palmer's speech ready to go to 
the Senate folding-room, and thence to the South Dakota sen- 
ators and representatives to be franked, and then back to me to 
be addressed to the 25,000 men of the Farmers' Alliance, etc. If 
suffrage literature does not penetrate into every single family 
in every town of every county of South Dakota before another 
month rolls round, it will be because I can not get the names 
of every one. I am securing also the subscription lists of 
every county newspaper. If reading matter in every home 
and lectures in every school house of the State will convert the 
men, we shall carry South Dakota next November with a 
whoop I I do hope we can galvanize our friends in every 
State to concentrate all their money and forces upon South 
Dakota the coming year. We must have no scattering fire 
now, but all directed to one point, and get everybody to think- 
ing, reading and talking on the subject." 

And again she writes: *'With my $400 which I have con- 
tributed to the National this year, I have made life members 
of myself, nieces Lucy E. and Louise, and Mrs. Stanton. Now 
I intend to make Mrs. Minor, Olympia Brown, Phoebe Couzins 
and Matilda Joslyn Gage life members. I had thought of 
others, but these last four are of longer standing, were identi- 
fied with the old National and have suffered odium and perse- 
cution because of adherence to it." 



660 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

In the diary's mention of busy days is one item: '* Went 
to the Capitol to the celebration of the centennial of the First 
Congress. Justice Fuller made a beautiful oration on the 
progress of the century but failed to have discovered a woman 
all the way down ; '* and another: "This morning called on 
Mrs. Harrison, Mrs. Stanford and Mrs. Manderson to talk 
about having women represented in the Columbian Exposition 
of 1892. All are in favor of it.*' 

Every hour was filled with business, and with social duties 
undertaken solely because of the influence they might have on 
the great and only question. The last day of 1889 she went 
to pay the final honors to the wife of her faithful ally, Hon. 
A. G. Riddle. Death had robbed her of many friends during 
the past year. On February 1 her old co-worker Amy Post, of 
Rochester, was laid to rest, one of the veteran Abolitionists 
who commenced the work in 1833 with Qarrison, and who had 
stood by the cause of woman as faithfully as by that of the 
slave. In March passed away in the prime of womanhood, 
Mary L. Booth, editor of Harper's Bazar from its beginning in 
1867. In June died Maria Mitchell, the great astronomer, in 
the fullness of years, having completed threescore and ten. 
In November was finished the work of Dinah Mendenhall, the 
venerable Quaker and philanthropist, wife of Isaac Menden- 
hall, whose home near Philadelphia had been for sixty years 
the refuge of the poor and oppressed, without regard to sex, 
color or creed.* 

At the close of the old year, the Washington Star in a long 
interview, headed *'A Leader of Women,'* said. 

Miss Anthony is now at the capital, ready for the refnilar annual agitation 
before Congress of the proposed Sixteenth Amendment to the Gonstitation. 
She is one of the remarkable women of the world. In appearance she has 
not grown a day older in the past ten years. Her manner has none of the ex- 
citement of an enthusiast ; never discouraged by disappointment, she keeps 
calmly at work, and she could give points in political organization and man- 

*The year previoiiB Mn. Mendenhall had given Miss Anthony and Frances WiUard eaoh 
her note for (1,000 payable after her death, to be used for the cause of woman suffrage 
and temiwranoe, but the heirs refused to honor the notes. 



CONVENTIONS FROM WASHINGTON TO SOUTH DAKOTA. 661 

agement to some of the best male politicians in the land. Her face is strong 
and intellectual, bat fall of womanly gentleness. Her gold spectacles give 
her a motherly rather than a severe expression, and a stranger woald see 
nothing incongraoas in her doing knitting or fancy-work. In no sense does 
she correspond with the distorted idea of a woman's rights agitator. In con- 
versation her manner is that of perfect repose. She is always entertaining, 
and the most romantic idealizer of women woald not expect frivolity in one 
of her age and woald not charge it to strong-mindedness that she is sedate. 
. . . Speaking of the Golambas celebration, she said she understood it was 
probable that the board of promotion at the capital woald decide to permit 
women a part in the organization and management of the enterprise. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 



AT THE END OF SEVENTY YEARS. 



1890. 




ISS ANTHONY received New Year's calls in the 
Red Parlor of the Riggs House, January 1, 1890, 
entertained a party of friends at dinner in the even- 
ing, and had the usual number'^of pleasant gifts 
and loving letters. While busy with preparations 
for the national convention, she learned of the project to cele- 
brate her seventieth birthday on February 15. Supposing it 
to be simply a tribute from her friends, like the observance of 
her fiftieth anniversary twenty years before in New York, she 
was pleased at the compliment, but after the arrangements were 
commenced she learned that it was to take the form of an ele- 
gant banquet at the Riggs and tickets were to be sold at $4 
each. Her feelings were expressed in a letter to May Wright 
Sewall and Rachel Foster Avery, who had the matter in 
charge : 

I write in atter consternation, hoping it is not too late to recall every notice 
sent for publication. I never dreamed of yoar doing other than issuing pretty 
little private invitations signed by Mrs. Stanton and yourselves as ofScers of 
the National Association. If its official board is too far dissolved for this, 
please let the whole matter drop, and I will invite a few special friends to sup 
with me on my birthday. I know Mr. and Mrs. Spofford would love to unite 
with yon in a personal entertainment of this kind. I may be wrong as to the 
bad taste of issuing a notice, just Rke a public meeting, and letting those pur- 
chase tickets who wish ; but it seems to me the very persons least desired by 
us may be the first to buy them. I should be proud of a banquet with invited 
guests who would make it an honor, but with such persons as will pay |5, 
more or less, it resolves itself into a mere matter of cash. I would vastly 
prefer to ask those we wanted and foot the entire bill myself. 

(663) 



664 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Mrs. Sewall wrote at once to Mrs. Avery, " This letter strikes 
dismay to my soul. I will share with you the expense of the 
banquet." In a day or two Miss Anthony's heart smote her 
and she wrote again: ''I have blown my bugle blast and I 
know I have wounded your dear souls, but I can not see the 
plan a bit prettier than I did at first. I may be very stupid 
or supersensitive. IMt were to honor Mrs. Stanton, I would 
be willing to charge for tickets.'' And then a few days later: 
" Have I killed you outright ? I can not tell you how much 
I have suffered because I can not see this as you do, but I 
would rather never have a mention of my birthday than to 
have it in that way. I know you meant it all lovely for me, 
but you did not look at it outside your own dear hearts. Do 
tell me that I have not alienated the two best-beloved of all 
my girls." 

They finally effected a compromise on the money feature by 
sending out handsomely engraved invitations to those whom 
they wished as guests and letting them pay $4 a plate if they 
came. Although they proved to Miss Anthony that this 
always was done in such cases, she assented very unwillingly, 
and begged that they would ask the friends to contribute $4 
apiece to the fund for South Dakota instead of the birthday 
banquet. Finally, when all her scruples had been overcome, 
she made out so long a list of people whom she wished to have 
complimentary invitations that they would have filled every 
seat in the dining hall. She also was so anxious that no one 
should be slighted in a chance to speak that Mrs. Avery wrote : 
** The banquet would have to last through eternity to hear all 
those Miss Anthony thinks ought to be heard." 

On the evening of the birthday over 200 of her distinguished 
friends were seated in the great dining-room of the Riggs 
House, including a delegation from Rochester and a number of 
relatives from Leavenworth, Chicago, New York and Philadel- 
phia. Miss Anthony occupied the place of honor, on her right 
hand were Senator Blair and Mrs. Stanton ; on her left, Rob- 
ert Purvis, Isabella Beecher Hooker and May Wright Sewall. 
(Mrs. Foster Avery was detained at home.) The room was 



AT THE END OF SEVENTY YEARS. 665 

beautifully decorated and the repast elaborate, but with such 
an array of intellect, the after-dinner speeches were the dis- 
tinguishing feature of the occasion. The Washington Star, in 
a long account, said : 

A company ol the most remarkable women in the world were assembled. 
As she sat there, surroanded by the skirted knights of her long crusade, Miss 
Anthony looked no older than fifty, but she had |[pt a good start into her 
seventy-first year before the dinner ended. May Wright Sewall presided. 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, that venerable and beautiful old stateswoman, sat at 
the right of Senator Blair, looking as if she should be the Lord Chief-Justice, 
with her white hair puffed all over her head, and her amiable and intellectual 
face marked with the lines of wisdom. Isabella Beecher Hooker, who 
reminds one of her great brother, with the stamp of genius on her brow and 
an enei^ of intellect expressed upon her face, sat at the left of Miss 
Anthony. Old John Hutchinson, the last of the famous singing family, his 
white hair and beard forming a fringe about his shoulders ; Clara Barton, her 
breast sparkling with Red Cross medals ; and many other women of wide fame 
were present. Before the banquet the guests assembled in the Red Parlor of 
the Riggs, where a levee was held and congratulations were offered. It was 
after 10 o'clock when the line was formed and the guests marched down to 
the dining-room, Miss Anthony, on the arm of Senator Blair, leading the 
way. 

The correspondent of the New York Sun said in a brilliant 
description: "The dining-room was a splendid scene, long 
to be remembered. The American flag was everywhere and, 
with tropical flowers and foliage, made bright decorations. ... 
It was a notable gathering of women world-wide in fame, and 
of distinguished men. The lady with a birthday — seventy of 
them indeed — was of course the star on which all others gazed. 
She never looked better, never happier, and never so much 
like breaking down before her feelings. No wonder, with such 
a birthday party I Friends of her youth calling her * Susan,' 
affectionate deference from everybody, and all saying she de- 
served a thousand just such birthdays — young in heart, beauti- 
ful in spirit." 

Phoebe Couzins replied to the toast *' St. Susan," making a 
witty contrast between the austere St. Anthony of old and the 
St. Anthony of today, representing self-abnegation for the 
good, the beautiful, the true. Rev. Anna Shaw made a 
delightfully humorous response to " The Modern Peripatetic, 



»i 



666 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

referring to the ancient philospher who had founded the school 
of men, and Miss Anthony who had founded the modern 
school of women peripatetics, ready to grab their grips and 
start around the world at a moment's notice. Matilda Joslyn 
Gage responded to * ' Miss Anthony as a Fellow-worker ; ' ' 
Clara Bewick Colby to '* Miss Anthony as a Journalist ; " 
Laura Ormiston Chant, of England, to '' American Woman- 
hood ; " Mrs. Jane Marsh Parker, sent by the Ignorance Club 
of Rochester, to '* Miss Anthony at Home," beginning: *'To 
have brought to Miss Anthony all the testimonials which 
Rochester would have laid at her feet tonight would have made 
me appear at the banquet like the modern Santa Claus — the 
postman at Christmastide/' Rev. Frederick W. Hinckley, of 
Providence, began his graceful address by saying : 

King Arthur, sword in hand, is not at the head of the table, bat Qaeen 
Susan is, the silver crown of seventy honorable years upon her brow ; and we 
gather here from every quarter of the Union, little knights and great knights, 
without distinction of sex, to take anew at her hands the oath of loyal serv- 
ice to the cause of universal liberty. Those of us who have followed her 
through all these years know that she has been a knight without reproach, 
that her head has been level and her heart true. Faithful to the cause of her 
sex, she has been broad enough to grasp great general principles. She has 
been not only an advocate of equal rights, but the prophet of humanity ; and 
a better advocate of equal rights because a prophet of humanity. There 
never has been a time when Whittier's lines concerning Sumner would not 
have been applicable to her: 

" Wherever wrong doth right deny, 
Or suffering spirits urge their plea, 
Here is a voice to smite the lie, 
A hand to set the captive free." 

Nineteenth century chivalry renders all honor to that type of womanhood 
of which she is an illustrious example. 

Robert Purvis eloquently referred to Miss Anthony's grand 
work for the abolition of slavery, which, he said, was still 
continued in the vaster and more complicated work for the 
freedom of women. Mrs. Stanton's two daughters, Mrs. Law- 
rence and Mrs. Blatch, made sparkling responses. Represen- 
tative J. A. Pickler said in part : 

Five years since, when a member of the Dakota legislature and in charge 



AT THE END OF SEVENTY YEARS. 667 

of the bill giving fall suflrage to women, I was characterized in the public 
press as *' Sasan B. Pickler.'^ I look upon this as one of the greatest honors 
ever bestowed upon me. I have never learned how Miss Anthony regarded 

Unswerved by the shafts of ridicule, without love of gain, she has sub- 
limely borne through all these years ridicule and reproach for principle, for 
humanity, for womanhood. The soldier battles amid the plaudits of his 
countrymen, the statesman supported by his party, the clergyman sanctioned 
by his church, but alone, this great woman has stood for half a century, con- 
tending for the rights of women. Says Professor Swing : "Mark any life 
pervaded by a worthy plan, and how beautiful it is I Webster, Gladstone, 
Sumner, Disraeli; fifty years were these temples in the building! " How 
aptly these words describe our great advocate of woman. Gratifjring it must 
be to Susan B. Anthony ; gratifying, we bear witness, it is to her friends, 
that in her maturer years we see this cause, long hated by others but by her 
always loved, now respected by all ; and herself, its representative and expo- 
nent, revered, loved and honored by a whole nation. 

The main address was made by Mrs. Stanton, who responded 
to the sentiment "The Friendships of Women," in an oration 
full of humor, and closed : 

If there is one part of my life which gives me more intense satisfaction than 
another, it is my friendship of more than forty years' standing with Susan B. 
Anthony. Ours has been a friendship of hard work and self-denial. . . . 
Emerson says, " It is better to be a thorn in the side of your friend than his 
echo." If this add weight and stability to friendship, then ours will endure 
forever, for we have indeed been thorns in the side of each other. Sub rosa, 
dear friends, I have had no peace for forty years, since the day we started 
together on the suffrage expedition in search of woman's place in the National 
Constitution. She has kept me on the war-path at the point of the bayonet 
so long that I have often wished my untiring coadjutor might, like Elijah, be 
translated a few years before I was summoned, that I might spend the 
sunset of my life in some quiet chimney-comer and lag superfluous on the 
stage no longer. 

After giving up all hope of her sweet repose in Abraham's bosom, I sailed 
some years ago for Europe. With an ocean between us I said, now I shall 
enjoy a course of light reading, I shall visit all the wonders of the old world, 
and write no more calls, resolutions or speeches for conventions— when lo I 
one day I met Susan face to face in the streets of London with a new light in 
her eyes. Behold there were more worlds to conquer. She had decided on an 
international council in Washington, so I had to return with her to the scenes 
of our conflict. . . . Well, I prefer a tyrant of my own sex, so I shall not 
deny the patent fact of my subjection ; for I do believe that I have developed 
into much more of a woman under her jurisdiction, fed on statute laws and 
constitutional amendments, than if left to myself reading novels in an easy- 
chair, lost in sweet reveries of the golden age to come without any effort of 
my own. 



668 LIF£ AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

As Mrs. Stanton concluded, ''The Guest of the Evening '' 
was announced and, amidst long continued applause and wav- 
ing of handkerchiefs, Miss Anthony arose and made one of 
those little speeches that never can be reported, in which she 
said: 

I have been half inclined while listening here to believe that I had passed 
on to the beyond. If there is one thing I hope for more than another, it is 
that, should I stay on this planet thirty years longer, I still may be worthy of 
the wonderful respect you have manifested for me tonight. The one thought 
I wish to express is how little my friend or I could have accomplished alone. 
What she said is true ; I have been a thorn in her side and in that of her 
family too, I fear. I never expect to know any joy in this world equal to that 
of going up and down the land, getting good editorials written, engaging halls, 
and circulating Mrs. Stanton's speeches. If I ever have had any inspiration 
she has given it to me, for I never could have done my work if I had not had 
this woman at my right hand. If I had had a husband and children, or op- 
position in my own home, I never could have done it. My father and mother, 
my brothers and sisters, those who are gone and those who are left, all have 
been a help to me. How much depends on the sympathy and co-operation of 
those about us I It is not necessary for all to go to the front. Every woman 
presiding over her table in the homes where I have been, has helped sustain 
me, I wish they could know how much. 

Poems were read or sent by Harriet Hosmer, Elizabeth Boyn- 
ton Harbert, Alice Williams Brotherton and a number of others. 
At the close of Mrs. Hooker's verses entitled ** Should Auld 
Acquaintance be Forgot?" the entire company arose and sang 
two stanzas of '^Auld Lang Syne," led by the venerable John 
Hutchinson. From the many letters received only a few ex- 
tracts can be given : 

Allow me to congratulate yon on your safe arrival at the age of threescore 
and ten. How much we may congratulate ourselves on the great gains that 
have come to woman during these years ; gains for which you have worked 
so hard and so long! Hoping that you may still be on this planet when the 
ballot is the sure possession of our sex, I am very truly your co-worker, 

LUCT SlONB. 

None can more heartily congratulate thee on thy threescore and ten years 
nobly devoted to the welfare of humanity, to unremitting labor for temper- 
ance, for the abolition of slavery and for equal rights of citizenship, irrespect- 



AT THB END OF SEVENTY YEARS. 



669 



(MJuMt^^e^^ 



ive of sex or color. We have 

lived to see the end of slavery, 

and I hope thoa wilt live to see 

prohibition enforced in every 

State in the Union, and sex no 

longer the condition of citizenship. Qod bless thee and give thee many more 

years made happy by works of love and duty. I am truly thy friend, 

John G. Whittisb. 

My heart honors, loves and blesses yon. Every woman's would if she only 
knew you. You'll have a statue some day in the Capitol at Washington, but 
yoar best monument is built already in your countrywomen's hearts. God 
bless yon, brave and steadfast elder sister! Accept this as the only valentine 
I ever wrote. May you live a hundred years and vote the last twenty-flve, is 
the wish and prediction of your loyal sister, Fbancbs £. Willakd. 

Miss Anthony's sole and effective fidelity to the cause of the equal rights of 
her sex is worthy of the highest honor, and I know that it will be eloquently 
and fitly acknowledged at the dinner, which I trust will be in every way suc- 
cessful. Very respectfully yours, Gbobgs William Gubtis. 

It is a grief to me that I can not be present to honor the birthday of our 
dear Susan B. Anthony; long life to her! I should have been delighted to 
respond to the toast proposed, and to bear my heartfelt tribute of respect and 
love for the true and unselfish reformer, to whom women are no 'more in- 
debted than are men. " Time shall embalm and magnify her name." Very 
sincerely yours, Wm. Lloyd Gabbison. 

I know her great earnestness in every righteous cause, especially that most 
righteous of all, woman suffrage, which I hope may receive a new impulse 
from your gathering. As I grow older I feel assured, year by year, that the 
granting of suffrage to women will remedy many evils which now are attend- 
ant on popular government ; and if we are to despair of that cause we must 
despair of the final establishment of justice as the controlling power in the 
political affairs of mankind. I am faithfully yours, Gbobob F. Hoab. 

I can not venture to promise to be present at the dinner to be given to Miss 
Anthony, but I should be sorry to lose an opportunity to express my admira- 
tion of her life and character. In themselves they are ample refutation of the 
charges made by the unthinking that participation in public affairs would 
make women unwomanly. If any system of subjection has enabled any 



/^^n44^ /^i^ Ce<jeX^ 




woman to preserve more thoroughly the respect and affectionate regard of all 
her friends than has Miss Anthony amid the struggles of an active and stren- 



670 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

aous life I have yet to learn of it. With sincere hope that she may have 
many years still left to her, I am yours sincerely, Thomas B. Rbbd. 

I think I express the feeling of most if not all the workers in oar cause 
when I say that the women of America owe more to Sasan B. Anthony than 
to any other woman living. While Mrs. Stanton has heen the standard 
bearer of liberty, announcing great principles, Miss Anthony has been the 
power which has carried those principles on toward victory and impressed 
them upon the hearts of the people. Yours truly, Olympia Bbown. 

May you live many years longer to enjoy the results of your herculean 
work, and score as many triumphs in the future as you have in the past. On 
the morning of the 15th some flowers will be sent you with my love. I wish 
they were as imperishable as your name and fame. Affectionately, 

Mrs. John A. Logan. 




0f^J^^< 



How good to have lived through the laugh of the world into its smiles of 
welcome and honor— how much better to have reached these with a heart 
gentle and humble like hers — ^how best of all to care, as she must, scarce a 
rush for the personal honor and accept it only as an honor to the cause for 
which she has given so many of the seventy years. Truly yours, 

W. C. and Mary Lewis Gannett. 

With the hope that you may live to one hundred or until, like ancient 
Simeon, you behold what you hope for, I am yours very truly, 

T. W. Pawieb. 

My wife and I send you our hearty congratulations on your birthday. May 
you have many happy returns of the day, with increasing honor and affection 
from your numerous friends, amongst whom we hope you will let us count 
ourselves. Yours very truly, Charles Nordhoff. 

I congratulate you with all my heart upon your health and happiness on 
this your seventieth birthday, and wish to say that I believe no woman lives 
in the United States who has done more for her sex, and for ours as well, 
than yourself. The great advancement of women, not alone in the direction 
of suffrage, but in every field of labor and every department of the better and 
nobler life of manhood and womanhood, during the past generation, has 
sprung from the work which you inaugurated years ago. Mrs. Carpenter 
joins me in congratulations and good wishes. Very truly yours, 

Frank G. Carpenter. 

Cordial greetings were received from Neal Dow and Senator 



AT THE END OF SEVENTY YEARS. 671 

Dawes, and letters and telegrams came from distinguished 
individuals and societies in every State and from many foreign 
countries. Over 200 of these are preserved among other 
mementoes of this occasion. Among the telegrams were these, 
representing the great labor organization of the country : 

We congratalate yoa on the seventieth anniversary of a usefal and saccess- 
ful life. May yoa enjoy many years of health and happiness. 

Hannah Powdrrly, T. V. Powdebly. 

May your noble, self-sacrificing life be spared to participate in yoar heart's 
dearest wish — woman's fall emancipation. 

Lbonora M. Babby, Grand Organizer K. of L, 

Mrs. Colby issued a birthday edition of the Woman's Tribune 
containing a history of Miss Anthony's trial, a fine biographical 
sketch written by ^^ > y ^y 
herself and many C>te.^>^5^^^^c^^ y^^^^u/i^ ^ 

beautiful tributes ^ ^ 

from other friends, 
among them this 
from Laura M . Johns : ^ ^ Always to efface herself and her 
own interests and to put the cause to the fore ; to be striving 
to place a crown upon some other brow ; to be receiving and 
giving, but never retaining; ever enriching the work but 
never herself ; to be busy through weariness and difficulty and 
resting only in a change of labor ; to bear the stinging hail 
of ridicule which fell on this movement, and to receive with 
surprised tears the flowers that bloomed in her thorny path ; 
to be in the heat of the noonday harvest field at seventy, with 
years of activity and usefulness still remaining to add to her 
glorious life and crown it with such dignity as belongs to 
few — ^this is the story of Susan B. Anthony." 

Miss Anthony carried in her arms seventy pink carnations 
with the card, *' For she's the pink o' womankind and blooms 
without a peer," from Miss Cummings, of Washington. 
Flowers were sent in profusion, and there was no end of lovely 
little remembrances of jewelry, water colors, books, portfolios, 
card cases, handkerchiefs, fans, satin souvenirs, fancy-work, 




672 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

the gifts of loving women in all parts of the country.* The 
evening was one of the proudest and happiest of a life which, 
although filled with toil and hardship, had been brightened, as 
had that of few other women, with the bountiful tributes and 
testimonials not only of personal friends but of people in all 
parts of the world who knew of her only through her work for 
humanity. The next day she sat down to Sunday dinner at a 
table which, thanks to Mrs. Spofford's thoughtfulness, had been 
arranged especially for the occasion, surrounded by twenty-five 
of her own relatives who had come to Washington to celebrate 
her birthday. 

Among many newspaper editorials upon this celebration, an 
extract from the Boston Traveller, which bears the impress of 
the gifted Lilian Whiting, may be taken as an example of the 
general sentiment : 

Without any Bpecial relay of theories on the subject, Miss Susan B. An- 
thony discovered early in life the secret of imperishable youth and constantly 
increasing happiness — a secret that may be translated as personal devotion to 
a noble purpose. To devote one's self to something higher than self — this is 
the answer of the ages to those who would find the source of immortal energy 
and enjoyment. It is a statement very simply and easily made but involving 
all the philosophy of life. Miss Anthony recognized it intuitively. She 
translated it into action with little consciousness of its value as a theory ; but 
it is the one deepest truth in existence, and one which every human soul 
must sometime or somewhere learn. 

On February 15, 1820, when Susan B. Anthony was bom, Emerson was a 
youth of seventeen ; Henry Ward Beecher was a child of seven and Harriet 
Beecher Stowe a year his junior; Wendell Phillips was nine, Whittier thir- 
teen, and Wm. Lloyd Garrison fifteen years of age. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 
was four years old, and Lucy Stone, Julia Ward Howe and James Russell 
Lowell were Miss Anthony's predecessors in this world only by one or two 
years. Margaret Fuller was ten, Abraham Lincoln was eleven, and thus, be- 
tween 1803-20, inclusive, were bom a remarkable group of people — a 
galaxy whose influence on their century has been unequalled in any age 
or in any country, since that of Pericles and his associates in the golden 
age of Greece. It is only now, as the work of these immortals begins to 

^ There were alao more sabetantial tokens, an Ixish wool shawl from Mre. Chant; a Web- 
ster's Unabridged Dictionary from Mrs. Colby, with the inscription, " The words In this 
▼olnme can not express what women owe yon ;" a silk dress i>attem from brother Daniel R. ; 
a $50 check from sister Mary ; $200 from Sarah WUlis of Rochester, and $100 from the Woman's 
Political Banality Club of that city ; seventy golden dollara from the Toledo Suffrage Clnb; 
$90 from Mre. Arthur A. Mosher of St. Louis, and enough $S bills in friendly lettera to bring 
the amount to oyer $800. The very next day Miss Anthony gave a part of this to friends who 
were ill or needy, including $B0 to Phcsbe Cousins. 



AT THE BND OF SSVBNTT YBABS. 673 

aasame something of the definite outline of completeness ; as some results 
of the detennining forces for which this great galaxy has stood, begin to be 
discerned, that we can adequately recognize how important to the century 
their lives have been. There are undoubtedly high spirits sent to earth with 
a definite service to render to their age and generation ; a service that 
prepares the way for the next ascending round on the great cycle of progress, 
and it is no exaggeration to say that Susan B. Anthony is one of these. . . . 



^^ ^/l-vw 



<^:^tuu». 




Even brief quotations must be omitted for want of space, 
but this from the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, Charles 
E. Fitch, editor, is entitled to a place as the sentiment in the 
city where Miss Anthony had made her home for nearly half a 
century : 

The occasion is a notable one. It is in honor of one of the noblest women 
of her time. The day is past when Susan B. Anthony is met with ridicule. 
She is honored everywhere. Consistent earnestness will, at the last if not at 
the first, command respect. Slowly but surely, Miss Anthony has won that 
respect from her countrymen. The cause of the emancipation of women, for 
which she has labored so long and so zealously, is not yet triumphant, nor is 
it probable that she will live to see woman suffrage the rule of the land ; but 
at threescore years and ten, she may freely cherish the faith that it is a con- 
quering cause, destined some day to be vindicated in the organic law of the 
separate American commonwealths and the Federal union. 

But it is not alone for the service which Miss Anthony has rendered to the 
cause of woman suffrage that she is highly honored. She is honored because 
of her womanhood, because she has ever been brave without conceit and 
earnest without pretense, because she has the heart to sympathize with suf- 
fering humanity in its various phases, and the will to redress human wrongs. 
She has revealed a true nobility of soul, and has ever been patient under 
abuse and misrepresentation. She has allied herself with all good causes, 
and has been the friend of those struggling against the dominion of appetite 
as well as of those who have sought to free themselves from political thrsJldom. 
She has earned the esteem even of those who were diametrically opposed to 
her views. Within the movements which she has urged, she has been an ad- 
ministrator rather than an orator, although on occasions her speech has been 
Akt. — 43 



674 



LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 



informed with the eloquence of conviction. In private life she has con- 
strained affection by a gentleness with which the world would hardly credit 
her ; but those who best know her, best know also the gracious womanhood 
which illustrates itself in acts of unselfishness and beneficence. 

I The birthday was celebrated by individuals and clubs in 

\ many states with luncheons, teas, receptions and literary 
entertainments. After all these pleasant happenings, Miss 
Anthony felt new courage and hope to enter upon the Twenty- 
second National Suffrage Convention, February 18, at Lincoln 
Music Hall. This was to be an important meeting, as it was 
to consummate the union of the National and American 
organizations, and she was anxious for a large attendance. 
*' Do come," she wrote to the most influential friends, '* if you 
stay away forever afterwards. This will be the crucial test 
whether our platform shall continue broad and free as it has 
been for forty years. Some now propose secession because it 
is to be narrow and bigoted ; others left us twenty years ago 
because it was too liberal. Some of the prominent women are 
writing me that the union means we shall be no more than an 
annex to the W. C. T. U. hereafter ; others declare we are go- 
ing to sink our identity and become sectarian and conserva- 
tive. There is not the slightest ground for any of these fears, 
but come and be our stay and support." 

She also had the annual struggle to secure the presence of 
Mrs. Stanton, who was about to sail with her daughter for 
England, but, after the usual stormy correspondence, the day 
of departure was postponed and she wrote : *' You will have 
me under your thumb the first of February." As her time 
was limited. Miss Anthony arranged for the hearing before the 
Senate committee on February 8, which was held in the new 
room assigned to the committee on woman suffrage. A few 
days later the ladies spoke before the House Judiciary Com- 
mittee. 

The union of the two organizations was effected before the 
opening of the convention and Mis. Stanton elected presi- 
dent.^ She faced a brilliant assemblage at the opening of the Na- 
\ tional-American Convention and made one of the ablest speeches 

1 Described in detail in Chapter XXXV. 



t — 



AT THE END OF SEVENTY YEARS. 675 

of her lif e, stating in the first sentence that she considered it a 
greater honor to go to England as the president of this association 
than to be sent as minister plenipotentiary to any court in Europe. 
She closed by introducing her daughter, Mrs. Stanton Blatch, 
who captivated the audience.* Hon. Wm. Dudley Foulke, ex- 
president of the American Association, then delivered an elo- 
quent and schol- 
arly address. At 
its close Mrs. Stan- 
ton was obliged 
to leave, as she sailed for Europe the next morning. When she 
arose to say farewell the entire audience joined in the waving 
of handkerchiefs, the clapping of hands, and the men in 
three rousing cheers. 

The usual corps of National speakers received a notable ad- 
dition in Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Julia Ward Howe, Henry B. 
Blackwell, Carrie Chapman Catt, Hon. J. A. Pickler and Alice 
Stone Blackwell. Lucy Stone, being detained at home by 
illness, sent a letter of greeting. When Miss Anthony, as 
vice-president-at-large, took the chair after Mrs. Stanton's de- 
parture, a great bouquet of white lilies was presented to her. 

A woman suffrage amendment was pending in South Dakota, 
^and the claims of the new State were presented by Representa- 
tive and Mrs. Pickler and Alonzo Wardall, secretary of the 
Farmer's Alliance and vice-president of the suffrage associa- 
tion, all of whom felt confident that with financial help the 
amendment could be carried but, as the State was poor, most 
of this would have to come from outside. The convention be- 
came very enthusiastic and a South Dakota campaign commit- 
tee was formed ; Susan B. Anthony, chairman, Clara B. Colby, 
Alice Stone Blackwell. Rev. Anna H. Shaw made a stirring 
appeal for money. Miss Anthony pledged all that she could 
raise between then and the November election. Mrs. Clara L. 
McAdow, of Montana, headed the list with $250. A number 
of ladies followed with pledges for their respective States. In 

* Miss Anthony wrote In her Journal that night: " Harriot said bat a few words, yet showed 
herself worthy her mother and her mother's life-long friend and eo-worker. It was a proud 
moment for me." 



676 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

a short time it seemed evident that a large sum could be raised 
and^ at Miss Anthony's request, the association directed all 
contributions to be sent to its treasurer, Mrs. Spofford, at 
Washington, and she herself agreed to devote a year's work to 
Dakota.^ 

Miss Anthony remained in Washington several weeks, looking 
after various matters: first of all, a representation of women in 
the management of the Columbian Exposition ; then there 
were the reports of the Senate and the House committees, upon 
which she always brought to bear as much as possible of that 
'' indirect influence " which women are said to possess. Just 
now the admission of Wyoming as a State with woman suffrage 
in its constitution was hanging in the balance, but on March 
26 she had the inexpressible pleasure of witnessing, from her 
seat in the gallery of the House, the final discussion and pas- 
sage of the bill.' She also was arranging for the incorporation 
of the National- American Association, the old National, which 
had been a corporate body for a number of years, having 
added American to its name. The bills of the convention were 
to be settled,' and there were still other subjects claiming her 
attention before she started for the far West to inaugurate the 
South Dakota campaign. 

Miss Anthony was a welcome guest at dinners and receptions 

> Among those who oontiibnted largely to thla fond were Senator Stanford, $900; Baohel 
Foster Avery, $300; George C. Lemon. Washington City; Hon. Bzra V. Meeker, Pnyallnp; 
ReT. Anna H. Shaw; Isabella Hedenberg, Chloago; Alice Stone Blaokwell; Emily How- 
land, Sherwood, N. T. ; O. G. and Alice Peters, Columbns, C; John L. Whiting, Boston; 
Senator B. F. Pettigrew, Sioox Falls ; Albert O. WiUcox, New York, HOO each ; Mary H. John- 
son, LoaisTille, $115, which she earned by knitting wool shawls and fascinators; May Wright 
Sewall sent nearly |200, collected from Indiana friends; James and Martha Callanan, Des 
Moines, $150; Mary Grew, $148 for the Pennsylvania society. Other women sent thd^ Jewelry 
to be sold, and one oflfered a gift of western land. The rest of the |5,500 was sent in smaller 
amounts, and all receipts andexpenditnres were caref ally entered on the national treasurer's 
books for 1890. When later some carping individuals complained at so much money passing 
through Miss Anthony's hands, Mrs. Livermore silenced them by sajring: "Susan would 
use every dollar for suffrage if millions were given to her." 

'Mary Grew wrote her immediately: "All hail and congratulations I I read in this 
morning's paper that you were in the House yesterday ; and I have no doubt that today 
you are doing something to promote the passage of the bill through the Senate. . . • One 
object of this letter is to urge you to take more care of your health. Bmily Howland reports 
that you are very much overworked and exhausted. Pray stop awhile and rest yourself, 
for the sake of the cause as well as for your own and your friends'." 

*I will authorise you to add my signature to yours in approving any bills relating to 
the expenses of the National-American convention just past. It will save time and trouble. 
You are on the spot and know all about the bills. Yours sincerely, LuoT Stoms. 



AT THE END OF SEVENTY YEARS. 677 

in the homes of many of the dignitaries in Washington, but 
accepted these invitations only when she saw an opportunity 
thereby to further the cause of woman suffrage. She realized 
fully that one important step in the work was to interest women 
of influence, socially and financially, and the high plane of re- 
spectability which this question had now attained was at least 
partly due to her winters in Washington, where, at the Riggs 
f House and in society, she met and made friends with promi- 
I nent men and women from all parts of the country and con- 
I verted them to her doctrines, which they disseminated in their 
' various localities upon returning home. 

She writes her sister, in describing social events, of a dinner 
at the handsome home of John R. McLean, owner of the Cin- 
cinnati Enquirer, who in person brought the invitation, while 
his wife, the daughter of General Beale, looked after her ''as 
if she had been the Queen of Sheba.'' Here she met Senator 
and Mrs. Payne of Ohio, Senator and Mrs. Gockrell of Mis- 
souri, Senator and Mrs. Butler of South Carolina, Speaker and 
Mrs. Reed of Maine, Justice and Mrs. Field and other nota- 
bles. Then she speaks of a meeting of the Cobweb Club, com- 
posed of women in official life, where, at the close of her 
informal talk, they crowded around her and exclaimed : ''Why, 
Miss Anthony, we never understood this question before; of 
course we believe in it." Mrs. Hearst, wife of the Senator, 
said : " Had any one ever presented this subject to me as you 
have done today, you should have had my help long ago." 
"And so you see," she writes, " that at this juncture of our 
movement much could be accomplished by accepting such in- 
vitations, but it costs me more courage than to face an 
audience of a thousand people." 

While Miss Anthony was still in Washington she sat for her 
bust by a young sculptor, Adelaide Johnson. " So marble and 
canvas both are to tell the story," she wrote, "for I have 
sat also for a painting. The time draws near when I must 
start out campaigning and 0, how I dread it I " During this 
winter she received an invitation from a State W. C. T. U. to 
bring a suffrage convention to their city and they would bear the 



678 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

expenses, stipulating only that she herself should be present, 
and that ^^ no speaker should say anything which would seem 
like an attack on Christianity/' She wrote Miss Shaw: 
** Won't that prevent your going, Rev. Anna? I wonder if 
they'll be as particular to warn all other speakers not to say 
anything which shall sound like an attack on liberal religion. 
They never seem to think we have any feelings to be hurt 
when we have to sit under their reiteration of orthodox cant 
and dogma. The boot is all on one foot with the dear religious 
bigots — ^but if they will all pull together with us for suffrage 
we'll continue to bear and forbear, as we have done for the 
past forty years." 

In this winter of 1890 many loving letters passed between 
Miss Anthony and Rachel Foster Avery, almost too sacred to 
be quoted, and yet a few sentences may be used to show the 
maternal tenderness in the nature of the great reformer : 

Of coarse I miss yoa from my side, bat do not feel for a moment that any 
doabt of yoar love and loyalty ever crosses my mind. No, my dear, yoa and 
all of as mast consider only the best interests of the loved thoagh not yet 
seen. Banish anxiety and let the rest of as take all the work and care. Be 
happy in the new life yoa are molding; avoid all bat lovely thoaghts ; let 
yoar first and nearest and dearest feelings be for the precioas little one whose 
temperament and natare yoa are now stamping. Yoar every heartbeat, not 
only of love and peace and beaaty, bat of the reverse as well, is making its 
mark on the anbom. ... I feel mach better satisfied to know Sister 
Mary is with yoa for a few days. If her presence is comforting, why don't 
yoa ask her to stay with yoa till the wee one arrives 7 

And so the serene and helpful sister Mary remains until a 
telegram is sent to the anxious one, by that time in far-off 
Dakota, announcing the birth of a daughter. ''My heart 
bounded with joy," wrote Miss Anthony, " to hear the ordeal 
was passed and the little, sassie Rose Foster Avery safely 
launched upon the big ocean of time." And in a little while 
the mother replied : " Darling Aunt Susan, when I lie with 
baby Rose in my arms, I think so often of what she and I and 
all women, born and to be born, owe to you, and my heart 
overflows with love and gratitude." 




CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

THE SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 

1890. 

|ISS ANTHONY left Washington to attend the wed- 
ding of her nepheWyWendell Phillips Mosher, and 
Carolyn Louise Mixer, at Cleveland, O., April 17 ; 
stopped in Chicago for a day, and reached Huron, 
S. Dak., April 23, 1890.' During the early win- 
ter she had had the most urgent letters from this State, begging 
her to hasten her coming, that all depended upon her. ** If 
you will come we will throw off our coats and go to work," 
wrote the men. " Woe to the man or woman who is not loyal 
i;o you ! If ever you were needed anywhere, you are needed 
here now," wrote the women. When she had been in South 
pakota the previous autumn, all had united in urging her to 
take charge of the campaign, and for months she had been 
receiving appeals for help. " We have not enough money to 
organize one county," came from a member of the executive 
committee. In January, from Alonzo Wardall, vice-president 
of the State Association, '* We are very grateful for your earn- 
est efforts in our behalf and trust you will be able to spend the 
coming summer with us." His wife, the superintendent of 
press, wrote in February: **We shall give you the credit, 
dear Miss Anthony, if we succeed next November." 

On March 5, the president of the association, S. A. Ramsey, 
said in the course of a long letter : "I had begun to feel mis- 
givings relative to our success, because we were so poorly pre- 

^ "I am homesick already,*' she wrote Mrs. Spofford, "and have been every minnte since I 
left Washington. My choice wonld be to liye there most of the year, bat no I Duty flret, 
ease and comfort afterwards, even If they never come." 

(679) 



680 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

pared for the great conflict which is pending ; but the appoint- 
ment by the national convention of a special committee to aid 
us in our work has inspired me with great hope, especially 
as you were placed at the head of that committee." Mrs. H. 
M. Barker, State organizer, wrote March 10: '' Organizing 
must have stopped in the third district, had it not been for the 
money you sent. It is utterly impossible for us to pay even 
$10 a week to organizers. I have been disappointed in my 
home workers, so many incapacitated for various reasons. We 
shall make suffrage a specialty in all our W. C. T. U. county 
and district conventions." And April 11, the State secretary, 
Rev. M. Barker, supplemented this with : ** It is absolutely 
impossible to raise money in the State to pay speakers and 
furnish literature. This you understand. The election must 
go by default if it is expected." 

At the Washington convention it had been ordered that all 
contributions should be forwarded to the national treasurer 
and disbursed by order of the committee. Notwithstanding 
this, a large proportion was sent directly to Miss Anthony with 
the express stipulation that it should be expended under her 
personal supervision. There never was a woman connected 
with the suffrage movement who could collect as much money 
as she ; people would give to her who refused all others, with 
the injunction that she should use according to her own judg- 
ment. That which was sent her for Dakota she turned over 
at once to the treasurer, Mrs. Spofford, and paid all the cam- 
paign bills by checks. 

The Dakota people had made the mistake of electing a suf- 
frage board entirely of men, except the treasurer and State 
organizer, and, although they had not a dollar in their treas- 
ury and no prospects, they agreed to pay the secretary $100 a 
month for his services I When money from all parts of the 
country had been sent to the national treasurer, until the 
Dakota fund reached $6,500, the executive committee of that 
State suddenly discovered that they could manage their own 
campaign, and made a demand upon the national committee 
to turn the funds over to them. Miss Anthony, as chairman. 



THE SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 681 

already had sent them $300 for preliminary work ; had written 
and telegraphed that the services of Miss Shaw could be had 
for only one month, at that time, and asked if they would 
arrange her routes ; and had twice written them to send her 
their '^ plan of campaign/' but had received no answer to any of 
these communications. At the last moment she was obliged 
herself to make out Miss Shaw's route and send her into the 
field with practically no advertisement. On March 29 she 
wrote to the State president: 

Immediately on the receipt of yoor answer to my first letter to your execn- 
tive committee, instead of sending you a personal reply I wrote again to the 
entire committee, answering the various points presented by yon, Mr. and 
Mrs. Barker and others. This I did to save writing the same thing to half a 
dozen different people, as well as to make sure that I shoald get your official 
action upon what seemed to me most important matters ; bat to this date I 
have received not only no official answer, bat no information which shows 
my letter to have been acted npon. Nor have I heard from any member of 
the committee that yoa have mapped oat any plan of campaign, or have 
accepted and proposed to work on the one which I outlined last November at 
the Aberdeen meeting, and twice over have stated in my letters. 

Yoa, personally, say to me that you must have the national funds put into 
your treasury before you can plan work. Now, my dear sir, as a basinesa 
man you never would give your money to any person or committee until they 
had presented to you a plan for using it which met yoar approval. Then I 
have had no indication of any intention on the part of your executive com- 
mittee or State organizer to hold any series of suffrage meetings or conven- 
tions. The only ones written of are W. G. T. U. county and district conven- 
tions. California's suffrage lecturer, I am informed, is to be introduced to the 
State at the First District W. G. T. U. Convention. 

Now, I want to say to you individually, and to the executive committee gen- 
erally, that the National- American South Dakota committee will pay the 
money entrusted to them only to suffrage lecturers and suffrage conventions. 
We shall not pay it to any individual or association for any otiier purpose, or 
in any other name, than suffrage for women, pure and simple. We talked this 
over fully in your executive committee meeting at Aberdeen last fall, and all 
agreed that, while the temperance societies worked for suffrage in their way, the 
suffrage campaign should be carried forward on the basis of the one princi- 
ple. Our national money will not go to aid Prohibition leagues. Grand Army 
encampments. Woman's Belief Corps, W. C. T. U. societies or any others, 
though all, we hope, will declare and work for the suffrage amendment. We 
can not ally ourselves with the Prohibition or Anti-Prohibition party— the 
Democrats or the Republicans. Each may do splendid work for suffrage 
within its own organization, and we shall rejoice in all that do so ; but the 
South Dakota and the National- American Associations must stand on their 
own ground. 



682 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Co-operation is what our committee desire, and we stand ready to aid in 
holding three series of county conventions with three sets of speakers, at 
least one of each set a national speaker, heg:inning on May 1 and continuing 
until the school election, June 24. I am feeling sadly disappointed that every 
voting precinct of every county has not heen visited, and will not have been 
by the 1st of May, as was agreed upon at Aberdeen. Still, I want to begin 
now and henceforth push the work ; but the entire fund would not pay every 
single man and woman in the State who helps, hence every one who can must 
work without cost either to the State or national committee. 

On the 7th of April Miss Anthony wrote to the State secre- 
tary : 

Yours mailed April 3 is received. The National- American committee have 
only about $1,300 yet in hand, and we have arranged a trip through your State 
for Rev. Anna Shaw. When your committee did not answer my telegram, I 
could not wait longer for fear of losing Miss Shaw's good work before the stu- 
dents of your various educational institutions, and having had urgent impor- 
tunities from Mrs. D. W. Mayer to send some of our very best speakers to 
Vermillion so that the 600 students there might be roused to thought before 
separating for the summer, I felt the cause could not afford to lose Miss 
Shaw's effective services and so mapped out her route, and telegraphed and 
wrote asking that she be advertised. 

Now, my dear friends, once for all, I want to say on behalf of our South 
Dakota committee, the National-American Association, and the friends who 
have placed money in our hands — that we shall no more turn it over to you 
to appropriate as your executive committee please, without our voice or 
vote, than you would turn over the money entrusted to your care to our com- 
mittee to spend as we choose, without your voice or vote. But while we shall 
retain our right to expend the national fund in accordance with our best judg- 
ment, we shall in future, as I have several times written your committee, 
hold ourselves ready to help defray the cost of whatever work you present to 
OS. I have once verbally, and twice or oftener by letter, presented a plan of 
campaign asking your adoption of it, or of one which suited you better, tell- 
ing yon that we would co-operate with you in executing the plan and paying 
therefor; and to all of my propositions to help, the one reply has been : '* The 
wheels are blocked until you turn the money over to us. You in Washington 
can not run the South Dakota campaign." Now nearly five months have 
elapsed, and, so far as reported, the resident committee have adopted no plan 
and had no organizers at work in the different counties. 

Rev. Anna Shaw made her lecture tour throughout the State, 
and wrote Miss Anthony that the people everywhere were most 
anxious for her to come and there was not the slightest disaffec- 
tion except on the part of two or three persons who wished to 
handle the funds. To these Miss Shaw said : 



THB SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 683 

What oar committee object to, and what they have no right to do by the vote 
of oar convention, is to pat a dollar of oar money into yoar treasary to be 
spent withoat oar consent or for any parpose of which we do not approve. 
For example, not one of as, myself least of all, will consent to take oat of the 
oontribations from friends of saffrage one dollar to pay towards a salary of 
$100 a month to any man as secretary. We do not pay oar national secretary 
a cent, and we have no doabt there are plenty of women in the State of Da^ 
kota who woald be glad to do the secretary's work for love of the caase. I 
understand it has been planned, and the statement has gone oat, that yoar 
oommittee propose to cat loose from Miss Anthony. Now if yoa do, 
yoa cat loose from the goose that lays the golden egg for the Soath Dakota 
work ; yoa cat loose from all the national speakers and workers and all the 
money given. 

Miss Anthony wrote Alice Stone Blackwell : 

I fally agree with yoa and dear Mrs. Wallace aboat not antagonizing the 
prohibition and W. C. T. U. people who made the 6,000 majority last fall in 
Boath Dakota ; bat I also feel that we mast not antagonize the license people, for 
they are one-half of the voters, lacking only 6,000, and fally 6,000 of the Pro- 
hibition men are anti-saffragists and can not be converted. Hence it is 
alto vastly important that the license men shall not have jast caase to feel 
that oar national saffrage lectarers are W. C. T. IT. agents. That is my one 
point — that we shall not at the oatset repel every man who is not a Prohi- 
bitionist. 

Bat we shall see. I sarely am as earnest a prohibitionist and total ab- 
stainer as any woman or man in Soath Dakota or anywhere else. Bat they 
have prohibition, and now are after saffrage ; therefore it should not be the 
old prohibition and W. C. T. XT. yardstick in this campaign, bat instead it 
mait be the woman saffrage yardstick alone by which every man and every 
woman shall be measured. Rest assured I shall try not to offend a single 
voter, of whatever persuasion, for it is votes we are after now. I hope to make 
•ach a good showing of work done in this spring campaign, that our friends 
will feel like giving another and larger contribution to help on the fall can- 
vass. 

The editors of the two suffrage papers, the officers of the 
National- American Association, the largest contributors to the 
fund and the other members of the committee, all sustained 
Miss Anthony in her position. Zerelda G. Wallace published 
the following notice : *' Having pledged to the committee on 
work in South Dakota one month's services in the projected 
suffrage campaign in that State, I wish to announce publicly 
that all I do there will be done under the direction of the 
South Dakota committee of which Susan B. Anthony is chair- 
man." 



684 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Finally, on April 15, the executive committee of South 
Dakota forwarded their plan, which included a provision that 
'' every dollar expended should pass through the State treasury, 
and that the State executive committee should have control of 
all plans of work and decide what lecturers should be engaged ; " 
but by the time it reached Washington Miss Anthony was well 
on her way to South Dakota. When she arrived she found 
that it was just as she had been informed, the disaffection was 
confined to a few persons, but the body of workers made her 
welcome and she was cordially received throughout the State. 
Mrs. Emma Smith DeVoe, State lecturer and one of the ablest 
women, at once placed her services at Miss Anthony's disposal, 
and in a short time nearly all were working in harmony with 
the national plan. 

The autumn previous, when Miss Anthony was attending a 
convention in Minneapolis, H. L. Loucks and Alonzo Wardall, 
president and secretary of the South Dakota Farmers' Alliance, 
had made a journey expressly to ask her to come into the State 
to conduct this canvass. She had replied that she never again 
would go into an amendment campaign unless it was endorsed 
and advocated by at least one of the two great political parties. 
They assured her that the Farmers' Alliance dominated politics 
in South Dakota, that it held the balance of power, and the 
year previous had compelled the Republicans to put a prohibi- 
tion plank in their platform and, through the influence of the 
Alliance, that amendment had been carried by 6,000 majority. 
They were ready now to do the same for woman suffrage. It 
was wholly because of the assurance of this support that Miss 
Anthony took the responsibility of raising the funds and con- 
ducting the campaign in South Dakota. 

When she arrived in the State, April 23, none of the political 
conventions had been held. In co-operation with the State 
executive board, she at once planned the suffrage mass meet- 
ings, arranged work for the corps of speakers, pushed the dis- 
trict organization and made speeches herself almost every night. 
The National- American Association sent into the State and paid 
the expenses of Rev. Anna Shaw, Rev. Olympia Brown, Laura 



THE SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 685 

M. Johns, Mary Seymour Howell, Carrie Chapman Catt, Julia 
6. Nelson and Clara B. Colby/ It also contributed over 
$1,000 to the office expenses of the State committee, paid $400 
to the Woman's Journal and Woman's Tribune for thousands 
of copies to be sent to residents of South Dakota during the 
campaign, and flooded the State with suffrage literature. The 
speakers collected altogether $1,400 in South Dakota, which 
went toward their expenses. California, as her contribution 
to the national fund, raised $1,000 through a committee con- 
sisting of Hon. George C. Perkins, Mrs. Ellen Clark Sargent, 
Mrs. Knox Goodrich, Hon. W. H. Mills, Miss Sarah C. Sev- 
erance and Dr. Alida C. Avery. This was used to pay the ex- 
penses of Matilda Hindman for eight months, as one of the 
campaign organizers and speakers. 

As Miss Anthony was on her way to a meeting June 3, she 
received a telegram which sent her at once to Huron, where 
the annual convention of the Farmers' Alliance was in session. 
Upon arriving she found her information had been correct, 
that the Alliance and the Knights of Labor had combined 
forces and were about to form an independent party. She was 
permitted to address the convention and in the most impas- 
sioned language she begged them not to take this step, as it would 
be death to the woman suffrage amendment. She appealed to 
them in the name of their wives and daughters at home, doing 
double duty in order that the men might attend this conven- 
tion ; she reminded them of their pledges to herself and the 
other women to stand by the amendment, and showed them 
that, of themselves, they would not be strong enough to carry 
it, and that the Republican party, unless sustained by the Al- 
liance, would not and could not support it. Her appeals fell 
upon deaf ears, and the old story was repeated — the women 
sacrificed to party expediency. 

The Alliance of 478 delegates, at its State convention the 
previous year, November, 1889, after Miss Anthony's speech 

* Mrs. Wallace was kept ^t home by serious illness in her family. In a letter to Miss 
Anthony, Angnst 18, expressing her deep regret, she said : " Money wonld be no object 
with me if I eonld overcome the other difficulties in the way, but as I can not, I fear I 
shall have to let you think I am unreliable. I regret this, as there is no woman (except 
Miss Willard) whose good opinion I value so highly as yours." 



686 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

and after she had met with its business committee, had passed 
this resolution : 

Besolved, That we will do all in oar power to aid in woman's enfranchiee- 
ment in South Dakota at the next general election, by bringing it before the 
local Alliances for agitation and discossion, thereby educating the masses 
upon the subject. 

The Knights of Labor, at their annual convention in Aber- 
deen, January, 1890, had adopted the following : 

Besolved, That the Knights of Labor, in assembly convened, do hereby 
declare that we will support with all our strength the amendment to the State 
Constitution of South Dakota, to be voted on at the next general election, 
giving to our wives, mothers and sisters the ballot. . . . We believe that 
giving to the women of our country the ballot is the first step towards secur- 
ing those reforms for which all true Knights of Labor are striving. 

This action was taken by both conventions after the amend- 
ment had been submitted, and it was intended as a pledge of 
support. And yet the following June these two bodies formed 
a new political party and refused to put a woman suffrage 
plank in their platform I H. L. Loucks was himself a candi- 
date for governor on this Independent ticket, and in his 
annual address at this time never mentioned woman suffrage. 
Before adjourning, the convention passed a long resolution 
making seven or eight declarations, among them one that " no 
citizen should be disfranchised on account of sex," but, during 
the entire campaign, as far as their party advocacy was con- 
cerned, this question was a dead issue. ^ 

The State Democratic Convention met at Aberdeen the fol- 
lowing week, and a committee of representative Dakota women 
was sent to present the claims of the amendment. They were 
invited to seats on the platform and there listened to an address 
by Hon. E. W. Miller, of Parker county, land receiver of the 
Huron district, in which, according to the press reports, "he 
declared that no decent, respectable woman asked for the ballot; 
that the women who did so were a disgrace to their homes; 

> Id order to keep her next engagement, MIm Anthony was obliged to leave Huron at 7 :aO 
A. M., drive sixteen miles in the face of a heavy northwest wind and rain, travel all day and 
speak that evening. ** I did the best I could," she wrote in her Journal. 



THE SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 687 

that when womeu voted men would have to suckle the babies/' 
and used other expressions of an indecent nature, ''which 
were received with prolonged and vigorous cheers." (Argus- 
Leader, June 16, 1890.)^ Judge Bangs, of Rapid City, who 
had brought in a minority report in favor of a suffrage plank, 
supported it in an able and dignified speech, but it was over- 
whelmingly voted down amidst great disorder. A large dele- 
gation of Russians came to this convention wearing great 
yellow badges (the brewers' color in South Dakota) lettered 
*' Against woman suffrage and Susan 6. Anthony." 

The Republican State Convention met in Mitchell, August 
27. A suffrage mass meeting was held the two days preceding, 
and every possible effort made to secure a plank in the plat- 
form. Most of the national speakers and a large body of 
earnest and influential South Dakota men and women were 
present. Rev. Anna Shaw graphically relates an incident 
which deserves a place in history : 

When the Bepablicans had their State convention some of the leading men 
promised that we should have a plank in the platform, so we went down to 
see it through. We requested seats in the body of the house for our delega- 
tion, which was composed of most of the national speakers and the brainiest 
women in South Dakota, but we were informed there was absolutely no room 
for us. Finally a friend secured admission for ten on the very back of the 
platform, where we could neither see nor hear unless we stood on our chairs. 
We begged a good seat for Miss Anthony but no place could be made for her. 
Soon after the convention opened, an announcement was made that a delega- 
tion was waiting outside and that back of this delegation would probably be 
5,000 votes. It was at once moved and seconded that they be invited in, and 
a committee was sent to escort them to seats on the floor of the house. In a 
moment it returned, followed by three big, dirty Indians in blankets and 
moccasins. Plenty of room for Indian men, but not a seat for American 
women I 

We asked for a chance to address the delegates, but the chairman adjourned 
the convention, and then announced that we might speak during the recess. 
That night we went back again to the hall, and the resolution committee not 
being ready to report, the audience called for leading speakers, but none of 
them dared say a word because they did not yet know what would be in the 
platform. Finally when no man would respond they called for me, and I 

* Then E. W. Miller took the floor, and in a disgnsting manner and vile language be- 
rated the women preeent and all woman anffragists. . . . Miller disgraced the name of 
Democracy, disgraced his oonstitnents, disgraced South Dakota, disgraced the name of man 
by his brutal and low remarks in the presence of ladles and gentlemen.— Aberdeen Pioneer. 



688 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

went forward and aaid: ** Gentlemen, I am not afraid to speak, for I know 
what is in our platform and I know also what I want yon to introdaoe into 
yours." 

She then made her plea. It was cordially received, but the 
platform entirely ignored the question of woman suffrage. 
This was true also of the press and party speakers during the 
campaign, with one exception. Hon. J. A. Pickler was re- 
nominated for Congress, and in his speech of acceptance 
declared his belief in woman suffrage and his regret that the 
Republicans did not adopt it in their platform. He was warned 
by the party leaders, but replied that he would advocate it 
even if he imperilled his chances for election. He spoke in 
favor of the amendment throughout his campaign and was 
elected without difficulty. His wife, Alice M. Pickler, was 
one of the most effective speakers and workers among the Da- 
kota women and, although Mr. Pickler was a candidate, she 
did not once speak upon Republican issues but confined her- 
self wholly to the question of woman suffrage. She was as 
true and courageous as her husband. Although fair reports 
of the suffrage meetings were published, scarcely a newspaper 
in the State gave editorial endorsement to the amendment. 

The adverse action of the party conventions virtually de- 
stroyed all chance for success, but the suffrage speakers usually 
found enthusiastic audiences, and the friends still hoped 
against hope that they might secure a popular vote. Miss 
Anthony never lost courage, and her letters were full of good 
cheer. "Tell everybody/' she wrote, **that I am perfectly 
well in body and mind, never better, and never doing more 
work. • . . Anna Shaw and I are on our way to the Black 
Hills, and shall rush into Sioux City for a pay lecture and turn 
the proceeds over to the Dakota fund. ... 0, the lack of the 
modern comforts and conveniences! But I can put up with it 
better than any of the young folks. . . . All of us must strain 
every nerve to move the hearts of men as they never before 
were moved. I shall push ahead and do my level best to 
carry this State, come weal or woe to me personally. ... I 
never felt so buoyed up with the love and sympathy and confi- 



THE SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 689 

dence of the good people everywhere. . . . The friends here 
are very sanguine and if I had not had my hopes dashed to 
the earth in seven State campaigns before this, I, too, would 
dare believe. But I shall not be cast down, even if voted 
down.*' 

The eastern friends sent appreciative letters. ''The thought 
of you and your fellow-workers in South Dakota in this hot 
weather and with insufficient funds, has lain like lead upon 
my heart," wrote John Hooker. '* How I wish I could accept 
your invitation to come to you and talk to the old soldiers,'' 
said Clara Barton ; ''but alas, I have not the strength. My 
heart, my hopes, are with you and if there is a spoke I can 
get hold of, I will help turn that wheel before the campaign is 
over. My love is always with you and your glorious cause, 
my dear, dear Susan Anthony." 

Anna Shaw wrote from Ohio in August : "I am trying to 
follow your magnificent example, in quietly passing over every 
personal matter for the sake of the greatest good for the work. 
Whenever I find myself giving way, I think of you and all 
you have borne and get fresh courage to try once more. Dear 
Aunt Susan, my heart is reaching out with such a great long- 
ing for my mother, now eighty years old, that I must go to 
her for a few days before I enter upon that long canvass, but 
I will come to you soon." 

It was a hard campaign, the summer the hottest ever known, 

the distances long, the entertainment the best which could be 

offered, good in the towns but in the rural districts sometimes 

very poor, and the speakers slept more than once in sod houses 

where the only fuel for preparing the meals consisted of " buf- 
Ant.- 




690 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

falo chips." The people were in severe financial straits. A 
two years' drouth had destroyed the crops, and prairie fires 
had swept away the little which was left. '' Starvation stares 
them in the face," Miss Anthony wrote. **Why could not 
Congress have appropriated the money for artesian wells and 
helped these earnest, honest people, instead of voting $40,000 
for a commission to come out here and investigate ? " 

Frequently the speakers had to drive twenty miles between 
the afternoon and evening meetings, in the heat of sum- 
mer and the chill of late autumn ; at one time forty miles on a 
wagon seat without a back. On the Fourth of July, a roasting 
day, Miss Anthony spoke in the morning, drove fifteen 
miles to speak again in the afternoon, and then left at night in 
a pouring rain for a long ride in a freight-car. At one town 
the school house was the only place for speaking purposes, but 
the Russian trustees announced that '^ they did not want to 
hear any women preach," so after the long trip, the meeting 
had to be given up. Several times in the midst of their 
speeches, the audience was stampeded by cyclones, not a soul 
left in the house.^ The people came twenty and thirty miles 
to these meetings, bringing their dinners. Miss Anthony 
speaks always in the highest terms of the fine character of the 
Dakota men and women, and of their large families of bright, 
healthy children. 

The speakers never tire of telling their experiences during 
that campaign. Mary Seymour Howell relates in her own 
interesting way that once she and Miss Anthony had been rid- 
ing for hours in a stage which creaked and groaned at every 
turn of the wheels, the poor, dilapidated horses not able to 
travel out of a walk, the driver a prematurely-old little boy 
whose feet did not touch the floor, and a cold Dakota wind 
blowing straight into their faces. After an unbroken, home- 
sick silence of an hour, Miss Anthony said in a subdued and 

* At one place wbeie this happened, the Roasian sheriff had locked the court hoase doon, 
but the women compelled him to open them. He was entirely converted by the addressee of 
the afternoon, and in the evening when tlie storm was approaching, he mshed to Miss An- 
thony and exclaimed, *' Come, qnick, and let me take yon to the cellar, where yon will be 
perfectly safe." " O, no, thank you/' she replied, ** a little thing like a cyclone does not 
frighten me." 



THE SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 691 

solemn voice, ** Mrs. Howell, humanity is at a very low 
ebb! " The tone, the look, the words, so in harmony with 
the surroundings, produced a reaction which sent her off into 
a fit of laughter, in which Miss Anthony soon joined. 

They had been warned to keep away from a certain hotel, 
at one place, as it was the very worst in the whole State. At 
the close of the afternoon meeting there, a man came up and 
said he would be pleased to entertain the speakers and could make 
them very comfortable. This seemed to be a sure escape, so 
they thankfully accepted his invitation, but when they reached 
his home, they discovered that he was the landlord of the poor 
hotel I Miss Anthony charged Mrs. Howell to make the best of it 
without a word of complaint. They went to supper, amidst 
heat and flies, and found sour bread, muddy coffee and stewed 
green grapes. Miss Anthony ate and drank and talked and 
smiled, and every little while touched Mrs. Howell's foot with 
her own in a reassuring manner. After supper Mrs. Howell 
went to her little, bare room, which she soon learned by the 
clatter of the dishes was next to the kitchen, and through the 
thin partition she heard the landlady say: ''Well, I never 
supposed I could entertain big-bugs, and I thought I couldn't 
live through having Susan B. Anthony here, but I'm getting 
along all right. You ought to hear her laugh ; why, she 
laughs just like other people!" Mrs. Howell gives this 
graphic description of the meetings at Madison, July 10 : 

In the afternoon we drove Bome distance to a beaatiful lake where Miss 
Anthony spoke to 1,000 men, a Farmers' Alliance picnic. When she asked 
how many would vote for the suffrage amendment, all was one mighty " aye," 
like the deep voice of the sea. That evening we spoke in the opera house in 
the city. While Miss Anthony was speaking a telegram for her was handed 
to me, and as I arose to make the closing address I gave it to her. I had 
just begun when she came quickly forward, put her hand on my arm and 
said, '* Stop a moment, I want to read this telegram." It was from Wash- 
ington, saying that President Harrison had signed the hill admitting Wyom- 
ing into the Union with woman suffrage in its constitution. Before she 
could finish reading the great audience was on its feet, cheering and waving 
handkerchiefs and fans. After the enthusiasm had subsided Miss Anthony 
made a short but wonderful speech. The very tones of her voice changed ; 
there were ringing notes of gladness and tender ones of thankfulness. It was 



692 



LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 



the first great victory of her forty years of work. She spoke as one inspired^ 
while the aadience listened for every word, some cheering, others weeping. 
When Miss Anthony was starting for South Dakota she was urged not to 
go, through fear of the effect of such a campaign on her health. Her reply 
was, ''Better lose me than lose a State." A grand answer from a grander 
woman. And this night in South Dakota we had won a State and still had 
Miss Anthony with us, the central figure of the suffrage movement as she 
was the central figure in that never-to-be-foigotten night of great rejoicing. 




Or^^^^i 



As very few women were able to hire help, many were 
obliged to bring their babies to the meetings and, before the 
speaking was over, the heat and confusion generally set them 
all to crying. Miss Anthony was very patient and always ex- 
pressed much sympathy for the overworked and tired mothers. 
One occasion, however, was too much for her, and Anna Shaw 
thus describes it : 



One intensely hot Sunday afternoon, a meeting was held by the side of a 
sod church, which had been extended by canvas coverings from the wagons. 
The audience crowded up as close as they could be packed to where Miss An- 
thony stood on a barn door laid across some boxes. A woman with a baby 
sat very near the edge of this improvised platform. The child grew tired and 
uneasy and finally began to pinch Miss Anthony's ankles. She stepped back 
and he immediately commenced to scream, so she stepped forward again and he 
resumed his pinching. She endured it as long as she could, but at last 
stooped down and whispered to the mother, " I think your baby is too warm 
in here; take him out and give him a drink and he will feel better." The 
woman jerked it up and started out, exclaiming, '' Well, this is the first time 
I have ever been insulted on account of ray motherhood I" A number of men 
gathered around her, saying, " That is just what to expect from these old 
maid suffragists." Some one told Miss Anthony she had lost twenty votes by 
this. " Well," she replied, '' if they could see the welts on my ankles where 
they were pinched to keep that child still, they would bring their twenty 
votes back." 

She said to me the next day: '' Now, Anna, no matter how many babies 



THB SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 693 

cry yoa mast not say one word or it will be taken as an insalt to mother- 
hood." That afternoon I gave a little talk. The charch was crowded and 
there were so many children it seemed as if every family had twins. There 
were at least six of them crying at the top of their langs. The loader they 
cried, the loader I yelled ; and the loader I yelled, the loader they cried, for 
they were scared. Finally a gentleman asked, '' Don't yoa want those chil- 
dren taken oat?" ''O, no," said I, ''there is nothing that inspires me so 
mach as the masic of children's voices," and althoagh a number of men pro- 
tested, I woald not allow one of them taken from the room. I was boand I 
wouldn't lose any votes. 

Among the racy anecdotes which Miss Shaw relates of that 
memorable campaign, is one which shows Miss Anthony's 
ready retort : 

Many of the halls were merely rough boards and most of them had no 

seats. I never saw so many intemperate men as at , in front of the 

stores, on the street comers, and in the saloons, and yet they had a prohi- 
bition law I We could not get any hall to speak in— they were all in use for 
variety shows— and there was no charch finished, but the Presbyterian was 
the furthest along and they let us have that, putting boards across nail kegs 
for seats. It was filled to overfiowing and people crowded up close to the 
platform. One man came in so drunk he could not stand, so he sat down on 
the edge and leaned against the table. Miss Anthony gave her argument to 
prove what the ballot had done for laboring men in England and was work- 
ing up to show what it would do for women in the United States, when sud- 
denly the man roused and said : " Now look 'ere, old gal, we've heard 'nuf 
about Victoria ; can't you toll's somethin' 'bout George Washington 7 " The 
I>eople tried to hush him, but soon he broke out again with, " We've had 'nuf 
of England ; can't yoa tell's somethin' 'bout our grand republic ? " The men 
cried, '' Put him out, put him out! " but Miss Anthony said: ** No, gentle- 
men, he is a product of man's government, and I want you to see what sort 
you make." 

In September Carrie Chapman Catt^ one of the coolest, most 
logical and level-headed women who ever went into a cam- 
paign, at the request of the State executive committee gave 
her opinion of the situation as follows : 

We have not a ghost of a show for success. Our cause can be compared with 
the work of prohibition, always remembering ours is the more unpopular. 
Last year the Methodist church led off in State conference and declared for 
prohibition. It was followed by every other church, except the German 
Lutheran and Catholic, even the Scandinavian Lutherans voting largely for 
it. Next the Repablican, the strongest party, stood for it, because if they did 
not it meant a party break. The Farmers' Alliance were solid for it. The 



694 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

leaders were pat to work, a large amoant of money was collected and rep- 
resentative men went oat in local campaigns. It was debated on the street, 
and men of influence converted those of weaker minds. 

Now what have we ? Ist. — ^The Lutherans, both German and Scandinavian, 
and the Catholics are bitterly opposed. The Methodists, our strongest friends 
everywhere else, are not so here. 2d.— We have one party openly and two 
others secretly against us. 3d. — ^While this county, for instance, gave |700 to 
prohibition, it gives $2.50 to suffrage and claims that for hall rent, the amoant 
then not being sufficient. 4th. — When I suggested to the committee to start 
a vigorous county campaign and get men of influence to go out and speak, 
they did not know of one man willing to face the political animosities it 
would engender. 

With the exception of the work of a few women, nothing is being done. 
We have opposed to us the most powerful elements in the politics of the 
State. Continuing as we are, we can't poll 20,000 votes. We are converting 
women to *' want to vote " by the hundreds, but we are not having any appre- 
ciable effect upon the men. This is because men have been accustomed to 
take new ideas only when accompanied by party leadership with brass bands 
and huzzahs. We have a total lack of all. Ours is a cold, lonesome little 
movement, which will make our hearts ache about November 5. We must 
get Dakota men in the work. They are not talking woman suffrage on the 
street There J« an absolute indifference concerning it. We need some kind 
of a political mustard plaster to make things lively. We are appealing to 
justice for success, when it is selfishness that governs mankind. . . . 

The campaign was continued^ however, with all the zeal and 
ability which both State and national workers could command. 
There were between fifteen and twenty thousand Scandinavians 
in the State and a woman was sent to address them in their own 
language— one woman I A German woman was sent among 
the men of that nationality. The last night before election, 
mass meetings were held in all the large towns, Miss Anthony 
and Miss Shaw being at Dead wood. In her excellent summing- 
up of the campaign, Elizabeth M. Ward all. State superintend- 
ent of press, gives: ''Number of addresses by the national 
speakers, 789 ; by the State speakers, 707 ; under the auspices 
of the W. C. T. U., 104 ; total, 1,600 ; local and county clubs 
of women organized, 400. Literature sent to every voter in 
the State.'* 

What was the result of all this expenditure of time, labor 
and money ? There were 68,604 ballots cast ; 22,972 for wo- 
man suffrage ; 45,632 opposed ; majority against, 22,660. 
Eight months of hard work by a large corps of the ablest 



THB SOUTH DAKOTA CAMPAIGN. 695 

women in the United States, 1,600 speeches, $8,000 in money, 
for less than 23,000 votes I There were 30,000 foreigners in 
South Dakota, Russians, Scandinavians, Poles and other na- 
tionalities. It is claimed they voted almost solidly against 
woman suffrage, but even if this were true they must have had 
the assistance of 15,000 American men. If only those men 
who believed in prohibition had voted for woman suffrage it 
would have carried, as had that measure, by 6,000 majority. 
The opponents of prohibition, of course, massed themselves 
against putting the ballot in the hands of women. 

The main interest of this election was centered in the fight 
between Huron and Pierre for the location of the capital. 
There never in any State was a more shameless and corrupt buy- 
ing and selling of votes, and the woman suffrage amendment 
was one of the chief articles of barter. The bribers, the liquor 
dealers and gamblers, were reinforced here, as had been the 
case in other State campaigns, by their faithful allies, ''the 
Remonstrants of Boston," who circulated their anonymous 
sheet through every nook and corner of the State. 

All of the speakers who took any prominent part in the cam- 
paign were paid except Miss Anthony.^ She contributed her 
services for over six months and refused during that time an 
offer of $500 from the State of Washington for ten lectures and 
a contract from one of the largest lecture bureaus in the coun- 
try at $60 per night.' At the close of the canvass she gave 
from the national fund $100 each to Mrs. Wardall and Philena 
E. Johnson, who had worked so faithfully without pay. Then, 
lacking $300 of enough to settle all the bills, she drew that 
amount from her own small bank account and put it in as a 
contribution to the campaign. 

At the annual meeting of the State W. 0. T. U., September 
26, a strong resolution was adopted endorsing Miss Anthony's 

* Henry B. Blackwell made a speaking tour of six weeks throocrh the State at his own 
expense. 

*A letter from Mrs. Catt said : " I tliink yon are tlie most nnselilsh woman in all the 
world. Ton are determined to see that all the rest of ns are paid and comfortable, but 
think it entirely proper to work yourself for nothinir. If some of yonr self-saoriflcinff 
spirit oonld be injected into the great body of snfiFragists, we would win a hondred years 



sooner." 



696 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

work in South Dakota and she was made an honorary member. 
After the election the State suffrage committee unanimously 
passed the following resolution: ^' The earnest and heartfelt 
gratitude of all the suffragists of South Dakota is hereby ex* 
tended to Susan B. Anthony, who has devoted her entire time, 
energy and experience for six months to the cause of liberty 
and justice." 

Anna Shaw said that in all her years of preaching and lect- 
uring she had never been so exhausted as at the close of that 
canvass. Mrs. Catt was prostrated with ty phoid ' fever im- 
mediately upon reaching home, and hovered between life and 
death for many months, in her delirium constantly making 
speeches and talking of the campaign. Mary Anthony said, 
" When my sister returned from South Dakota I realized for 
the first time that she was indeed threescore and ten.'' 



'.* 




CHAPTER XXXIX. 

WYOMING — MISS ANTHONY GOBS TO HOUSEKBBPINQ. 

1890—1891. 

ISS ANTHONY accepted the defeat in South Da- 
Ikota as philosophically as she had those of the 
past forty years, bidding the women of the State 
be of good cheer and continue the work of educa- 
tion until at last the men should be ready to 
. grant them freedom. With Mrs. Colby and Mrs. Julia B. 
, Nelson she went directly to the Nebraska convention at Fre- 
: mont, November 12.^ The 18th found her in Atchison with 
I Mrs. Cattand Mrs. Colby, at the Kansas convention/' where/' 
I the Tribune says, '' she took part in all the deliberations and 
f methods of work as critically and earnestly as if she herself 
would have to carry them out.*' 

Two weeks were pleasantly spent visiting at Leavenworth 
and Fort Scott. Thanksgiving was passed at the latter place 
and the next day the suffrage friends, under the leadership of 
Dr. Sarah C. Hall, whom Miss Anthony called '' the backbone 
of Bourbon county," gave her a very pretty reception at the 
home of Mrs. H. B. Brown. Saturday she spoke, mornings 
afternoon and evening, at the county suffrage convention. Her 
time for rest and recreation was very brief, and by December 4 
i she and Mrs. Catt were in the midst of the Iowa convention at 

* While here Miae Anthony received a letter from Bey. N. M. Mann, formerly pastor of the 
Unitarian church in Rochester bnt now residing in Omaha, which said : "Are yon not com- 
ing to the metropolis of the State, when some of ns here are Just perishing for the sight of 
yonr facet I speak for myself and Mrs. Mann firstly, though Judging from the number of 
parlors I go into where your picture is the first thing one sees, I fancy there are a good many 
others who would be hardly less glad than we to greet you. Gome and spend a Sunday, and 
hear a good old sermon, and lecture in my church." 

(697) 



/ 



698 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

I 

Des Moines. As usual when flying from one side of the con- 
tinent to the other, she stopped at Indianapolis for a few days' 
work with Mrs. Sewall, and they sat up into the wee, sma' 
hours, planning and arranging for the Washington conven- 
tion, the National Council and the World's Fair Congress of 
Women. 

She arrived in Rochester Saturday morning ; that evening 
Anna Shaw came in from her tour of lectures all along the 
way from South Dakota, and it would not be surprising to 
know that a business meeting of two was held the next day 
after church services. Monday evening the Political Equality 
Club tendered them a reception at the Chamber of Commerce, 
which was largely attended. On December 16 and 17 they 
addressed the State Suffrage Convention in this city, and soon 
afterwards Miss Anthony started for Washington by way of 
New York and Philadelphia. 

i The year 1890 had been eventful for the cause of woman 
suffrage, in spite of the defeat in Dakota. The bill for the 
admission of Wyoming as a State had been presented in the 
House of Representatives December 18, 1889. Its constitu- 
tion, which had been adopted by more than a two-thirds vote 

^of the people, provided that ** the right of its citizens to vote 
and hold office should not be denied or abridged on account of 
sex." The House Committee on Territories, through Charles 
S. Baker, of Rochester, reported in favor of admission. 
The minority report presented by William M. Springer, of 
Illinois, covered twenty-three pages; two devoted to various 
other reasons for non-admission and twenty-one to objections 
because of the woman suffrage clause, ** which provides 
that not only males may vote but their wives also." In- 
corporated in this report were the overworked articles of 
Mrs. Leonard and Mrs. Whitney, supplemented by a ponder- 
ous manifesto of Goldwin Smith, and it ended with the same 
list of "distinguished citizens of Boston opposed to female 
suffrage," which had several times before been brought out 
from its pigeonhole and dusted off to terrify those citizens of 
the United States who did not reside in Boston. 



WYOMING MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKEEPING. 699 

As it was supposed Wyoming would be Republican its 
admission was bitterly fought by the Democrats, who used its 
suffrage clause as a club to frighten the Republicans, but eveil 
those of the latter who were opposed were willing to swallow 
woman suffrage for the sake of bringing in another State for 
their party. The changes were rung on the old objections with 
the usual interspersing of those equivocal innuendoes and in- 
sinuations which always make a self-respecting woman's blood 
boil. The debate continued many days and it looked for a time 
/ as if the woman suffrage clause would have to be abandoned if 
/ the State were to be admitted. When this was announced to 
I the Wyoming Legislature, then in session, the answer came 
j back over the wire: "We will remain out of the Union a 
t hundred years rather than come in without woman suffrage.''* 
After every possible effort had been made to strike out the 
Jbbjectionable clause, the final vote was taken March 26, 1890 ; 
(/for admission 139 ; against, 127. 

The bill was presented in the Senate by Orville H. Piatt, of 
Connecticut, from the Committee on Territories, and discussed 
for three days. After a repetition of the contest in the House, 
the vote was taken June 27 ; in favor of admission 29 ; opposed 
18. Woman suffrage clubs in all parts of the country, in 
response to an official request by Miss Anthony and Lucy 
Stone, celebrated the Fourth of July with great rejoicing over 
the admission of Wyoming, the first State to enfranchise 
women. 

Another event of importance during 1890, was the first 
majority report from the judiciary committee of the House of 
Representatives in favor of the Sixteenth Amendment to the 
United States Constitution, which should confer suffrage upon 
women. Hon. Ezra B. Taylor, of Warren, O., was chairman 
of the committee and had exerted all his influence to secure 
this report, which was presented May 29 by L. B. Caswell, of 

> As women had been Toting in the Territory over twenty years and this answer was sent 
by a legialatnre composed entirely of men, it would seem to show that the evils predicted of 
woman suffrage were wholly disproYed by actual exi)erience. 



700 LIFS AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Wisconsin .* On August 12, the Senate committee on woman 
suffrage again presented a majority report for a Sixteenth 



'Amendment. 






(>v{Py^ 



V^«^- /Mr<hi/7^H/^ 



It had long been Miss Anthony's earnest desire to have suf- 
frage headquarters in Washington, pleasant parlors where local 
meetings could be held and friends gather in a social way. In 
the midst of her great work and responsibility she exchanged 
many letters during 1890 with ladies in that city regarding 
this project, but it was finally decided that it would not be 
judicious to incur the expense. Out of this agitation, how- 
ever, was evolved a stock company, incorporated under the 
name of Wimodaughsis, organized for the education of women 
in art, science, literature and political and domestic economy 
by means of classes and lectures. As Miss Anthony never gave 
herself to any work except that which tended directly to secure 
suffrage for women, she took no part in the new enterprise ex- 
cept to bestow upon it her blessing and $100. Rev. Anna 
Shaw was elected its first president. The National-American 
Association took two large rooms in the new club house for 
headquarters. 

Two deaths in 1890 affected Miss Anthony most deeply. 
Ellen H. Sheldon, of Washington, for a number of years had 
served as national recording secretary and had endeared her- 
self to all. She was a clerk in the War Department and her 
entire time outside business hours was devoted to gratuitous 
work for the association. Her reports were accurate and dis- 

' Mr. Taylor wrote Miss Anthony : 'The delay, which seemed long to yon, was absolutely 
necessary and I am snre yon will understand that I h^re been falthfol to the oanse. My 
danffhter Harriet, the moat wonderful of all woman to moi is largely inflnential in the 
resulL ..." 



u' 



HuAMJ^ '^th-'hiAi^rytr 



WYOMING — MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKEEPING. 701 

crimmating and Miss Anthony felt in her death the loss of a 
valued friend and helper. Julia T. Foster, of Philadelphia, 
who passed away November 16, was as dear to her as one of 
her own nieces. A sweet and beautiful woman, wealthy and 
accomplished, she was so modest and retiring that her work 
for suffrage and the large sums of money she contributed were 
known only to her most intimate friends. In remembrance 
Rachel Foster Avery sent Miss Anthony all the handsome 
furnishings of her sister's room. 

Miss Anthony arrived in Washington January 3, 1891, and 
received the usual welcome by Mr, and Mrs. Spofford. On the 
24th she went to Boston in response to an invitation to attend 
the Massachusetts Suffrage Convention.* She reached the 
Parker House Sunday morning, but Wm. Lloyd Garrison 
came at once and took her to his hospitable home in Brookline, 
and a most fortunate thing it was. Since leaving South Da- 
kota she had been fighting off what seemed to be a persistent 
jform of la grippe and the next morning she collapsed utterly, 
Ipneumonia threatened and she was obliged to keep her room 
Tor a week. She received the most loving attention from her 
hostess, Ellen Wright Garrison, and had many calls and num- 
erous pleasant letters, among them the following : 

What a mercy it was that yoa fell into the shelter and care of the Garrisons 
when so serions an illness came upon yoa. Of course everybody was disap- 
pointed that yoa coald not be at the meeting so that they might at least see 
yoa. Now that yoa are convalescing and we trast on the high road to recov- 
ery we want to arrange an informal reception at oar office, so that those or 
some of those who were sorry not to see yoa at the meeting, may have a 
chance to do so. I was too tired today to go with my two, and maybe yoa 
woald have been too tired to see as if we had gone. It is not qaite the same 
when we are seventy-two as when we are twenty-seven ; still I am glad of 
what is left, and wish we might both hold oat till the victory we have soaght 
is won, bat all the same the victory is coming. In the aftertime the world 
will be the better for it. 

Trasting yoa may soon be well again, I am yoar fellow-worker, 

Lucy Sroirx. 

^Bbab St78AN Amthont : We are to oelehrate the fortieth annlTersarsr of the First National 
Woman's Rights Convention in this State and want to make the meeting as nsefoi to the 
cause as we can. Yon ought to he here. Will yon come T The sheaves gathered in these 
forty years are to he presented, and of course there will be some reminiscences of pioneer 
times. We shall be glad to announce you as one of the speakers. I hope you are a little rested 
since the hard cami>aign in Dakota. Yours truly, LuoT Stomb. 



702 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Her old comrade, Parker Pillsbury, urged her to come for a 
while to his home in Concord, N. H., saying : '* Should you 
come you may be sure of a most cordial greeting in this 
household, and by others ; but by none more heartily and 
cordially than by your old friend and coadjutor in the temper- 
ance, anti-slavery and suffrage enterprises." Mrs. Pillsbury 
supplemented this with a pressing invitation ; and another 
came from the loved and faithful friend, Armenia S. White. 
Miss Anthony appreciated the kindness but there was too much 
work awaiting her in Washington to allow of visiting, and 
thither she hastened even before she was fully able to travel. 
f The first triennial meeting of the National Woman's Oouncili 
Prances E. Willard, president, Susan B. Anthony, vice-presi- 
dent, began in Albaugh's Opera House, February 22, 1891, 
and continued four days. It was as notable a gathering as the 
great International Council of 1888. Forty organizations of 
i women were represented; '*one," said Miss Willard in her 
opening address, **for every year during which this noble 
woman at my right and her colleagues have been at work.'' 
The meeting was preceded by a reception tendered by Mrs. 
Spofford at the Riggs to 500 guests. The services for two 
Sundays were conducted entirely by women, Revs. Anna 
Shaw, Anna Garlin Spencer, Ida C. Hultin, Caroline J. Bart- 
lett, Amanda Deyo, Olympia Brown, Mila Tupper and, among 
the laity, Margaret Bottome, president of the King's Daugh- 
ters, and Miss Willard. The most famous women of the 
United States took part in this council. Especial interest was 
centered in the beautiful Mrs. Bertha Honore Palmer, presi- 
dent of the Board of Lady Managers of the Columbian Expo- 
sition, who occupied a seat on the stage. This board was rep- 
resented also by its vice-president, Mrs. Ellen M. Henrotin 
and by Mrs. Virginia 0. Meredith. Each great national organ- 
ization sent its most representative women to present its 
objects and its work. 

As Mrs. Stanton was still in Europe, her paper, '* The Ma- 
triarchate," was read by Miss Anthony. Miss Willard intro- 
duced the reader in her own graceful way, saying : " I will 



WYOMING MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKEEPING. 703 

not call her Mrs. Stanton's faithful Achates, for that would 
fail to express it, but will say that the paper written by one 
of the double stars of first magnitude will be read by the other 
star.". Miss Anthony was so happy over this great assemblage, 
the direct result of all her long years' work for the evolution 
of woman into a larger life and a catholicity of spirit which 
would enable those of all creeds, all political beliefs and all 
lines of work to come together in fraternal council, that she 
herself scarcely could be persuaded to make even the briefest 
address. Her one anxiety was that all the noted speakers 
present should be seen and heard. ^ The council was received 
by Mrs. Harrison at the White House. 

The Twenty-third Annual Convention of the National- Amer- 
ican W. S. A. commenced the morning after the council 
closed, and the vast audiences which filled the opera house at 
every session hardly knew when one ended and the other be- 
gan. The interest was sufficient to sell the boxes for the latter 
at $10, and single seats at 50 cents. Miss Anthony presided 
and read Mrs. Stanton's fine address, ''The Degradation of 
Disfranchisement, ' ' saying as she commenced that ' ' they 
might imagine how every moment she was wishing they could 
see, instead of her own, the sunny face and grand white head 
of the writer." At its close she introduced Lucy Stone, who 
came forward amid great applause, and said that '' while this 
was the first time she had stood beside Miss Anthony at a suf- 
frage convention in Washington, she had stood beside her on 
many a hard-fought battlefield before most of those present 
were born." She then gave a graphic picture of the work 
accomplished by the suffrage advocates from 1850 to 1890. 

All sections of the United States were represented at this 
^convention; delegates were present from Canada, and Miss 

^ In her letter describing the council Mrs. Margaret Bottome wrote of Miss Anthony : " I 
have met, since I have been in Washington, a woman whom I have heard of since I can 
remember anything. We are not of the same faith— she has devoted her life to what during 
the past I have shrunk from—and I met her here for the first time ; but I shall carry with me 
always the impression of her spirit upon my own, of the Christ-life, the Christ-spirit. I got 
it before she had said five words to me, and I could haye sat down at her feet and dranlc in 
the spirit of Jesus Christ that is in her, though she does not see him just as I do*" 



704 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Florence Balgarnie, of London, spoke for the women of Eng- 
land/ Mrs. Henrotin presented an official invitation from the 
Board of Lady Managers for the association to take part in the 
Woman's Congress to be held during the World's Fair. The 
newspapers of Washington, and those of other cities through 
their correspondents, gave columns of reports, indisputable 
evidence of the important and stable position now secured by 
the question of woman suffrage. The board of officers was re* 
elected, Mrs. Stanton receiving for president 144 of the 176 
votes ; Miss Anthony's election unanimous. 

The Women's Suffrage Society of England had sent official 
congratulations on the admission of Wyoming with enfran- 
chisement for women, and Miss Anthony was determined they 
should be read in the United States Senate. This letter from 
Senator Blair will show how it was accomplished : '* The me- 
morial of congratulation which you sent me is not one which I 
could press for presentation as a matter of right, but fortunately, 
by a pious fraud, I succeeded in reading it without interrup- 
tion, so that it will appear word for word in the Record^ and 
it is referred to the noble army of martyrs known as the com- 
mittee on woman suffrage." 

At a delightful breakfast given by Sorosis at Delmonico's on 
its twenty-third birthday. Miss Anthony was the guest of honor, 
seated at the right of the president, Mrs. Ella Dietz Clymer, 
and in her short address recalled the fact that she had known 
Mrs. Olymer and their incoming president. Dr. Jennie de la M. 
Lozier, when they were no taller than the table. 

She gave a Sunday afternoon reception at the Riggs to Mrs. 
Annie Besant, of London, and in his letter regretting that ab- 
sence from the city would prevent his attendance, ex-Secretary 
of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch said : '^ I am sorry I can not 
see you often. I have been for many years a 'looker on ' and 
I appreciate the work which you have done for the benefit of 
the race. You have not labored in vain and you have the 

. * After tbo eonventloa Miss Balffamie wrote : *' It has been one of the most genuine pleas- 
nree of my life to meet yon, my dear Miss Anthony. I felt ' strength go ont of yon/ as it 
were, dlrecUy yon took my hand.*' 



WYOMING MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKBBPINO. 705 



satisfaction of knowing that 
your good work will follow 
you. ' ' She accepted a cordial 



/^^0>€^ e<y%f%^A^ %r(C^\AJu% 



invitation to dine at his home d/y^^z^JC'^^ ^^^-"^ •^^^ 

and received assurance of his ^ 

thorough belief in suffrage for women. 

Easter Sunday she went to Philadelphia to witness the 
christening, or consecration, of the Foster- Avery baby, by Rev. 
Anna Shaw, who had married the father and mother. On 
Monday Mrs. Avery gave a reception for her in the parlors of 
the New Century Club, and on the following day she addressed 
the 1,600 girls of the Normal School. 

She made this entry in her diary May 1 : '' Left Washing- 
ton and the dear old Riggs House today. For twelve winters 
this has been my home, where I have had every comfort it was 
possible for Mr. and Mrs. Spofford to give. For as many win- 
ters it has been the National Association's headquarters, but 
now both will have to find a new place, for the hotel is to pass 
under another management.'' Miss Anthony reached home 
the next day, and by the 12th was on hand for the State conven- 
tion at Warren, 0., the guest as usual of Mr. and Mrs. Upton 
at the home of Hon. Ezra B. Taylor. From here she went to 
Painesville, where she was entertained at the handsome resi- 
dence of General J. S. and Mrs. Frances M. Casement, whose 
hospitality she had enjoyed for many years whenever her jour- 
neyings took her to that city. 

After a few days at home Miss Anthony started for Meriden, 
to attend the Connecticut convention on May 22, and when 
this was over went home with Mrs. Hooker. A letter to the 
Woman's Tribune said : 

I wish I coald tell yoa of my joameyings. I had a pleasant visit with Mrs. 
Hooker at her charming home in Hartford. En roate from Boston I spent a 
few days with Hon. and Mrs. William Whiting in their beaatifal home at 
Holyoke. One day was devoted to a luncheon party of a hundred or more in 
their pictaresqae log cabin three miles down the river, through the lovely 
Connecticat valley. This cahin, with fireplace worthy the grandest old back- 
log and fore-stick, polished floors, and lanch served by a Springfield caterer, is 

Amt. — 46 



706 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

not like those of our dear old grandmothers* After the tables were cleared, 
Mrs. Whiting called on me for a talk. Another day we visited Mount Holy- 
oke Seminary, going through the various buildings and, in the great old 
kitchen, looking upon neat plateaus of light, sweet-smelling bread, biscuits 
and cake, all made by the girls during the morning. Each must do a certain 
amount of work, and all is done in memory of the sainted Mary Lyon, whose 
monument stands under the grand old trees which surround the buildings. 

Then on Sunday I went to Cheshire, to dine with my mother's dear cousin, 
ninety-five yeans of age, bright and cheerful in her on-look. Next I hied me 
to the house of my Grandfather Anthony, who lived in it from the day of his 
marriage in 1792, to his death at the age of ninety-six. . . . From here I 
went to Saratoga and took a drink from the old Congress Spring, and Wednes- 
day reached home. The paper tells you what happened on Thursday even- 
ing, and now I am enjoying to the fullest all the good-will of my dear friends. 

'* What happened '* was that Miss Anthony went to house- 
keeping I After the mother's death, Miss Mary rented the 
lower part of the house, which now belonged to her, reserved 
the upper rooms for herself and sister, and took her meals with 
her tenants. This plan was followed for a number of years. 
Now, however. Miss Anthony had passed one year beyond the 
threescore and ten which are supposed to mark the limit of 
activity if not of life, and her friends urged that she should 
give up her long journeys from one end of the continent to the 
other, her hard State campaigns, her constant lectures and 
conventions. She felt as vigorous as ever but had long wished 
for the comforts and conveniences of her own home, and she 
concluded that perhaps her friends were right and she should 
settle down in one place and direct the work, rather than try 
to do so much of it herself. She thought this might be safely 
done now, as so many new and efficient workei^s had been de- 
veloped and the cause had acquired a standing which made its 
advocacy an easy task compared to what it had been in the 
past, when only a few women had the courage and strength 
to take the blows and bear the contumely. So Miss Mary 
took possession of the house ; masons, carpenters, painters 
and paper-hangers were put to work, and by June all was in 
in beautiful readiness. 

The friends in various parts of the country were deeply in- 
terested in the new move. Letters of approval came from all 
directions, among them this from Mrs. Stanton in England : 






WYOMING MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKEEPING. 707 

' ** I rejoice that you are going to housekeeping. The mistake of 
my life was selling Tenafly. My advice to you, Susan, is to 
keep some spot you can call your own ; where you can live 
and die in peace and be cremated in your own oven if you de- 



• 9 7 

Sire. 



When Miss Anthony returned from her eastern trip on June 
11, a pleasant surprise awaited her. The Political Equality 
Club had taken part in the housekeeping program. Hand- 
some rugs had been laid on the floor, lace curtains hung at the 
windows, easy chairs placed in the rooms, a large desk in 
Miss Mary's study, a fine oak table in the dining-room, all the 
gift of the club. Mrs. Avery had sent a big, roomy desk and 
Mrs. Sewall an office chair for Miss Anthony's study ; Miss 
Shaw and Lucy Anthony, a set of china ; Mr. Avery, the 
needed cutlery; the brother Daniel R., a great box of sheeting, 
spreads, bolts of muslin, table linen and towels, enough to last 
a lifetime. From other friends came pictures, silver and bric- 
a-brac without limit. The events of the evening after Miss 
Anthony arrived at home are thus described by the Rochester 
Herald : 

The tnith of the matter is that lor a long time the Woman's Political Clnb 
has been in love with Miss Anthony, a feeling which she has not been slow 
to reciprocate. The affair culminated last evening, the nuptial ceremony be- 
ing a housewarming tendered by the club. The reception was a complete suc- 
cess, and the rooms were crowded for several hours, the number of visitors 
being estimated at no less than 300. The house was brilliantly lighted and 
everywhere was a profusion of cut flowers and potted ferns. At the entrance 
the visitors were greeted by Mrs. Greenleaf, president of the club, who pre- 
sented them to Miss Anthony. In greeting each new-comer the hostess dis- 
played her remarkable power of memory and brilliance as a conversationalist, 
having a reminiscent word for every one. In the parlor before the fireplace 
stood the old spinning-wheel which in 1817 had been a wedding gift to her 
mother. It was decked with marguerites and received no small degree of 
attention. . . . 

A short time after the housewarming, her cousin, Charles 
Dickinson, of Chicago, stopped over night and, after he had 
gone, Miss Anthony found this note : "It makes me blush 
for the wealthy people of the country, that they forget their 
duty to others. Here art thou, with thy moderate income, spend- 



708 LIFB AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

ing all of it for humanity's cause^ thinking, speaking, doing a 
work that will last forever. Please take rest enough for good 
health to he with thee, and to make this easier I enclose a 
check for $300. Call it a loan without interest, already repaid 
by the good done to our fellow-beings." 

In June she made a long-promised visit to her friend Henri- 
etta M. Banker at her home in the Adirondacks, which she 
thus describes : 

Rev. Anna Shaw and I have had a lovely week. Almost every day we 
drove out among the mountains; one day to the Aasable lakes, through 
beautiful woods, up ravines a thousand feet; another to Professor David- 
son's summer school, high up on the mountainside. But the day of days 
was when we drove to the farm-home of old Captain John Brown at North 
Elba. We found a broad plateau, surrounded with mountain peaks on every 
side. We ate our dinner in the same dining-room in which the old hero and 
his family partook of their scanty fare in the days when he devoted his 
energies to teaching the colored men, who accepted Gerrit Smith's generous 
offer of a bit of real estate, which should entitle the possessor to a right to 
vote. Of all who settled on those lands, called the '' John Brown opening/' 
only one grayheaded negro still lives, though many of their old houses and 
bams yet stand, crumbling away on their deserted farms. 

In front of the house is a small yard and occupying one-half of it is a grand 
old boulder with steps leading to the top, where one sees chiseled in large 
letters, " John Brown, December 2, 1859." At the foot is the grave of the 
martyr, marked by an old granite headstone which once stood at his grand- 
father's grave, and on it are inscribed the names of three generations of John 
Browns. The vandals visiting that sacred spot chipped off bits of the granite 
until it became necessary to make a cover and padlock it down, so that the 
farmer unlocks the cap and lifts it off for visitors now. Thus is commemorated 
that fatal day which marks the only hanging for treason against the United 
States Qovemment. John Brown was crucified fordoing what he believed God 
commanded him to do, ** to break the yoke and let the oppressed go free," 
precisely as were the saints of old for following what they believed to be 
God's commands. The barbarism of our government was by so much the greater 
as our light and knowledge are greater than those of two thousand years 
ago. ... 

July 25 is to be Suffrage Day at Chautauqua, and dear Mrs. Wallace and 
Anna Shaw are to preach the gospel of equal rights. I do hope Bishop Vin- 
cent will be present and there learn from those two, who are surely " God's 
women," the law of love to thy neighbor— woman, as to thyself — man. I am 
hoping the gate receipts on that day will be greater than those of any other 
during the summer. Wouldn't that tell the story of the interest in this 
question 7 



WYOMING MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKEEPING. 709 

In June she accepted the urgent invitation of the Ignorance 
Club to honor them by being their guest at their annual frolic 
on Manitou beach and respond to a toast which should allow 
her to say anything she liked. Three most enjoyable weeks 
were spent at home and during this time Miss Anthony 
addressed the W. C. T. U. She expressed herself in no un- 
certain tones as to the futility of third parties, declaring that 
the Prohibition party already had taken some of the best 
temperance men out of Congress, and made a speech so forci- 
ble that it lifted the bonnets of some of the timid sisters. The 
evening paper reported : 

.... Rev. C. B. Gardner said Miss Anthony had given the company 
some excellent political advice, but he inclined to the belief that the temper- 
ance reform could be brought about without woman suffrage. '* The women 
would bring the men around in time; they could accomplish much by 
their moral influence; in this they resembled ministers.'* Miss Anthony 
wished to know if it would not be a good thing then, to disfranchise the 
ministers and let them depend entirely on their moral influence. She ex- 
plained that in what she had said about prayer she meant prayer by action. 
She would not have it understood that she did not believe in prayer; she 
thought, however, that an emotion never could be equal to an action. 

/ She went to Chautauqua July 25, when, for the first time in 
/its history, woman suffrage was presented. Zerelda G. Wal- 
Vlace delivered a grand address and Rev. Anna Shaw gave 
" The Fate of Republics.*' Miss Anthony followed in a short 
speech, and the Jamestown Sunday News said : ** Woman's 
Day was fully justified by the reception given to that intrepid 
Arnold Winkelreid of women.'' Frances Willard wrote a few 
days later from the assembly grounds : '' Dearest Susan, I 
could sing hallelujah over you and our Anna Shaw and 
' Deborah ' Wallace I It was the best and biggest day Chau- 
tauqua ever saw. Do urge your suffragists to go in for this on 
next year's program." 

Miss Anthony attended the golden wedding of John and 
Isabella Beecher Hooker, in Hartford, August 5; ''a most 
beautiful occasion," she writes in her diary, *' but to the sur- 
prise of all there was no speaking. " An affair without speeches 
was to her what a feast without wine would have been to the 



710 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

ancients. On the 15th suffrage had a great day at Lily Dale, 
the famous Spiritualist camp meeting grounds, Miss Shaw and 
herself making the principal addresses. Miss Anthony thus 
speaks of the meeting in a letter : 

.... To Brother Buckley's assertion, made a short time before, that 
women shoald not be allowed to vote becaase the majority of Spiritaalists, 
Christian Scientists and all false religions were women, Miss Shaw replied 
that there was a larger ratio of men in the audience before her than she had 
seen in any Methodist or temperance camp meeting or Chautanqna assembly 
this summer. When Mr. Buckley charged that women were too numerous 
in the false religions to vote, she would remind him that there were three 
women to one man in the Methodist church also ; and she was quite willing 
to match the vast majorities of women in the various religions, false and true, 
with the vast majorities of men at the horse races, variety theaters, police 
stations, jails and penitentiaries throughout the country. She brought the 
house down with, "Too much religion unfits women to vote! Too much vice 
and crime qualifies men to vote!" 

People came from far and near. Fully 3,000 were assembled in that beauti- 
ful amphitheater decorated with the yellow and the red, white and blue. • . 
There hanging by itself was our national suffrage flag, ten by fourteen feet, 
with its regulation red and white stripes, and in the center of its blue comer 
just one great golden star, Wyoming, blazing out all alone. Every cottage in 
the camp was festooned with yellow, and when at night the Chinese lanterns 
on the piazzas were lighted, Lily Dale was as gorgeous as any Fourth of July, 
all in honor of Woman's Day and her coming freedom and equality. 

Our hosts, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Skidmore, are the center of things at Lily 
Dale, and right royal are they in their hospitality as well as their love of 
liberty for all. This camp has been in existence twelve summers, there has 
been no police force, and no disturbance ever has occurred. Every one is 
left to his own sense of propriety of behavior and every one behaves prop- 
erly. 

Miss Anthony still intended, however, to remain at home 
and in the intervals when she was not coaxed away no bride 
ever enjoyed more fully her first experiment at housekeeping. 
All the forty years of travelling up and down the face of the 
earth had not eradicated from her nature the domestic tastes, and 
she loved every nook and corner of the old home made new, go- 
ing from room to room, putting the finishing touches here and 
there, and fairly revelling in the sense of possession. Hospital- 
ity was her strongest instinct, and during all these years she had 
; accepted so much from her friends in Rochester and elsewhere 
without being able to return it, that now she wanted to entertain 



WYOMING — MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKEEPING. 711 

everybody and all at once. The diary speaks often of ten and 
twelve at the table for dinner or tea, and Miss Mary, who con- 
stituted the committee of ways and means, was quite over- 
whelmed with the new regime. The story in the journal runs 
like this : 

Oar dear old friends, Sarah Willis and Mary Hallowell, shared oar first 
Sanday dinner with as. . . . Oar old Abolition friends, Giles B. and 
Catharine F. Stebbins and three or foar others took tea with as tonight. . . 
My old friend Adeline Thomson has come to stay several weeks with as. 
How nice to have my own home to entertain my friends. . . . Anna Shaw 
and niece Lacy came today and we had five others to dinner. A very pleasant 
thing to be able to ask people to stop and dine. . . . Brother D. R., sister 
Anna and niece Maad came today for a week. It is so good to receive them 
in oar own home. D. R. enjoys the fire on the hearth. ... Had Maria 
Porter, Mr. and Mrs. Greenleaf and eleven altogether to tea this evening. 
How I do enjoy iti . . . Who came this day ? O, yes, Mrs. Lydia Avery 
Coonley, of Chicago, her son and her mother, Mrs. Sasan Look Avery, of 
Loaisville, Ey. It makes me so happy to retam some of the coartesies I 
have had in their beaatifal home. . . . Jast before noon Mrs. Greenleaf 
popped into the woodshed with a great sixteen-qaart pail fall of poand balls 
of the most delicioas batter, and we made her stay to dinner. The girl was 
washing and I got the dinner alone : broiled steak, potatoes, sweet corn, 
tomatoes and peach padding, with a cap of tea. All said it was good and I 
enjoyed it hagely. How I love to receive in my own home and at my own 
table I 

/ She went to Warsaw September 17 to help the Wyoming 
/county women hold their convention. The 23d had been set 
apart as Woman's Day at the Western New York Fair, held at 
the Rochester driving park. Mrs. Greenleaf presided ; Miss 
Anthony and Rev. Anna Shaw were the speakers. The former 
spoke briefly, insisting with her usual generosity that the 
honors of the occasion should belong to Miss Shaw.* In the 
course of her few remarks she said : '* We who represent the 
suffrage movement ask not that women be like men, but 
that they may be greater women by having their opinions re- 
spected at the ballot-box. Only men's opinions have prevailed 
/ in this government since it was founded. Enfranchisement 

* Miss Anthony was equally generous in regard to speakers of less renown. She wrote to 
Mrs. Blake during this year: " I felt so happy to give half of my hour at Syracuse to Mrs. C„ 
so that splendid audience might see and hear her. And I am always glad to surrender my 
time to any unknown speakers whom we find promising; but first they ought to have tried 
their powers at their home meetings and in rural districts." 



712 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

^Ba7s to every man outside of the State prisons, the insane and 
idiot asylums : ' Your judgment is sound ; your opinions are 
worthy of being crystallized in the laws of the land.' Disfran- 
chisement says to all women : ' Your judgment is not sound ; 
your opinions are not worthy of being counted.' Man is the 
superior, woman the subject, under the present condition of 
political affairs, and until this great wrong is righted, igno- 
rant men and small boys will continue to look with disdain on 
the opinion of women." 

From the time that Mrs. Stanton had decided to return to 
America for the remainder of her days, Miss Anthony had 
hoped they might have a home together and finish their life- 
work of history and reminiscence. When she learned that 
her friend, with a widowed daughter and a bachelor son, 
contemplated taking a house in New York, she was greatly 
distressed, as she felt that this would be the end of all her 
plans. She wrote her immediately : 

We have jost retamed from the Unitarian church where we listened to Mr. 
Gannett's rare dissertation on the religion of Lowell ; bat all the time there 
was an inner wail in my soul, that by your fastening yourself in New York 
City I coaldn't help yon carry oat the dream of my life— which is that yon 
should take all of year speeches and articles, carefully dissect them, and put 
your best utterances on each point into one essay or lecture ; first deliver 
them in the Unitarian church on Sunday afternoon, and then publish in a 
nice volume, just as Phillips culled out his best. Tour Reminiscences give 
only light and incidental bits of your life— all good but not the greatest of 
yourself. This is the first time since 1850 that I have anchored myself to any 
particular spot, and in doing it my constant thought was that you would 
come here, where are the documents necessary to our work, and stay for as 
long, at least, as we must be together to put your writings into systematic 
shape to go down to posterity. I have no writings to go down, so my ambi- 
tion is not for myself, but it is for one by the side of whom I have wrought 
these forty years, and to get whose speeches before audiences and committees 
has been the delight of my life. 

Well, I hope you will do and be as seemeth best unto yourself, still I can 
not help sending you this inner groan of my soul, lest you are not going to 
make it possible that the thing shall be done first which seems most important 
to me. Then, too, I have never ceased to hope that we would finish the His- 
tory of Woman Suffrage, at least to the end of the life of the dear old Na- 
tional. 



WYOMING MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKEEPING. 713 

Mrs. Stanton's children would not consent to this plan, but 
she came to Rochester for a month's visit in September. It 
was desired by many friends that to the very satisfactory busts 
of Miss Anthony and Lucretia Mott, which had been made by 
Adelaide Johnson, should be added one of Mrs. Stanton, and 
all be placed in the Woman's Building at the World's Fair. 
To accomplish this Miss Anthony rented a large room in the 
adjoining house for a studio and invited the sculptor to her 
home for a number of weeks, until the sittings were finished. 

During Mrs. Stanton's visit Miss Anthony entertained the 
Political Equality Club and a large company of guests, the 
evening being devoted to the subject of the admission of women 
to Rochester University. A number of the faculty. Congress- 
men Oreenleaf and Baker, several ministers, the principal of 
the free academy — ^about 200 altogether were present and the 
discussion was very animated. Practically all of them be- 
lieved in opening the doors and a letter of approval was read 
from David J. Hill, president of the university. The trustees 
were represented by Dr. E. M. Moore, who was in favor of ad- 
mitting women but declared that it would be impossible unless 
an additional fund of $200,000 was provided beforehand. 
Miss Anthony insisted that the girls should first be admitted 
and then, when a necessity for more money was apparent, it 
would be much easier to raise it. In the course of his remarks 
Dr. Moore said it was more important to educate boys than 
girls because they were the breadwinners. 

The Utica Sunday paper came out a few days later with a 
half -page cartoon representing the university campus ; on the 
outside of the fence were Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton head- 
ing a long procession of girls, books in hand ; standing guard 
over the fence, labeled *' prejudice and old fogyism," was Dr. 
Moore pointing proudly to the " breadwinners," who con- 
sisted of two confused and struggling masses, one engaged in 
a ''cane rush " and the other in a fight over a football. This 
little incident merely proved the oft-repeated assertion that 
these two women never were three days together without stir- 
ring up a controversy, in which the opposing forces invariably 



714 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

were worsted and public sentimeut was moved up a notch in 
the direction of larger liberty for woman. 

Together they visited the palatial home, at Auburn, of Eliza 
Wright Osborne, daughter of Martha C. Wright, where they 
were joined by Elizabeth Smith Miller, daughter of Gerrit 
Smith ; and there were delightful hours of reminiscence and 
chat of mutual friends, past and present. The diary shows 
that Miss Anthony purchased a full set of books to join the 
Emerson and Browning classes this year, but there is no 
record of attendance save at one meeting. One entry says : 
" Dancing to the dentist's these days.'* Another tells of for- 
getting to go to a luncheon after the invitation had been ac- 
cepted ; and still another of inviting a number of friends to 
tea and forgetting all about it. 

In November she went again to Auburn to the State con- 
vention, remaining four days. The Daily Advertiser said : 
" Miss Susan B. Anthony, the grand old woman of the equal 
rights cause, was then introduced and spoke at length upon 
the objects for which she had labored so faithfully all her life. 
Except for her gray hair and a few wrinkles, no one would 
suppose the speaker to be in her seventy-second year. The 
full, firm voice, the active manner and clear logic, all belonged 
to a young woman . * ' At the close of the convention Mrs, 
Osborne gave a reception in her honor, attended by nearly one 
hundred ladies. 

By invitation of the Unitarian minister. Rev. W. C. Gan- 
nett, Miss Anthony participated with himself and Rabbi Max 
Lansberg in Thanksgiving services at the Unitarian church. 
The topic was ** The Unrest of the Times a Cause for Thank- 
fulness,'' as indicated by *'The Woman, the Social and the 
Religious Movements." Miss Anthony responded to the first 
in a concise address, considered under twelve heads and not 
occupying more than that number of minutes in delivery, be- 
ginning with Ralph Waldo Emerson's declaration, '* A whole- 
some discontent is the first step toward progress," and giving 
a resume of women's advancement during the past forty 
years, due chiefly to dissatisfaction with their lot. 



WYOMING — MISS ANTHONY GOES TO HOUSEKEEPING* 715 

/ 

It had not been an easy matter for Miss Anthony to have 
even this fragment of a year at home. From many places 
she had received letters begging her to come to the assist- 
ance of societies and conventions, and she was just as anxious 
to go as they were to have her. The most urgent of these 
appeals came from Mrs. Johns, of Kansas, where a constitu- 
tional convention was threatened and the women wanted a 
suffrage amendment. When Miss Anthony did not go to the 
spring convention, Mrs. Johns wrote, April 18: **I can 
never tell you how I missed you, and the people — they seemed 
to think they must have you. Letter after letter came asking, 
' Is there no way by which we can get Miss Anthony ? ' * * 
When she declined to go to the fall convention, Mrs. Johns 
wrote, November 26: '* I declare it seemed as if I did not 
know how to go on without you, and our women felt just as I 
did. We have had you with us so often that we depended on 
your presence more than we knew." In another long letter 
she said : 

I hope the national association will not leave Kansas to work oat her own 
salvation. Sarely yoa, to whom we owe manlcipal saffrage, are not going 
to fail to come to as at this awfal janctare I Dear Aant Sasan, yoa won't get 
any woonds here. I will take charge of the office and make the roates, which 

I am able to do well ; I will speak ; I will organize ; I will do anything 
yoa think best, and there will be nobody inqairing what yoa do with funds, 
and there will be no disgraceful charges and counter-charges, unless I am 
greatly mistaken in Kansas women and in myself. We all love yoa here 
and we want the cause to succeed more than we want personal aggrandize- 
ment. 

Mrs. Johns persuaded Mrs. Avery to join in her plea and 
finally Miss Anthony could hold out no longer, but December 

II wrote to the latter : ** I have been fully resolved all along not 
to go to Kansas during this first campaign, because I felt that 
my threescore and ten and two years added ought to excuse me 
from the fearful exposure ; still, since you and dear Laura are 
left so deserted and will be so heartbroken if I stick to my re- 
solve, I will say yes, tuck on my coat and mittens and start. 

But alas ! how soon must that be ? I am thoroughly in the 



LIFE AMD WORK OF 8USAH B. AKTHONY. 

dark a3 to when and where I shalt be 
wanted to begin, but I will do my level 
at," 

The closing days of 1891 were devoted 
to the voluminous correspondence which 
preceded every national convention. The 
large number of letters on file from prom- 
' inent senators and representatives show 
' that Miss Anthony was keeping an eye on 
the committees and pulling the wires to 
' have known friends placed on those which 
would report on woman suffrage. " I am 
in full sympathy with you upon the 
question of woman's enfranchisement," 
wrote Senator Dolph, of Oregon, "and 
also with your effort to secure a chairman 
of the committee who favors the movement 
and is able to present it with intelligence 
and ability." Speaker Reed closed his 
letter by saying, " When the eleventh 
hour comes, we all shall flock in, clam- 
orous for pennies." Words of encour- 
agement were received from many others, 
and Senator and ex-Governor Francis E. 
Warren, of Wyoming, wrote : " I am 
always in harness for woman suffrage 
wherever I may be. My spoken and 
written testimony for a score of years has 
been in its praise and of its perfect work- 
ing and results in Wyoming." 




CHAPTER XL. 

IGNORED BY THE PARTIES — ^APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 

1892. 

N her way to the convention of 1892, Miss 
Anthony stopped in New York in response to an 
urgent letter from Mrs. Stanton, now comfort- 
ably ensconced in a pleasant flat overlooking 
^ Central Park, saying that unless she came and 
took her bodily to Washington she should not be able to go. 
'' All the influences about me urge to rest rather than action/' 
she wrote — exactly what Miss Anthony had feared. She was 
now in her seventy-seventh year and naturally her children 
desired that she should give up public work; but Miss 
Anthony knew that inaction meant rust and decay and, as 
her fellow-worker was in the prime of mental vigor, she was 
determined that the world should continue to profit by it. 
Her address this year was entitled **The Solitude of Self," 
considered by many one of her finest papers. 
f Mrs. Stanton received a great ovation at the opening ses- 
sion, January 16, but this proved to be her last appearance at 
a national convention. For more than forty years she had 
presided with a grace and dignity which never had been sur- 
passed, and now she begged that the scepter, or more properly 
speaking the gavel, might be transferred to Miss Anthony, 
whose experience had been quite as extended as her own. The 
delegates yielded to her wishes and Miss Anthony was elected 
national president. The office of chairman of the executive 
committee was abolished ; Mrs. Stanton and Lucy Stone were 
made honorary presidents, and Rev. Anna H. Shaw vice-pres- 

ident-at-large. 

(717) 



I 



718 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Miss Anthony presided over the ten sessions of the conven- 
tion and they required a firm hand, for the discussions were 
spirited, as the questions considered were important. Among 
them were the work to be done at the World's Fair ; the open- 
ing of the fair on Sunday ; the proposition to hold every 
alternate convention in some other city than Washington ; the 
plan to carry suffrage work into the southern States ; the ad- 
visability of making another campaign in Kansas ; and other 
matters on which there was a wide difference of opinion. 

John B. Allen, of Washington, had introduced in the Senate, 
hnd Halbert S. Greenleaf in the House, a joint resolution pro- 
posing an amendment to the Constitution extending the right 
to women to vote at all federal elections. The House Judiciary 
Committee, January 18, granted a hearing to such speakers as 
should be selected by the national convention then in session. 
Miss Anthony, Mrs. Stanton, Lucy Stone and Mrs. Hooker 
were chosen. This was the first Democratic committee before 
whom an appeal had been made ; they listened courteously, 
but brought in no report on the question. 

The Senate committee granted a hearing January 20, and 
three-minute addresses were made by eighteen women repre- 
senting as many States. Before they left the room, Senator 
Hoar moved that the committee make a favorable report and 
the motion was seconded by Senator Warren, Senator Blair 
also voting in favor. Senators Vance, of North Carolina, and 
George, of Mississippi, voted in the negative. Senators Quay 
and Carlisle were absent. 

During the convention the district suffrage society gave a 
reception in the parlors of the Wimodaughsis club house. 
Later, Mrs. Noble, wife of the Secretary of the Interior, issued 
cards for a reception in honor of Miss Anthony, Mrs. Stanton 
and Lucy Stone. It was attended by members of the Cabinet, 
Senate, House, diplomatic corps and many others prominent 
in official and social life. 

As Miss Anthony had no longer her comfortable quarters at 
the Riggs House free of all expense, she did not linger in 
Washington, but went to Philadelphia for a week with the 



IGNORED BY THE PARTIES — APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 719 

friends there and reached home February 6. " I send congrat- 
ulations, I always wanted you to be president," wrote Mrs. 
Johns. *'Now can't you come to our Kansas City Inter-State 
Convention ? We do need you so and there wouldn't be stand- 
ing room if you were there." And later: *'Do any of my 
wails reach you ? The Kansas City people plead for you to come 
if only to be looked at. Is there any hope ?" Miss Anthony 
was perfectly willing to make a winter campaign in Kansas, 
but her friends insisted that there were plenty of younger 
women to do this work and she should wait till spring. So 
Anna Shaw, Mary Seymour Howell and Florence Balgarnie, 
of England, went to the assistance of the women there, and 
Rachel Foster Avery gave $1,000 to this canvass. 
f Every day at home was precious to Miss Anthony. Some- 
times on Sunday afternoon she went to Mount Hope, on whose 
sloping hillsides rest the beloved dead of her own family and 
many of the friends of early days ;^ or she walked down to the 
long bridge which spans the picturesque Oenesee river and com- 
mands a fine view of the beautiful Lower Falls. Occasionally a 
friend called with a carriage and they took the charming seven- 
mile drive to the shore of Lake Ontario. Sunday mornings she 
listened to Mr. Gannett's philosophical sermons ; and through 
the week there were quiet little teas with old friends whom she 
had known since girlhood, but had seen far too seldom in all the 
busy years. Instead of forever giving lectures she was able to 

; hear them from others ; and she could indulge to the fullest, on 

' the big new desk, her love of letter-writing, while the immense 
work of the national association was always pressing. She 

r had a number of applications for articles from various maga- 
zines and newspapers, but her invariable reply was, '* I have 
no literary ability; ask Mrs. Stanton;" and no argument 

I could convince her that she could write well if she would give 
the time to it. 

She addressed the New York Legislature in April in refer- 
ence to having women sit as delegates in the approaching Con- 

* In the center of the Anthony lot, not far from the main gateway, is a square monument 
of Medina granite, the four sides of its cap-stone inscribed Liberty, Justice, Fraternity, 
Eqoality. 



720 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

stitutional Convention. In response to a request from the 
Rochester Union and Advertiser, she wrote an earnest letter 
advocating the opening of the World's Fair on Sunday, and 
giving many strong reasons in favor. On April 22, she joined 
Miss Shaw, who was lecturing at Bradford, Penn., and Sunday 
afternoon addressed an audience which packed the opera house. 
The next day she organized a suffrage club of seventy members 
among the influential women of that city. After leaving there 
Rev. Anna Shaw, herself an ordained Protestant Methodist 
minister, wrote her that she had been shut out of several 
churches because she had addressed an audience at the Lily 
Dale Spiritualist camp meeting. She said: ''I told them 
that I would speak to 5,000 people on woman suffrage any- 
where this or the other side of Hades if they could be got 
together." 

The first week in May, at the urgent invitation of her good 
friends, Smith G. and Emily B. Ketcham, of Grand Rapids, 
Miss Anthony attended their silver wedding. From this 
pleasant affair she went to the Michigan Suffrage Convention 
at Battle Creek, where she visited an old schoolmate, Mrs. 
Sarah Hyatt Nichols. She reached Chicago in time for the 
biennial meeting of the General Federation of Woman's Clubs. 
Special trains were run from New York and Boston, Central 
Music Hall was crowded and numerous elegant receptions were 
given for the 300 delegates from all parts of the country. 
Many eminent women sat upon the platform, among them the 
president of the federation, Mrs. Charlotte Emerson Brown, 
Frances E. Willard, Susan B. Anthony, Julia Ward Howe, 
May Wright Sewall, Jenny June Croly and Dr. Sarah Hackett 
Stevenson, all of whom were heard at different times during 
the convention. Miss Anthony was the guest of Lydia Avery 
Coonley, whose mother wrote to Mary Anthony : 

I have been intending for several days to tell yon that however year sister 
may have been regarded forty years ago, she is today the most popalar woman 
in these United States. The federation closed, as yon probably know, on 
Friday night. Daring the meetings she was several times asked to come 
forward on the platform, which she did to the manifest gratification of the 
people, saying something each time which "brought down the house." On 



IGNORED BY THE PARTIES — APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 721 

the last night a note was sent to the president asking that ** Susan B./' Julia 
Ward Howe and Ednah D. Cheney would please step forward. They came, 
but only your sister spoke and what she said was vociferously cheered over 
and over again. 

I The business committee of the National Council — Miss Wil- 
lard, Mrs. Sewall, Mrs. Foster Avery, Miss Anthony and 
others — met in Chicago the same week, the principal subject 
jof consideration being the Woman's Congress to be held the 
/next year during the World's Fair. While in the city Miss 
Anthony gave a number of sittings to Lorado Taft, the sculp- 
tor. Miss Willard had asked that he might make the bust to 
I be placed in the gallery of famous women at the World's Fair, 
she herself to be responsible for all expenses. "Come and 
spend a week with me in my home," she wrote, ** while he 
prepares a model of that statesmanlike head, the greatest of 
them all." Desirous of pleasing her, Miss Anthony agreed, 
but at once many of the strong-minded protested that the bust 
must be made by a. woman. 

A number of amusing letters were exchanged. From Miss 
Willard: "Mr. Taft is the most progressive believer in 
woman and admirer of you, dear Susan, that I know. He is 
in full sympathy with all of our ideas. I am sure that as a 
friend of mine, appreciated by me as highly as you are by any 
woman living, you will not place me in the position of declin- 
ing to have this work done. Please do not take counsel of 
women who are so prejudiced that, as I once heard said, they 
would not allow a male grasshopper to chirp on their lawn ; 
but out of your own great heart, refuse to set an example to 
such folly." 

Mr. Taft himself wrote Miss Anthony : "I can put myself 
in your place sufficiently to appreciate in part the objections 
which you or your friends may feel toward having the work 
done by a man. My only regret is that I am not to be allowed 
to pay this tribute to one whom I was early taught to honor 
and revere. . . . Come to think of it, I believe I am pro- 
voked after all. Sex is but an accident, and it seems to me 

that it has no more to do with art than has the artist's com- 
Ant. — 46 



722 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

plexion or the political party he votes with." Again from 
Miss Willard : ''Do you not see, my friend and comrade, that 
having engaged a noble and large-minded young man, who be- 
lieves as we do, to make that bust, engaged him in good faith 
and announced it to the public, it is a ' little rough on me,' as 
the boys say, for my dear sister to wish me to break my con- 
tract ? We can not have too many busts of you, so let Miss 
Johnson go on and make hers, and let me have mine, and let 
those other women make theirs, and we will yet have one of 
them in the House of Representatives at Washington, the other 
in the Senate, the third in the White House I . • . My 
dear mother and Anna wish to be remembered to you, know- 
ing that you are one of our best and most trusted friends, only 
I must say that you are a naughty woman in this matter of the 
*statoot.'" Miss Anthony's common sense finally induced 
her to waive objections and she gave Mr. Taf t as many sittings 
as he desired. When the work was finished Miss Willard 
wrote: "My beloved Susan, your statue is perfect. Lady 
Henry and I think that one man has seen your great, benignant 
/SOul and shown it in permanent material." 

The 25th of May Miss Anthony attended a meeting of the 
Ohio association at Salem, where had been held in April, 1850, 
Ithe second woman's rights convention in all history. There 
was present one of the pioneers who had called that conven- 
tion, Emily, wife of Marius Robinson, editor of the Anti- 
Slavery Bugle. Miss Anthony read her paper for her, as she 
was over eighty years old, and added her own strong comments, 
of which the report of the secretary said : ''Her burning 
words can never be forgotten, and many a soul must have re- 
sponded to her call for workers to carry to glorious completion 
what was begun in such difficulty." 

There was some talk at this time of holding a Southern 
Woman's Council and Miss Anthony wrote to the Arkansas 
Woman's Chronicle : 

The New England States hold an annual suffrage convention and have done 
so for nearly thirty years, and I do not see any valid reason why the States of 
any section may not have a society or a convention. Larger numbers from the 



IGNORED BY THE PARTIES — APPOINTED TO OFFICE, 723 

six New England States can meet and help each other in Boston, than coald 
possibly go to Washington to get the soul-refreshing which comes through the 
gathering together of kindred spirits from the entire nation. 

As I shall be glad to see the women of the South, of all possible aims and ends, 
meet in council, so I should rejoice to see them hold a southern States' suffrage 
convention. I say this because I want you to know that my heartiest sympa- 
thy goes with you in your effort to call together the women of your section of 
the Union ; and I shall rejoice to see the women of the far-off northwestern 
States doing the same thing. Women should have their local societies and 
meetings, their county, State and section conventions, and then, for our 
great national gathering, each State should send its representatives to Wash- 
ington, there to confer together and go before the committees of Congress to 
urge our claims. What a power women would be if all could but see eye to 
eye in their struggle for freedom I 

She remained at home long enough to prepare the memorials 
to the national political conventions, and June 4 found her at 
Minneapolis ready for the Republican gathering. She was en- 
tertained by Mr. and Mrs. T. B. Walker, and found Mrs. J. 
lEllen Foster also a guest in that hospitable home. The me- 
morial presented by the National-American W. S. A. contained 
the same unanswerable arguments for the enfranchisement of 
women which had been made for so many years, and asked 
for the following plank: ''As a voice in the laws and the 
rulers under which we live is the inalienable right of every 
citizen of a republic, we pledge ourselves, when again in power, 
to place the ballot in the hand of every woman of legal age, as 
the only weapon with which she can protect her person and 
property and defend herself against all aggressive legislation.'* 
, Miss Anthony was notified that she could have a hearing be- 
/fore the platform committee on the evening of June 8. She 
was promptly on hand and was kept standing in the hall out- 
side of the committee room until after 9 o'clock. Finally she 
was so tired she sent for one of the committee to ask how much 
longer she would have to wait. She learned that its chairman, 
J. B. Foraker, of Ohio, refused to preside or call the commit- 
tee to order to hear any argument on woman suffrage. Sena- 
tor Jones, of Nevada, then hunted him up and asked if he 
might preside in his place, and permission being given she 
was invited into the room. She spoke for thirty minutes as 



724 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

only a woman could speak who had suffered the persecution of 
an Abolitionist before the Republican party was born, who 
had been loyal to that party throughout all the dark days of 
the Civil War, who had not once repudiated its principles in 
all the years which had since elapsed. She pleaded that now 
she and the women she represented might have its support and 
recognition in their right to representation at the ballot-box. 
This committee was composed of twoscore of the most promi- 
nent men in the Republican party and, at the close of Miss 
Anthony's address, every one in the room arose and many 
crowded about her, giving her the most earnest assurance of 
their belief in the justice of her cause, but telling her frankly 
that they could not put a woman suffrage plank in their plat- 
form as the party was not able to carry the load I The plank 
eventually adopted read as follows : 

We demand that every citizen of the United States shall he allowed to cast 
one free and unrestricted hallot in all pahlic elections, and that sach hallot 
shall be counted as cast; that such laws shall be enacted and enforced as will 
secure to every citizen, be he rich or poor, native or foreign, white or black, 
this sovereign right guaranteed by the Constitution. The free and honest 
popular ballot, the just and equal representation of all the people, as well as 
their just and equal protection under the laws, are the foundation of our re- 
publican institutions, and the party will never relax its efforts until the in- 
tegrity of the ballot and the purity of elections shall be guaranteed and pro- 
tected in every State. 

I This was identical with the one adopted in 1888, at which 
time a number of women had telegraphed the chairman asking 
if the convention intended it to apply to women, and he had 
answered that he did not understand it to have any such in- 
tention. Therefore the women who went to the Republican 
convention of 1892 asking for bread, received instead '* the 
water in which the eggs had been boiled." 

There were present at this convention two regularly ap- 
pointed women delegates from Wyoming, and the difference 
in the attention bestowed upon them and upon those who came 
to press the claims of the great class of the disfranchised, 
ought to have been an object lesson to all who assert that 
women will lose the respect of men when they enter politics. 



/ 



IGNORED BY THE PARTIES — APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 725 

Not a newspaper in the country had a slur to cast on these 
women delegates. The Boston Glohe made this pertinent com- 
ment : "An elective queen in this country is no more out of 
place than one seated by hereditary consent abroad. It is no 
rash prediction to assert that the child is now born who will 
see a woman in the presidential chair. Thomas Jefferson will 
not be fully vindicated until this government rests upon the 
consent of all the governed . ' ' 
After just five days at home Miss Anthony left for Chicago 
. to attend the Democratic National Convention, June 21, which 
was requested to adopt the following plank: "Whether we 

 view the suffrage as a privilege or as a natural right, it be- 
I longs equally to every citizen of good character and legal age 

 under government ; hence women as well as men should enjoy 
vthe dignity and protection of the ballot in their own hands." 

Miss Anthony and Isabella Beecher Hooker took rooms at 
the Palmer House and the latter mad^ arrangements for the 
hearing before the resolution committee, which was assembled 
in one of the parlors, Henry Watterson, of Louisville, chair- 
man. The ladies made their speeches, were courteously heard, 
I politely bowed out, and the platform was as densely silent on 
khe question of woman suffrage as it had been during its whole 
pistory. Mrs. Hooker remained alone in the convention un- 
til 2 o'clock in the morning, hoping to get a chance to address 
that body. She had not been fooled as many times as Miss 
Anthony, who returned to the hotel and went to bed. 

The Union Signal, Prances E. Willard, editor, spoke thus 
of the occasion : 

That heroic figare, Sasan B. Anthony, sure to stand oat in history as 
plainly as any of oar presidents, has given added significance to the two 
great political conventions of the year. Neither party has recognized her 
plea, but both have innamerable adherents who openly declare themselves in 
favor of her principles. She states that this year she felt for the first time 
that she had a pivot on which to hang her qaadrennial plea, and that pivot 
was Wyoming, the men of that eqaal-minded State in both conventions hold- 
ing ap her hands. Miss Anthony's pathetic eyes reveal that she has attained 
to loneliness — the gaerdon of great spirits who straggle from any direction 
toward the mountain tops of human liberty. Bat on the heights such souls 
meet God, and one day all women shall call her blessed. 



( 



726 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

The National Prohibition Convention at Cincinnati, June 
30, was not visited by Miss Anthony, as she felt that the 
women of this party needed no assistance in looking after the 
interests of suffrage. The third plank in the platform there 
adopted read : ''No citizen should be denied the right to vote 
on account of sex.'' 

From Chicago she went directly to Kansas to look after the 
fences in that State. Mrs. Johns and Anna Shaw joined her 
and they spoke before the Chautauqua Assembly at Ottawa, 
June 27, going thence to Topeka, as Miss Anthony expressed 
it, ''to watch the State Republican Convention." They re- 
ceived a hearty greeting and she was invited to address the 
convention June 30. The Capital said: " There were loud 
calls for Susan B. Anthony and as she advanced to the plat- 
form she was greeted with the most cordial applause." In 
the evening a reception was given in the Senate chamber to 
the ladies in attendance at the convention. Miss Anthony, 
Mrs. Johns and Mrs. May Belleville Brown addressed the res- 
olution committee. The platform was reported with a plank 
favoring the submission to the voters of a woman suffrage 
amendment, which was enthusiastically adopted — 455 to 
267 — in the largest Republican convention ever held in 
Kansas.' 

Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw then hastened to Omaha for 
the first national convention of the People's party July 4. 
They arrived about 9 p. m., July 2, to find they were booked 
for speeches at the Unitarian church that evening and the 
audience had been waiting since 7:30, so they rushed thither, 
hot, dusty and tired, and made their addresses. Sunday 
afternoon they went to a workingwomen's meeting in the ex- 
position building and heard Master Workman Powderly for 
the first time. At his invitation Miss Anthony also spoke. 

> At the eonvention of Bepnblican clubs a few days previous, Senator Ingalls, haTliig been 
defeated for re-eleotion to the Senate and feeling somewhat hnmbled, said in his speech : 
"I believe every man onght to be a politician; I might say every woman also. If a plank 
endorsing woman suffrage were inserted in the Republican platform, I would stand upon it." 
Ten years before, in this same city, he had declared it to be " that obscene dogma, whose advo- 
cates are long-haired men and short-haired women, the unsezed of both sexes, human capons 
and epicenes." 



IGNORED BY THE PARTIES APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 727 

The People's party, from its inception, had recognized 
women as speakers and delegates and claimed to be the party 
of morality and reform, but after a day at the convention Miss 
Anthony writes in her diary : ' * They are quite as oblivious 
( to the underlying principle of justice to women as either of the 
Lold parties and, as a convention, still more so/' The resolu- 
tion committee refused to grant the ladies even an opportunity 
to address them, which had been done willingly by the Repub- 
licans and Democrats. Their platform contained no reference 
to woman suffrage except that in the long preamble occurred 
the sentence : ** We believe that the forces of reform this day 
' organized will never cease to move forward until every wrong 
is righted, and equal rights and equal privileges securely 
'established for all the men and women of this country." This 
;sentiment, however, was universally accepted by the delegates 
.as including the right of suffrage. 

Miss Anthony spoke at the Beatrice Chautauqua Assembly, 
and then returned to Rochester. She had some time before 
received a letter from Chancellor John H. Vincent saying : 
" The subject of woman suffrage will be presented at Chautau- 
qua on Saturday, July 30, 1892. A prominent speaker will 
be secured to present the question as forcibly as possible. In 
behalf of the Chautauqua management, I take pleasure in 
extending to you a hearty invitation to be present and take a 
place upon the platform on that occasion. Trusting that you 
will be able to accept this invitation, I am, faithfully yours." 
She had had a long, hot and fatiguing trip and her cool, 
spacious home was so restful that she decided to defer her visit 
to Chautauqua until later in the season.^ On August 8, Miss 
Shaw, Mrs. Foster Avery and Miss Anthony, who had been 
having a little visit together, started from Rochester for Chau- 
tauqua, where the Reverend Anna was to debate the question 
of woman suffrage with Rev. J. M. Buckley, editor New York 
Christian Advocate. She gave her address amidst a succession 

* Henry B. Blackwell delivered the address at Chautaaqna. At its close he asked all who 
were opposed to woman saffraere to rise, and aboat twenty persons stood up. He then asked 
all who were In favor to stand, and the great audience, filling the huge amphitheater, rose 
in a body. 



728 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of cheers and applause. Miss Anthony sitting on the platform 
with her, an honor rarely accorded at the assembly. In the 
evening a delightful reception was given to the three ladies in 
the Hall of Philosophy. Dr. Buckley made his reply the next 
day to an audience so cold that even his supreme self-satisfac- 
tion was disturbed. If any one thing ever has been demon- 
strated at Chautauqua, by those speeches and all preceding and 
following them on the same question, it is that the sentiment 
of the vast majority of the people who annually visit this great 
assembly is in favor of woman suffrage. 

After speaking at the Cassadaga Lake camp meeting, August 
24, Miss Anthony went in September to the Mississippi Valley 
Conference at Des Moines. It was thought that possibly by 
holding a great convention in the West, large numbers in that 
section of the country and the States along the Mississippi 
<;ould attend who would find it inconvenient to go to Washing- 
ton. She was glad to give her co-operation and spoke and 
worked valiantly through all the sessions. From Des Moines 
she went to Peru, Neb., at the urgent invitation of President 
' George L. Farnham, to address the State Normal School.*" 

Early in October she began her tour of the State of Kansas 
under the auspices of the Republican central committee. She 
was accompanied one week by Mrs. Johns, and then each went 
with some of the men who were canvassing the State. Mrs. 
Johns made Republican speeches ; Miss Anthony described the 
record of the party on human freedom and urged them to com- 
plete that roll of honor by enfranchising women. The cam- 
paign managers were very much dissatisfied because she talked 
suffrage instead of tariff and finance, but as shid was paying 
her own travelling expenses and contributing her services, she 
reserved the right to speak on the only subject in which she 
felt a vital interest. If the Republicans had won the election. 
Miss Anthony and Mrs. Johns expected that of course they 
would take up the question of woman suffrage and carry it to 

^When she spoke in the New York State Teachers* Convention in 1898, the first time a 
woman's Yoiee had been heard in that body, Professor Farnham, then superintendent of 
the Syraense pnblio schools, was one of the three men who came up and eongratolated 
her. 



IQNOBBD BY THE PARTIES — APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 729 

success ; but the State was carried by the newly formed Peo- 
ple's party. 

As soon as she was thoroughly rested and renovated in her 
own home, after this hard campaign, Miss Anthony left for the 
State convention at Syracuse, November 14.^ The Standard, 
intending to compliment the ladies, said : ''The loud-voiced, 
aggressive woman of other days was not here. In her place 
were low-voiced, quietly-dressed, womanly women, and those 
who expected to see the 'woman rioter' of the past failed to 
find one of the sort. The graceful, dignified and quiet woman 
of today bears no likeness to some who have gone before, who 
thought to break through and gain their desires." 

A contemporary called the paper down as follows : " When 
it is remembered that Susan 6. Anthony was one of the origi- 
nators of the movement, that Lucy Stone and Mrs. Greenleaf 
and a host of others who have marched right along in the suf- 
^frage ranks from the beginning, were also the leaders in this 
/ ' low-voiced ' assembly who came on tip-toe and acted in pan- 
/ tomime, the compliment, to say the least, has negative quali- 
ties.'' An interview on this statement contains the following 
paragraph : 

''It simply shows," said Miss Anthony, smiling, ''how differently the 
question is regarded now. Among the women who were pioneers in the 
movement were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and myself. I don't think it proba- 
ble that we are any sweeteMaced or that oar voices are any more melodioas 
than they were thirty years ago. It is only that the whole matter was 
regarded with such horror and aversion then that any one connected with it 
was looked upon in a disagreeable light; it is very different now." Her 
pleasant face, with a suggestion of her Quaker descent in its soft bands of gray 
hair, took on a gently reminiscent expression, which her visitor could not 
help but contrast amusedly with the imaginary portrait of the redoubtable 
Amazon that in her early years was conjured up by the sound of Susan B. 
Anthony's name. 

Thanksgiving Day she attended service at the Universalist 
church and comments in her diary : " Mr. Morrill, the asso- 

^ While heie Miss Anthony received a telegram : " Greeting, gratitode and good-by to the 
noblest Boman of them all and her brare host, from Isabel Somerset and Frances B. Wil- 
lard." They had expected to stop in Rochester and visit her before leaTing f6r England, but 
had gone to New York by another route. 



730 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

ciate pastor, spoke on ' The undiscovered Church without a 
Bishop; ' Mr. Gannett, 'The undiscovered State without a 
King ; ' Mr. Lansberg, * Many States in One ; ' all good, but 
all alike gave not the faintest hint of any undiscovered Amer*^ 
ica, where the male head of the family should not be con- 
sidered ' divinely appointed.' I had hard work to keep my 
peace.'* 

The nezt day she went to Buffalo to address the alumnae of 
the ladies' academy, and was entertained by Miss Charlotte 
Mulligan, founder of the missionary school for boys. During 
this time she was investigating the new law permitting women 
to vote for county school commissioners in New York, and 
found to her disgust that by the use of the words '' county 
clerk ' ' instead merely of ' ' clerk who prints and distributes 
the ballots," all the women of the large towns and cities were 
still disfranchised ; just as the law of 1880 had used the words 
'' school meeting," which also cut off the women of the cities. 
This was another illustration of the manner in which every 
step of the way to suffrage for women has been made as diffi- 
cult as possible. 

/ In December Miss Anthony became an office-holder I It 
happened in this way : Her neighbor. Dr. Jonas Jones, who 
y had been one of the trustees of the State Industrial School 
I located at Rochester, died on the 4th. She immediately wrote 
to Governor Roswell P. Flower requesting that a woman be 
put on the board in his place, in addition to the one already 
serving (Mrs. Emil Kuichling), and suggested Mrs. Lansberg, 
wife of the rabbi ; at the same time she asked Mary Seymour 
Howell, who resided in Albany, to see the governor and use 
her influence. She did so and found he was quite willing to 
appoint a woman but would not consider any but Miss An- 
thony. She, however, was away from home so much she 
thought that in justice to the institution she ought not take 
the position ; but when she learned that her refusal might re- 
sult in a man's being given the place, she telegraphed her 
willingness to accept. She was appointed at once to fill out 
the unexpired term of Dr. Jones, and May 4, 1893, was re-ap- 



IGNOBBD BY THE PABTIES — APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 731 

pointed by Governor Levi P. Morton for a full term. Of course 
numerous letters and telegrams of congratulation were received 
and the newspapers contained many kind notices, similar in 
tone to this from the Democrat and Chronicle : 

It is a good appointment; a fitting recognition of one of the ablest and best 

women in the commonwealth. There has been a vast amount of cheap wit 

expended upon Miss Anthony during the past years, and although it has been 

almost entirely good-natured it has served to give a wrong impression to the 

unthinking of one of the clearest-headed and most unselfish women ever 

identified with a public movement. . . . Speaking of her appointment 

\ she said: "You see I have been regarded as a hoofed and homed creature 

f for so long that even a little thing touches my heart, and when it comes to 

• being recognized as an American citizen after fighting forty years to prove 

V my citizenship, it begins to look as if we women have not fought in vain." 

. . . A braver-hearted woman than Susan B. Anthony never lived, but 

those who can read between the lines of her remark will not miss the little 

touch of pathos in her pride, and the hint of the disappointments which have 

hurt in the long struggle. 

A new charter for the city of Rochester had been prepared 
and a mass meeting of citizens was announced for December 
12, to hear an exposition of its points. The morning paper 
said : *' By far the most largely attended meeting the Cham- 
ber of Commerce has ever held was that of last evening. The 
large attendance was due to the announcement that the new 
charter would be discussed by Miss Susan B. Anthony, and 
the interest of the meeting was largely due to the fact that, 

true to her colors, she kept her engagement " Miss 

Anthony's commission had been received from the governor 
that day, which fact was announced by President Brickner as 
he introduced her, and she was greeted with cheers. In the 
course of her speech she said : 

Since promising to address this body, I have tried in vain to find some 
word which would settle the question with every member present in favor of 
so amending the charter as to give our women equal voice in conducting the 
affairs of the city. It seems such a self-evident thing that the mother's 
opinion should be weighed and measured in the political scales as well as that 
of her son. It is so simple and just that the wife's judgment should be 
respected and counted as well as the husband's. And who can give the 
reason why the sister's opinion should be ignored and the brother's honored? 
.... Over 6,000 women of this city pay taxes on real estate, and who 



/ 



732 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

fihall say they are not as much interested in every qaestion of financial ex- 
penditure as any 6,000 men ; in the public parks, street railways, grade cross- 
ings, pavements, bridges, etc.? And not only the 6,000 tax-paying women, 
but all the women of the city are equally interested in the sanitary con- 
dition of our streeits, alleys, schools, police stations, jails and asylums. . . . 

To repair the damages of society seems to be the mission assigned to 
women, and we ask that the necessary implements shall be placed in their 
hands. But, you say, women can be appointed to see to these matters without 
voting. Yes, but they are not ; and if they were, without the ballot they 
would be powerless to effect the improvements they might find necessary. If 
the women of this city had the right to vote, those on the board of charities, 
for instance, would not be compelled year after year to beg each member of 
every new council for the appointment of some women as city physicians, as 
scores of them have done for the past six or eight years. Had we the right 
to vote, do you suppose we should have to plead in vain before the two part- 
ies to place women in nomination for the school board ? 

I want this amendment of the charter first, because it is right and just to 
women ; second, that women may have a political fulcrum on which to plant 
their lever for everything they wish to secure through government; third, 
that the opinions of the women of this city may be respected, and there is 
no other way to secure respect but to have them counted with those of men 
in the ballot-box on every possible question which is carried to that tribunal ; 
and fourth, to free the mothers from the cruel taunt of being responsible for 
the character of their grown-up sons while denied all power to control the 
conditions surrounding them after they pass beyond the dooryards of their 
homes. 

She continued by showing the good effects of woman's munic- 
ipal suffrage in England, Canada and also in Kansas, and 
full suffrage in Wyoming ; and closed with an earnest appeal 
for an amendment to the new charter which should confer the 
municipal franchise upon women. A few days later the 
board of trustees took final action on the charter, of which the 
Democrat and Chronicle said : '^ The amendment proposed by 
Miss Susan B. Anthony extending the suffrage to women was 
defeated, although by a close vote. Had there been a full 
meeting of the board it is a question whether it would not have 
been adopted, as several of the members who were not present 
last evening had expressed themselves as favorable.''^ 

> Jean Brooks Greenleaf , at this time in Washington with her hnsband, wrote Miss An- 
thony: 

"I felt heart-eick when I learned the result of the charter business and I am not over it 
yet. I told Mr. Greenleaf I wonld dispose of every bit of taxable property I have In Hochea- 
ter. I can not bear to think that, with so glorious an opportunity to be just, men prefer to 
be so unjust They can help it if they will, those men who speak us so fair. If they would 
make one solid stand for our rights they oould overrule the masses who are not haU so nn- 



IGNOBED BY THE PABTIES — APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 788 

Miss Anthony addressed the Monroe County Teachers' In- 
stitute at Brighton y December 16. The diary records many 
visits to the Industrial School, conferences with the other four- 
teen trustees and much correspondence with the boards of 
similar institutions elsewhere. In her mail this year were 
letters from most of the civilized countries on the globe, among 
them several from the leaders of the movement in New Zea- 
land, saying that her name was more familiar than all others 
there, and asking for advice and encouragement in their work 
of securing the ballot for women.* The following was received 
from Mrs. Kate Beckwith Lee, Dowagiac, Mich.: ^'Mr. 
Bonet, our sculptor, obtained your photograph, and we now 
have your grand face looking down in stone from the front of 
our theater, which was erected as an educator to our people 
and a memorial to my father, P. D. Beckwith, who was liberal 
toward all mankind and a believer in woman's equality, 
and I sincerely hope you may some time see the building." 
The other women sculptured on this handsome edifice are 
George Eliot, George Sand, Rachel, Mary Anderson and Sarah 
Bernhardt. Among the great mass of correspondence, this is 
selected : 

An incident which is of no particular consequence to this inquiry, constrains 
me to write in the hope that you may find time to place upon paper your 
recollection of the connection that my father (the late George H. Thacher, 
then mayor of the city of Albany) had with your anti-slavery meeting in this 
city just before the war. I was too young to have it make a vivid impression 
upon me, but it has sometimes been said that was the first opportunity your 
organization had to freely express its views within the State of New York. I 
will be very grateful if you will permit your memory to go back some thirty 
years and recall that incident.* Yours, John Boyd Thachsb. 

This illustrates the pride which the children of the future 
will have in showing that their parents or grandparents ren- 
dered some assistance to the cause of woman and of freedom. 
Yet Mr. Thacher, who, as a member of the New York Board 

ready to do women jnstiee as they are represented. Qood God I when I think of it I wonder 
how yon have borne it aU these years and not gone wUd." 

' PnU suffrage was granted to the women of New Zealand in 1808. 

* In February, 1861 ; see Chapter XIU. 



734 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of Qeneral Managers of the Columbian Exposition, had the se- 
lection of those who should compose the Woman's Board of 
the State, did not name one who had been identified with the 
great movement for equal rights during the past forty years, 
and had made it possible for women to participate in this cele- 
bration. 

A case which had been commenced in the courts of New York 
in 1891 and had run along through several years, may as well be 
described here as elsewhere. Miss Anthony had but an indirect 
connection with it and it is mentioned more for its utter ridic- 
ulousness than for any other reason. A woman's art association 
in New York City, Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, president. Miss 
Alice Donlevy, secretary, had the promise of a legacy to build 
an academy, and they decided to place a statue or bust at each 
side of the entrance, representing Reform and Philanthropy. 
Miss Anthony was selected for the one and Mrs. Mary Hamil- 
ton Schuyler for the other. The latter, in 1852, founded the 
New York School of Design for Women, had been the friend 
and patron of art, and for many years before her death had 
been noted for her philanthropic work. 

A serious difficulty at once arose in the opposition of Mrs. 
Schuyler's nephew and stepson, Philip Schuyler, who ob- 
jected to the '* disagreeable notoriety." He carried the matter 
into the courts, which of course attracted the comment of all 
the newspapers of the country, pro and con, and caused more 
''disagreeable notoriety" than a dozen statues would have 
done. He obtained a preliminary injunction against the art 
association and then took the case to the supreme court for a 
permanent injunction, on the ground that the ''right of 
privacy " had been violated. The real secret of his objections, 
however, was exposed in his complaint before the supreme 
court. Among the twenty-eight grievances alleged were the 
following : 

Twenty-second.— The said Mary M. Hamilton Schayler took no part what- 
ever in any of the variouB so-called woman's rights agitations, with which the 
aforesaid Sosan B. Anthony was, and is, prominently identified ; and that 
she took no interest in such agitations or movements, and had no sympathy 



IGNORED BY THE PARTIES — ^APPOINTED TO OFFICE. 735 

whatever with them ; and that, as the plaintiff believes, she would have re- 
sented any attempt such as is made by the defendants to couple her name 
with that of the said Susan B. Anthony. 

Twenty-third. — The acts of the defendants in attempting to raise money 
by public subscription for a statue of the said Mary M. Hamilton Schuy- 
ler; in associating her name with the name of Susan B. Anthony, and 
in announcing that the projected statue of her is to be placed on public exhi- 
bition at the Columbian Exposition as a companion piece to a statue of the 
said Susan B. Anthony, constitute, and are an unlawful interference with the 
right of privacy, and a gross and unwarranted outrage upon the memory of 
the said Mary M. Hamilton Schuyler, under the specious pretense of doing 
honor to her memory ; and that the surviving members of her family have 
been, and are, greatly distressed and injured thereby. 

The supreme court continued the injunction, and the art 
association then carried the case up to the court of appeals. 
Here the decision of the lower court was reversed. The opin- 
ion was rendered by Justice Rufus W. Peckham, afterwards 
appointed by President Cleveland to the Supreme Bench of the 
United States. It is not often that a judge of the highest court 
in the State incorporates in a legal decision a compliment to a 
woman, and for this reason the tribute of Justice Peckham is 
the more highly appreciated. After holding that ''persons 
attempting to erect a statue or bust of a woman no longer liv- 
ing, if their motive is to do honor to her, and if the work is to 
be done in an appropriate manner, can not be restrained by 
her surviving relatives,'* he continued : 

Many may, and probably do, totally disagree with the advanced views of Miss 
Anthony in regard to the proper sphere of women, and yet it is impossible to 
deny to her the possession of many of the ennobling qualities which tend to the 
making of great lives. She has given the most unselfish devotion of a long 
life to what she has considered would tend most for the benefit and practical 
improvement of her sex, and she has thus lived almost literally in the face of 
the whole world, and during that period there has never been a single shadow 
of any dark or ugly fact connected with her or her way of life to dim the lustre 
of her achievements and of her efforts. 




CHAPTER XLI. 
world's fair— congress op rkpreskntativk women. 

1893. 

Qk ^TTA^T is not surprising that Miss Anthony writes in 
Naa^l IwSy jjgj, journal at the beginning of the New Year, 

1893: ''The clouds do not lift from my spirit. 
I am simply overwhelmed with the feeling that I 
can not make my way through the work before 
! me." Never a year in all her crowded life opened with such 
a mountain of things to be attended to-H3uSrage conventions, 
council meetings, the great Woman's Congress at the World's 
Fair, State campaigns, Industrial School matters, lecture 
engagements — ^the list seemed to stretch out into infinity, and 
it is no wonder that it appalled even her dauntless spirit. 

The first necessity was to get the Washington annual con- 
vention out of the way. It had been set for an early date this 
^winter, and she left home January 5. Headquarters were at 
Willard's Hotel and the convention opened in Metzerott's 
/^usic Hall, January 15, continuing the usual five days. At 
the opening session Miss Anthony read beautiful tributes by 
/Mrs. Stanton to George William Curtis, John Qreenleaf Whit- 
tier, Ernestine L. Rose and Abby Hutchinson Patton, who had 
died during the year, all earnest and consistent friends of 
woman's equality. Resolutions were adopted recognizing the 
splendid services of Francis Minor, Benjamin F. Butler, Abby 
Hopper Gibbons, Rev. Anna Oliver and a number of other ac- 
tive and efficient workers who also had passed away. 

Miss Anthony, in her president's address, gave a strong, 
cheery account of the past year's work and an encouraging 
ANT.-47 (737) 



738 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

view of the future, and at both day and evening sessions there 
were the usual number of able and entertaining speeches. 
/Reports were made by delegates from thirty-six States. At 
. the business meeting the question again came up of holding 
 the annual convention in Washington at the beginning of each 
1 new Congress and in some other part of the country in alter- 
■nate years. This plan was vigorously opposed by Miss An« 
''Ihony, who said in her protest : 

- The sole object, it seems to me, of this national organization is to bring the 
,' combined influence of all the States upon Congress to secure national legisla- 
tion. The very moment you change the purpose of this great body from 
\ National to State work you have defeated its object. It is the business of the 
States to do the district work ; to create public sentiment; to make a national 
organization possible, and then to bring their united power to the capital and 
focus it on Congress. Our younger women naturally can not appreciate the 
vast amount of work done here in Washington by the National Association 
» in the last twenty-five years. The delegates do not come here as individuals 
f but as representatives of their entire States. We have had these national 
conventions here for a quarter of a century, and every Congress has given 
hearings to the ablest women we could bring from every section. In the 
olden times the States were not fully organized — ^they had not money enough 
to pay their delegates' expenses. We begged and worked and saved the 
money, and the National Association paid the expenses of delegates from 
Oregon and California in order that they might come and bring the influence 
of their States to bear upon Congress. 

Last winter we had twenty-three States represented by delegates. Think 
of those twenty-three women going before the Senate committee, each mak- 
ing her speech, and convincing those senators of the interest in all these 
States. We have educated at least a part of three or four hundred men and 
their wives and daughters every two years to return as missionaries to their 
respective localities. I shall feel it a grave mistake if you vote in favor of a 
.movable convention. It will lessen our influence and our power; but come 
1 what may, I shall abide by the decision of the majority. 

,.' Miss Anthony was warmly supported by a number of dele- 
gates but the final vote resulted : in favor , 37 ; opposed, 28. 
Among the notable letters received by the convention was 
the following from Lucy Stone : "Wherever woman suffragists 
are gathered together in the name of equal rights, there am I 

. always in spirit with them. Although absent, my personal glad 
greeting goes to every one ; to those who have borne the heat 
and burden of the day, and to the strong, brave, younger 



world's PAIB — CONGRESS OF REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN. 739 

workers who have come to lighten the load and complete the 
victory. We may surely rejoice now when there are so many 
gains won and conceded, and when favorable indications are 
on every hand. The way before us is shorter than that be- 
hind; but the work still calls for patient perseverance and 
ceaseless endeavor. The end is not yet in sight, but it 
can not be far away.'' Those who listened little thought that 
this would be the last message ever received from that earnest 
worker of fifty long years. Letters of greeting were sent to her 

/and to Mrs. Stanton. Miss Anthony was unanimously re- 

(^ elected president. 

She lingered for a few days' visit with Mrs. Greenleaf, who 
gave a reception for her, at which Grace Greenwood was one 
of the receiving party. She had a luncheon at Mrs. Waite's, 
wife of the Chief -Justice, and after several other pleasant social 
functions, left Washington February 1.* There was now a 
magnet in New York City and henceforth she always arranged 
her hurried eastern trips so that she might spend a few hours 
or days with Mrs. Stanton, when as in the old time, they 
wrote calls, resolutions and memorials and made plans to 
storm the strongholds. 

/On February 8, Miss Anthony spoke at Warsaw, the guest 
of Mrs. Maud Humphrey ; and for the next week the journal 
says : '' Trying all these days to get to the bottom of my piles 
of accumulated letters." On her seventy-third birthday 
the Political Equality Club gave a reception at the pleasant 
home of Rev. and Mrs. W. C. Gannett, and presented her with 
a handsome silver teapot, spirit lamp and tray. Mrs. George 
Hollister gave her a set of point lace which had belonged to 
her mother, the daughter of Thurlow Weed ; and there were 
numerous other gifts. She wrote to Mrs. Avery on the 23d : 
'' It is just ten years ago this morning, dear Rachel, since we 
two went gypsying into the old world. Well, it was a happy ac- 
quaintance we made then and it has been a blessed decade 

* James G. Blaine died while she was in Washington and the diary says : " He should have 
lived, and the Bepnblicans should hare honored him as their leader. He w<u thatt though 
not chosen by them." 



740 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

which has intervened. Ten years of constant work and thought, 
but ten years nearer the golden day of jubilee ! " 

She arranged a meeting at the Rochester Chamber of Com- 

< merce, March 1, for May Wright Bewail, president National 

^ Council of Women, to speak on the approaching Woman's 

; Congress at the World's Fair. On March 6 she began a brief 

.lecture tour, speaking in Hillsdale, Detroit, Saginaw, Bay 

I City, Grand Rapids, Lansing, Battle Creek, Charlotte and in 

■Toledo. Nine evening addresses, several receptions, and over 

a thousand miles of travel in twelve days, was not a bad 

\^ record for a woman past seventy-three.* 

Among the pleasant letters received through the winter were 
several from the South. Miss Anthony was especially appre- 
ciative of the friendship of southern women, as her part in the 
** abolition '' movement in early times had created a prejudice 
against her, and in later days the sentiment for suffrage had 
not been sufficient to call her into that part of the country, 
where she might form personal acquaintances and friendships. 
> She had, during these months, earnest letters from the women 

• of Italy asking for encouragement and co-operation in their 
^struggles. Many letters came also from teachers, stenogra- 
phers and other wage-earning women, full of grateful acknowl- 

' edgment of their indebtedness to her. There were invitations 
'enough for lectures to fill every month in the year, ranging from 
the Christian Association at Cornell to the Free-thinkers' Club 
in New York, and covering all the grades of belief or non- 
belief between the two. She was asked to contribute to a sym- 
posium on *'The Ideal Man," to write an account of *'The 
Underground Railroad," and to give so many written opinions 
on current topics of discussion that to have complied would 
have kept her at her desk from early morning until the mid- 

, night hour. 

I * Hie newspapers, almost without ezoeption, in all these places, spoke in nnqualified 
praise of Miss Anthony and her work, of her "royal welcome," her "packed andiences," her 
"masterly address," etc Several of them, notably the Bay City Trlbone, contained stronir 
editorial endorsement of woman suffrage. At Lansin^r she addressed the House of Bepre- 
sentatiyes and the next day the bill conferring municipal suffrage on women was voted on; 
88 ayes, 89 nays. It was reconsidered, received a good majority in both Houses and was 

. signed by the governor, but afterwards declared unconstitutional by the supreme court of 

. the State. 



world's fair — CONGRESS OF REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN. 741 

In a letter to a friend she said : '' The other day a million- 
aire who wrote me, * wondered why I didn't have my letters type- 
written.' Why, bless him, I never, in all my fifty years of 
hard work with the pen, had a writing desk with pigeonholed 
and drawers until my seventieth birthday brought me the 
present of one, and never had I even a dream of money 
enough for a stenographer and typewriter. How little those 
who have realize the limitations of those who have not." 

She wrote to Robert Purvis at this time : *' What a mag- 
nificent opening speech Gladstone made, and how splendid 
his final remarks : * It would be misery for me if I had fore- 
gone or omitted in these closing years of my life any measure 
it was possible for me to take towards upholding and promot- 
ing the cause — not of one party or one nation, but of all parties 
and all nations.' So can you and I say with Gladstone, we 
should be miserable but for the consciousness that we have 
done all in our power to help forward every measure for the 
freedom and equality of the races and the sexes." 
^ In April she lectured at a number of places in New York to 
i add to the limited fund which kept the pot boiling at home.' 
She also went to Buffalo to talk over Industrial School matters 
with Mrs. Harriet A. Townsend, president of the Women's 
Educational and Industrial Union, which had proved so great 
a success in that city. On the 28th she spoke before the 
Woman's Columbian Exposition Committee of Cincinnati, 
'* to a very fashionable and representative audience," the En- 
quirer said. For this lecture she received $125. During the 
spring she wrote the Woman's Tribune : 

How splendidly Kansas women voted, and now come suffrage amendments 
in Colorado, New York and Kansas I Well, we mast backle on our armor 
for a triple fight, and we mast shoat more loadly than ever to oar friends all 
oyer the coantry for money to help these States. Although Kansas is the 
most certain to carry the question, nevertheless we must organize every school 
district of every county of each State in which the battle of the ballot for 
woman is to be fought. Organize, agitate, educate, must be our war cry from 
this to the day of the election. 

* The diary ghows a gift for this parpofle, daring the month, of |1S0 from Bachel Foster 
Afery and $60 from Adeline Thomson. 



1 

I 



742 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Today's mail broaght |100 to oar national treasury from Mrs. P. A. Moffett, 
of Fredonia. How my heart leaped for joy as I read her letter and again 
and again looked at her check, and how I ejaculated over and over, '* O 
that a thousand of our good women who wish success to our cause would be 
moved thus to send in their checks I *' Only a very few can go outside to 
work, but many can contribute money to help pay the expenses of those who 
do leave all their home-friends, comforts and luxuries. If the many who 
stay at home and wish, could only believe for a moment that we who go out 
not knowing where our heads will rest when night comes, really love our 
homes as they love theirs, they would vie with each other to throw in their 
mite to make the path smooth for the wayfarers. But we, every one of us 
who can speak acceptably, must do all in our power to persuade the men of 
these States to vote for the amendment. Do let us &11 take to ourselves new 
hope and courage for the herculean task before us. Who will send the next 
$100? O, that we had |10,000 to start with I 

' Miss Anthony and Mrs. Avery met at Mrs. Se wall's for a 
conference on Woman's Congress matters and then went to 
Chicago to attend, by invitation, the formal opening of the 
, Columbian Exposition May 1, 1893. Miss Anthony wrote : 
; " Mrs. Palmer's speech was very fine, covering full equality 
I for woman." Her address the year before at the dedication 
ceremonies contained one of the noblest tributes ever paid to 
women, closing with these beautiful sentences : '' Even more 
important than the discovery of Columbus, which we are gath- 
ered together to celebrate, is the fact that the general govern- 
ment has just discovered woman. It has sent out a flashlight 
from its heights, so inaccessible to us, which we shall answer 
by a return signal when the exposition is opened. What will 
be its next message to us ?" Upon this occasion she was even 
more eloquent. Her keen expose of the absurd platitudes in 
regard to woman's sphere, and her fine defence of women in 
the industrial world, deserve a place among the classics. 
' Since Miss Anthony's part in this great world's exposition 
must necessarily be condensed into small space, it seems most 
satisfactory to place it all together. It has been related in the 
chapter of 1876 how women were denied practically all govern- 
mental recognition in the Centennial. They were determined 
that this should not be the case in 1893. As early as 1889 she 
began making plans to this effect and conferring with other 
prominent women. Several officials, who were in positions 



world's fair— congress of representative women. 743 

to influence action on this question, had declared that '' those 

(suffrage women should have nothing to do with the World's 
Fair ; ' ' and as some women whose social prestige might be 
needed were likely to be frightened off if suffrage were in any 
way connected with the matter, Miss Anthony felt the neces- 
sity of moving very discreetly. As '* those suffrage women " 
had been behind every progressive movement that ever had 
been made in the United States for their own sex, it was hardly 
I possible that they would not be the moving force in this. Miss 
Anthony was not seeking for laurels, however, either for her- 
self or for her cause, but only to carry her point — that women 
should participate in this great national celebration and that 
they should do this with the sanction and assistance of the 
national government. In her plans she had the valuable back- 
ing of Mrs. Spofford, who made it possible for her to remain 
in Washington every winter, gave the use of the Riggs House 
parlors for meetings and aided in many other ways. 

Miss Anthony went quietly about among the ladies in official 
life whom she could trust, and as a result various World's Fair 
meetings were held at the hotel, participated in by Washington's 
influential women, and a committee appointed to wait upon 
Congress and ask that women be placed on the commission. 
She did not appear at these gatherings, and only her few con- 
fidantes knew that she was behind them. Meanwhile it was 
j announced early in January, 1890, that the World's Fair Bill 
\ had been brought before the House, and Miss Anthony at once 
I prepared a petition asking for the appointment of women on 
t the National Board of Management. This was placed in the 
hands of ladies of influence and in a few days one hundred 
and eleven names were obtained of the wives and daughters of 
the judges of the Supreme Court, the Cabinet, senators, repre- 
sentatives, army officials ; as distinguished a list as could be 
secured in the national capital. 

/ This petition was presented to the Senate January 12. It 
/requested that women should be placed on the board with men, 
I but instead, the bill was passed in March creating a commis- 
I sion of men and authorizing them to appoint a number of 



744 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

J women to constitute a ''Board of Lady Managers." These 
115 appointments were intended to be practically of a compli- 
mentary nature, it was not expected that the women would 
take any prominent part, and no particular rule was observed 
in their selection. While perhaps in some States they were 

' not the ablest who might have been found, they were, as a 

[ board, fairly representative. To bring this great body into 
harmonious action and guide it along important lines of work, 
required a leader possessed of a combination of qualities rarely 
existing in one person — not only the highest degree of execu- 
tive ability but self-control, tact and the power of managing 
men and women. They were found, however, in the woman 
elected to preside over this board, Mrs. Bertha Honor6 Pal- 
mer, of Chicago. At the close of the exposition it was univer- 
sally conceded that she had proved herself pre-eminently the 
one woman in all the country for this place. Her record, dur- 
ing the several years that she held this very responsible posi- 
tion, is one of the most remarkable ever made by any woman. 
At the time Miss Anthony prepared her petition to Congress 

, for representation, no action had been taken by any organized 
body of women in the country, and if she had not been on the 

I field of battle in Washington and acted at the very moment 
she did, the bill would have passed Congress without any 

I provision for women. They would have had no recognition 
from the government, no appropriations for *heir work, no 

' official power, and their splendid achievements at the Colum- 
bian Exposition, which did more to advance the cause of 
women than all that had been accomplished during the cen- 
tury, would have been lost to the world. Having secured this 
great object, she asked no office for herself or for any other 
woman. On several public occasions, in the early months of 
the fair, she refused to speak or to sit on the platform, lest 
she might embarrass the President of the Board of Lady Man- 
agers by committing her to woman suffrage. Mrs. Palmer, 
however, showed her the most distinguished courtesy, in both 
public and private affairs, inviting her to the platform and 
including her in the social functions at her own residence. 



world's fair*— oongbbss of rbpbbsentative women. 745 

/Miss Anthony soon felt that she was in full sympathy with 
herself in every measure which tended to secure for women 
absolute equality of rights, a point which Mrs. Palmer empha- 
sized in the most unmistakable language in her eloquent 
address delivered in the Woman's Building, at the close of the 
exposition. 

In these circumscribed limits it will be impossible to give 
any adequate account of that greatest of all accomplishments of 
I women at the World 's Fair — the Woman 's Congress — whose pro- 
ceedings fill two large volumes in the official report. In order 
that intellectual as well as material progress should be pre- 
sented, it had been decided to hold a series of congresses which 
should bring together a representation of the great minds of the 
world. G. G. Bonney was made president of the Gongress Aux- 
iliary ; Mrs. Palmer, president, and Mrs. Ellen M. Henrotin, 
vice-president of the Woman's Branch. Although women 
were to participate in all, Mr. Bonney desired to have one 
composed of them alone. To assist Mrs. Henrotin, who had 
been made acting president, as well as to further insure the 
success of this congress, Mr. Bonney appointed May Wright 
Sewall chairman, and Rachel Foster Avery secretary, of the 
committee of organization, and they were assisted by an effi- 
cient local committee. 

As president and secretary of the National Gouncil of 
Women, and Mrs. Sewall vice-president of the International 
Council, no two could have been secured with so wide a knowl- 
edge of the organizations of women throughout the world and 
the best methods of securing their co-operation. The magni- 
tude of their labors can be appreciated only by an examina- 
tion of the official report. The fact of their merging into this 
congress the International Council of Women, which was to 

I have been held in London that year, was one of the most 
potent elements of its success. Miss Anthony wrote Mrs. 
Sewall : ''The suffrage work has missed you, oh, so much, 
still I would not have had you do differently. I glory in 
Rachel's and your work this year beyond words." 
j The World's Gongress of Representative Women, which 



746 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

/^opened May 15, 1893, was the largest and most brilliant of 
/ any of the series which extended through the six months of 
I the fair, and was considered by many the most remarkable 
; ever convened. Twenty-seven countries and 126 organizations 
\ were represented by 528 delegates. During the week eighty- 
one meetings were held in the different rooms of the Art 
Palace. There were from seven to eighteen in simultaneous 
progress each day and, according to official estimate, the total 
attendance exceeded 150,000 persons. The fifteen policemen 
stationed in the building stated that often hundreds of people 
were turned away before the hour of opening arrived, not only 
the audience-rooms but the halls and ante-rooms being so 
crowded that no more could enter the building, which held 
10,000. 

All who were in attendance at this congress, all who read 
the accounts in the Chicago daily papers, will testify that it is 
not the bias of a partial historian which prompts the statement 
:that Susan B. Anthony was the central figure of this historic 
\ gathering. Every time she appeared on the stage the audience 
broke into applause ; when she rose to speak, they stood upon 
the seats and waved hats and handkerchiefs. People watched 
the daily program and when she was advertised for an ad- 
dress, there was a rush from other halls and an impenetrable 
jam in the corridors. Again and again she was obliged to 
call upon a stout policeman to make a way for her through the 
throngs which pressed about her, anxious to get even a sight 
of her face. No matter what department of the congress she 
visited, whether of education, religion, philanthropy or indus- 
tries, the audience demanded a speech and would not be satis- 
fied until it was made.^ Large numbers of the women who 
gave addresses in these various meetings paid tribute to her 
work, and the mention of her name never failed to elicit a 
burst of applause. At the many public and private receptions 
given to the congress the post of honor was assigned to her, 

* "More than onoe— -indeed, I believe more than a score of times— I saw speakers of eloquence 
and renown interrupted in the midst of a discourse by audiences who simply would not 
listen, after Miss Anthony's entrance into the hall, until she had been formally introduced 
and an opportunity given them to express their reyerence by prolonged applause."-'From 
letter of Mrs. Sewall. 



<J^.&^t£*w^^ 



world's fair— congress of representative women. 747 

and no guest ever was satisfied to leave without having touched 
her hand. 

It is not too much to say that no woman in this country, or 
in any other, ever was so honored because of her own indi- 
\ vidual services to humanity. It was the universal recognition 

(of her labors of nearly half a century, that had laid the foun- 
dation upon which had been reared all the great organizations 
represented by the women in this congress. Hers had been 
the pioneer work, the blazing of the pathway through the for- 
1 ests of custom and prejudice which for untold centuries had 
\ forbidden them to step beyond the narrow limits of domestic 
^occupations. All of a sudden, it seemed, the women of the 
world had awakened to the knowledge that she had borne ridi- 
cule, abuse, misrepresentation, disgrace, that they might enter 
into the kingdom of woman's right to her highest development. 
Long-delayed though it had been, the women of her own and 
other countries came to lay their homage at her feet, to bow 
.before her in loving gratitude, to rise up and call her blessed. 
Letters of congratulation were received from far and wide ; 
one from Frances E. Willard in Switzerland said : 

Mt Beloved Susan : You are a happy woman and we are all crowing to 
think the people love, honor and call for yon so loud and long. It saita one's 
sense of poetic justice ; it confirms one's faith in human nature and the 
Heavenly Power not ourselves *' that makes for righteousness." Lady Henry, 
Anna Gordon and I have '' hooray ed" over your laurels and said, "Bless 
her; she is not only our Susan but everybody's." Lady Henry says yon have 
the true sign of greatness that you are absolutely without pretension. You 
do not take up all the time and luxuriate in the sound of your own voice, but 
are glad to give the other ones a bit of breath too. She says no woman of 
fame has ever so thoroughly ^ ^y 

esty ana unselnsbness upon ner ^ ^^^^^^^^^l^a^^^^mamss^ 
mind. And I say Selah.^ 

In her London letter the noted correspondent, Florence Fen- 
wick Miller, of England, wrote : 

Amidst all the attractive personalities and ideas presented, the most sought 

* Lady Henry had just returned from Chicago where she had attended the World's Fair 
Temperance Congress and here had heard Miss Anthony for the first time. At the dose of 
her speech declaring that there could be no effective temperance work among women until 
they had the ballot. Lady Henry came forward and gave it her most hearty endorsement. 




748 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of all — the one whose presence drew crowds everywhere, who was made to 
speak in whatever hall she entered, and who was sorroonded in every cor- 
ridor and every reception, jast as the qaeen-hee is sarroonded in the hive by 
her courtiers, was the veteran leader of the woman saffragists of America, 
Sosan B. Anthony. At seventy-three she is as apright of form, as clear and 
powerful of mind, as strong of voice, as coarageoos and uncompromising as 
ever. Let our revered and beloved Miss Anthony have the last word. 

/ The program for the Woman's Congress assigned but one 
session to the National- American Suffrage Association, and it 
was the honest intention to give no more time to the discus- 
sion of political equality than to each of the other departments. 
It made a place for itself, however, in practically every one of 
the meetings. Whether the subject were education, philan- 
thropy, reform or some other, the speakers were sure to point 

^out the disabilities of woman without the ballot. So strong was 
the desire to hear this question discussed that it became neces- 
sary to hold afternoon meetings in the large halls, aside from 
those on the regular morning and evening program, in order 
to give the eager crowds an opportunity to hear its distin- 

/guished advocates from all parts of the world. It is doubtful 

I if the whole fifty years of agitation made as many converts to 
equal suffrage as did the great object lesson of the Woman's 
Congress. 

Many pleasant letters passed between Miss Anthony and Mr. 
Bonney, Mrs. Palmer and Mrs. Henrotin. The last named 
asked her to take part in the Temperance, the Labor and the 
Social and Moral Reform Congresses and requested her advice 
and assistance. She was placed by Mr. Bonney on the ad- 
visory council of the Political, Social and Economic Con- 
gresses. Mrs. Palmer wrote : ''I should like you to send us 
special suggestions for speakers and topics." Miss Anthony 
was much pleased at the selection of Mrs. Palmer for presi- 
dent of the Board of Lady Managers, heartily seconded all her 
efforts and lent no support to the dissensions made by several 
women who thought there should have been more recognition 
of those who had been pioneer workers. That this was appre- 
ciated is shown by a letter written as early as April, 1891 : 






world's fair — CONGRESS OF RBPRESBNTATIVB WOMEN. 749 

I feel that I mast express my thanks to yoa that yoa did not condemn us 
anheardy for I naturally supposed that as belonj^ to your organ- 
ization you would take her view of any matter which interested her. I thank 
you very much for your fair-mindedness, and beg that you will read the state- 
ment which I shall send you and which will probably give you a better idea 
of this unpleasant matter than anything else you have seen. 

I remember with great pleasure our meeting in Washington, and hope it 
was only the first of many such pleasant occasions for me. Thanking you 
again, I am most cordially yours, 



£?yp^ ^^f'-i.fi^ii^ JlP9.f^ 




Miss Anthony spoke several times at the noon-hour meetings 
held in the Woman's Building.^ Mrs. James P. Eagle, chair- 
man, who edited the report of the noon-hour addresses, wrote 
her: '^ I would not take much pleasure in publishing our 
book if I could not have something from your addresses to go 
in it. You must not deny me. One of your talks was 
'Woman's Influence vs. Political Power/ another *The Bene- 
fits of Organization.' If it is your best and easiest way, make 
the speeches and employ a stenographer to take, them and send 
me the bill. I can not afford to miss them. You have been 
so very kind and encouraging to me all along that I shall feel 
it a Brutus blow if you fail me now." As she never wrote a 
speech in these days and could not make the same one twice, 
she was unable to comply with this request. 

Miss Anthony was invited to speak at the Press Congress 
May 27, the day when the religious press as a leader of 
reforms was under consideration. The managers became 
very uneasy and began trying to find out how she meant 
to handle the question. Her only reply was, ''I shall speak 
the truth." The speech, delivered before an audience con- 

> **A8 only the most gifted women will be invited to i>articipate in tfaeae entertainments, we 
hope the invitation will be esteemed as an honor conferred by the Board of Lady Managers, 
and your acceptance will be gratefully appreciated."— Note of Invitation. 



750 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

taining many ministers, caused a tremendous sensation. She 
took up the reforms, temperance, anti-slavery, woman's rights, 
labor, and showed conclusively that in every one the church and 
the religious press, instead of being leaders, were laggards. At 
the close the chairman remarked apologetically that of course 
the speaker did not expect people in general to agree with every- 
thing she had said. The Chicago Tribune thus finished its 
report: ''As Miss Anthony had an engagement she was 
obliged to leave at this point, and most of the audience went 
with her." 

The Congress on Government convened August 7 and, at 
Mr. Bonney's request. Miss Anthony was present at the open- 
ing ceremony and responded to an address of welcome in be- 
half of the civil service commission. Five sessions of this 
Government Congress were devoted to a discussion of equal 
suffrage, the speakers being women. The chairman, Hon. 
Wm. Dudley Foulke, said it was not the intention to give this 
subject such prominence, but women had shown so much more 
interest than men, half of them accepting the invitation to take 
part and only one man in twenty responding, that he was com- 
pelled thus to arrange the program. 

Soon after the adjournment of the Woman's Congress Miss 
Anthony left the Palmer House, which had been its head- 
quarters, and, accepting the invitation of Mrs. Lydia Avery 
Coonley, enjoyed the congenial atmosphere of her beautiful 
home for a month. At the conclusion of her visit with Mrs. 
Coonley she went for six weeks with Mr. and Mrs. Sewall, who 
I had taken a large house for the season. This was a social 
center and the weekly receptions were a prominent feature, 
bringing together distinguished people from all countries, who 
were in Chicago, as officials or visitors, during this wonderful 
summer. While at Mrs. Coonley 's Miss Anthony formed two 
acquaintances who from that date have been among her most 
valued friends — Mr. and Mrs. Samuel E. Gross. After leaving 
the Sewalls she spent a delightful month with them at their 
residence on the Lake Shore drive, where she was surrounded 
with every luxury which wealth and affection could bestow. 



world's fair— congress op representative women. 751 

This added another to the homes in that city always open to 
her y and Mrs. Gross often wrote: ''Your visits are a sweet 
benediction to our family."* 

Among the most elegant of the many social affairs to which 
she was invited was the luncheon in the great banquet hall of 
the Hotel Richelieu, given by the officers of the National Coun- 
cil to those of the International, the foreign delegates and a 
few other guests, 150 in all. May Wright Sewall presided 
with great dignity and charm over the '' after dinner speech- 
making ' ' of this assemblage of the representative women from 
the most highly civilized nations of the world, and Miss An- 
thony sat at her right hand. 

Once she went to Harvey and spoke at a camp meeting of 
3,000 persons ; and later to the Bloomington Chautauqua to 
give an address ; then all the way to Kansas to speak at the 
State Fair in Topeka and fill a month's lecture engagements. 
Two weeks she spent in her own home visiting with relatives ; 
then rushed down to Long Island to hurry Mrs. Stanton with 
her paper ; and back again to Chicago to read it for her at the 
Educational Congress. Many days and evenings were passed 
among the wealth of attractions on the exposition grounds ; 
and so the summer waxed and waned, one of the longest holi- 
days she ever had known, and yet with not an idle hour through 
all the four months of delightful associations and cherished 
acquaintances. She writes in the diary October 30 : ''This 
was my last sight of the White City in its full glory by night." 

Among the many graceful words of farewell spoken by the 
press of Chicago, may be quoted the following from the Inter- 
Ocean, which suggests the strong and graceful pen of Mary H. 
Krout : 

It is pleasant in these reminiscent days when we talk over the glories and 
delights of the World's Fair, to recall the honors heaped upon Susan B. An- 
thony. Her personal friends vied with each other in arranging elaborate 
entertainments of which she was the central figare. There were dinners and 
lancheons, banqaets and receptions, and at each and all the refined and deli- 

> As a memento of these Yisits Mrs. Qross presented Miss Anthony with $100 ; and Mrs. Coon- 
ley gave her a rich brocaded silk dress and a traTelling suit, botii beautifully made by her 
own dressmaker, with bonnets to matoh. 



752 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

cate face shone above the board with a beaaty and tranquillity far exceeding 
the mere beaaty of youth and faaltleasness of featare. It was the beaaty of 
experience, sweetened and purified by success and appreciation. . . . 

It must seem a strange contrast to the woman who has worked so perseyer- 
ingly in the face of untold difOlculties — ^this change that a few years have 
wrought. It has not been so very long since she was the universal butt of 
ridicule, lampooned and caricatured, with all that malice, in its coarsest and 
most brutal form, could suggest. Her age was the favorite theme of the cal- 
low witling, her cause a never-failing subject for reproach and abuse. It is 
all over and done with, thanks to the new race of men which women them- 
selves are training and educating. There are no words for her nowadays but 
those of praise and affection. She has lived to see truth survive and justice 
vindicated. Men no longer regard her as the arch-enemy to domestic peace, 
disseminating doctrines that mean the destruction of home and the disorgan- 
ization of society. They perceive in her, rather, the advocate of that liberty 
which knows no limitations either of sex or of condition — a freedom which, 
achieved, means the incalculable advancement of the race. 

In all the assemblages where Miss Anthony was present during those mem- 
orable months — ^the observed of all observers, holding a veritable court — her 
admirers were both men and women, and no belle at a ball was ever more 
unmistakably deferred to. It made her happy, as it should have done. But 
it made far happier those who have believed in her all these years, that she 
should have triumphed over ignorance and prejudice, and at threescore and 
ten have come into her kingdom at last. When it is asked what woman was 
most prominent, most honored, most in demand in all the public ceremonials 
and private functions held in Chicago during the Ck)lumbian Exposition, 
there can be but one answer— Susan B. Anthony. 

/ Through all the summer and autumn of 1893 a campaign 
/ had been going forward in Colorado, where the legislature had 
Vsubmitted the question of woman suffrage to the voters. The 
, national association was represented by Mrs. Carrie Chapman 
;. Catt, who rendered splendid service. Mrs. Leonora Barry 
Lake spoke under the auspices of the Knights of Labor. The 
rest of the work was done by the women of Colorado, who 
proved a host in themselves. Miss Anthony held herself in 
readiness to go at any time but the friends felt that, unless 
vitally necessary, she should be spared the hardships. Circum- 
■' stances were favorable ; there had been a vast change in public 
sentiment since the defeat of 1877 ; the question was submit- 
ted at a time when only county elections were held and there 
was no political excitement ; Populists and Republicans not 
only endorsed it but worked for it ; Democrats offered no 



world's fair—- congress of represbntativb women. 753 

arty opposition and many of them gave it cordial support ; 

ore than half of the newspapers in the State advocated it. 

he campaign in Colorado differed from all those which had 

been conducted in other States in the fact that it was not left 

for women to carry on alone, but the most prominent men in 

^11 parties lent their assistance and made the victory possible.^ 

/fhe amendment was carried by nearly 6,000 majority, about 

Uhree to one in favor. Miss Anthony received the telegram 

/announcing the fact November 8, the day after election, and 

yshe was the happiest woman in America. 

Immediately upon returning home from Chicago she went 
to the State suffrage convention which met in Historical 
Hall, Brooklyn, November 13. While in New York she was 
the guest of Mrs. Russell Sage at the dinner of the Emma 
Willard Alumnse. Four days were given to the convention, 
one or two spent with Mrs. Catt, in her delightful home at 
Bensonhurst-by-the-Sea, and a few at the suburban residence 
of Mrs. Foster Avery. While here she addressed the New 
Century Club in Philadelphia, and for several days following 
was in attendance at the Pennsylvania convention. On 
December 18, she lectured at Jamaica ; the 19th at Riverhead ; 
the 20th at Richmond ; the 22d she attended the Foremothers' 
Day dinner in New York and made an address ; the 23d she 
spoke before the Women's Conference of the Ethical Society 
in that city. 

When not lecturing she was struggling with her mass of 
/correspondence, attending to her duties in connection with the 
^ Industrial School, and making preliminary arrangements for 
\ two big State campaigns which required the writing of hun- 
\dreds of letters, all done with her own hand. Invitations 
came during these days to address the New York Social Purity 
League, the Women's Republican Association, the Pratt Insti- 
tute and the National Convention of the Keeley Cure League ; 
and requests for articles on ' ' Why Should Young Men Favor 

> The '* Remonstraiita " flooded the State with their literature, bnt as this oontained a 
conspicuous adTertisement of a large liquor establishment, it defeated itself. The head- 
quarters of the organised opposition were located in a Denver brewery. 

Ant.— 48 



i 



754 LIFB AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Woman Suffrage?" for the Y. M. C. A. paper of Chicago; ''What 
Should the President's Message Say ? " for the New York 
World ; '' If you had $1,000,000 what would you do with it? '' 
for a symposium ; and at least a score of similar applications. 
The friendly letters included one from Judge Albion W. 
Tourgee, acknowledging receipt of the History of Woman Suf- 
frage, ''from one whose devotion to principle and brave 
advocacy of right have ever commanded my profound esteem." 
He also expressed his interest and belief in the principle of 
woman suffrage. The same mail brought a letter from Profes- 
sor Helen L. Webster, asking for a copy of the History to 
place in the library of Wellesley College "so that it may be 
within reach of the students." 

The Kansas legislature again had submitted a suffrage 
amendment and many letters were coming from the women of 
that State, begging Miss Anthony's help. She filled reams of 
paper during December, telling them how to put everybody to 
work, to organize every election precinct in the State, to raise 
money, and above all else to create a public sentiment which 
would demand a woman suffrage plank in the platform of each 
of the political parties. '' I am going to make a big raid to 
get a fund for Kansas," she wrote, ** but nothing will avail 
without the support of the parties." The work in Kansas was 
not, however, by any means the most formidable undertaking 
which confronted her. The women of New York were about 
to enter upon the greatest suffrage campaign ever attempted, 
and toward its success she was bending every thought, energy 
and effort, earnestly co5perating with the strongest and best- 
equipped workers in the State. 



CHAPTER XLII. 



THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 



1894. 




HE year 1894 is distinguished in the annals of 
woman suffrage for two great campaigns: one in 
New York to secure from the Constitutional Con- 
vention an amendment abolishing the word 
\ ttE0i!X..ssn& n ^qIq '> fj.QQj tjjQ ng^ constitution which was to 

\ be submitted to the voters at the fall election ; the other in 
\ Kansas to secure a majority vote on an amendment which had 
|l been submitted by the legislature of 1893 , and was to be voted 
( on in November. In order to make the story as clear as pos- 
sible, each of these campaigns, both of which were in progress 
at the same time, will be considered separately. Before enter- 
ing upon either, the leading features of the twenty-sixth of the 
series of Washington conventions, which have run like a 
thread through Miss Anthony's life for more than a quarter of 
a century, will be briefly noticed. 

On January 13, she lectured before the University Associa- 
tion at Ann Arbor in the great University Hall — ^the second 
woman ever invited to address that body, Anna Dickinson 
having been thus honored during the war. Sunday morning 
she spoke for the University Christian Association, in Newbury 
Hall. Monday morning the State Suffrage Association com- 
menced a three days' convention, during which she gave num- 
erous short addresses. Wednesday evening a large reception 
was given by her hostess, Olivia B. Hall, whose home Miss 
Anthony always regarded as one of her most enjoyable resting- 
places in her many trips through Michigan. Mrs. Hall had 

(755) 



756 



LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 



contributed hundreds of dollars to the cause of woman suffrage, 
and made a number of timely presents to Miss Anthony for her 
personal use. 

From Michigan they went to the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
the suffrage association of Toledo. It is worthy of note that 
Miss Anthony had helped organize this society in the house of 
Mrs. Hall, who lived there at that time. She was here, as 
always when in this city, the guest of her friend, Anna C. 
Mott, whose father and uncle, Richard and James Mott, were 
her staunch supporters from the early days of the abolition 
movement. The papers contained long and flattering notices, 
which had now become so customary that to quote one is to give 
the substance of all. 

Miss Anthony lectured in Baltimore February 13, going 
from there to Washington. The convention opened in Metzer- 
ott's Music Hall, February 15, welcomed by Commissioner 
John W. Boss, of the District. Among the speakers were Sen- 
ator Carey and Representative Coffeen, of Wyoming ; Senator 
Teller and Representatives Bell and Pence, of Colorado ; Sen- 
ator Peffer and Representatives Davis, Broderick, Curtis and 
Simpson, of Kansas ; ex-Senator Bruce, of Mississippi ; Hon. 
Simon Wolf, of the District; Catherine H. Spence, of New 
Zealand ; Miss Windeyer, of Australia ; Hannah K. Korany, 
of Syria; Kate Field; and Mary Lowe Dickinson, secretary 
King's Daughters. 




Appropriate memorial services were held for the distinguished 
dead of the past year who had rendered especial service to the 
cause of woman suffrage: Lucy Ston^, George W. Childs, Le- 
land Stanford, Elizabeth Peabody, Elizabeth Oakes Smith. 



THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 757 

Eloquent tributes were offered by the various members of the 
convention, and Miss Anthony added one to Mary F. Seymour, 
founder of the Business Woman's Journal. The death of Myra 
Bradwell, editor Legal News, occurred too late for her honored 
name to be included in these services. Bishop Phillips Brooks 
and ex-President Rutherford B. Hayes, both of whom had un- 
equivocally expressed themselves in favor of suffrage for 
women, also had died in 1893. 

At the opening session, on Miss Anthony's birthday, she 
was presented by the enfranchised women of Wyoming and 
Colorado with a beautiful silk flag which bore two shining 
stars on its blue field. She accepted it with much emotion, 
saying: ** I have heard of standard bearers in the army who 
carried the banners to the topmost ramparts of the enemy, and 
there I am going to try to carry this banner. You know with- 
out my telling how proud I am of this flag, and how my heart 
is touched by this manifestation." From the ladies of Georgia 
came a box of fresh flowers, and among other pleasant remem- 
brances were seventy-four American Beauty roses from Mrs. 
S. E. Gross, of Chicago. A little later, when Virginia D. 
Young brought the greetings of South Carolina, Miss Anthony 
said: 

I think the most beautiful part of our cominfl: together in Washington for 
the last twenty-five years, has been that more friendships, more knowledge 
of each other have come through the hand-shakes here, than would have 
been possible through any other instrumentality. I shall never cease to be 
grateful for all the splendid women who have come up to this great center for 
these twenty-six conventions, and have learned that the North was not such 
a cold place as they had believed ; I have been equally glad when we came 
down here and met the women from the sunny South and found they were just 
like ourselves, if not a little better. In this great association, we know no 
North, no South, no East, no West. This has been our pride for twenty-six 
years. We have no political party. We never have inquired what anybody's 
religion was. All we ever have asked is simply, " Do you believe in perfect 
equality for women ? '' That is the one article in our creed. 

There were many pleasant newspaper comments on Miss An* 
thony's re-election, among them the following from the Chi- 
cago Journal : 



75ji LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 



/ 



The national saffrage association honored itself yesterday by again electing 
to its presidency Susan B. Anthony. She has suffered long for a caase she 
believes to be right, and it is fitting that in these later years of her active 
life, when the cause has become popular, she should wear the honors her 
patient, persistent endeavor has won. Susan B. Anthony is one of the most 
remarkable products of this century. She is not a successful writer; she is 
not a great speaker, although a most effective one ; but she has a better qual- 
ity than genius. She is the soul of honesty ; she possesses the gift of clear 
discrimination — of seeing the main point — and of never-wavering loyalty to 
the issue at hand. . . . 

For more than forty years she has led the women of America through the 
wilderness of doubt, and now from Pisgah's heights looks over into the 
Canaan land of triumphant victory. Past the allotted time of threescore 
years and ten, Miss Anthony may never cross the Jordan of her hopes, but 
she has led her hosts safely through the gravest dangers and trained up 
others well fitted to wear the mantle of leadership. It is the hope of all who 
have learned to know and appreciate this heroic woman, that her wise coun- 
sel and earnest, faithful spirit may long continue to inspire and direct the 
affairs of this great association. 

The office of national organizer was created and Carrie Chap- 
man Catt elected to fill it. The association accepted an invita- 
tion to hold the next meeting in Atlanta, Ga. At the close of 
the convention a hearing was granted by the Senate and House 
committees. Miss Anthony introduced the various speakers, 
representing all sections of the country, and at the conclusion 
one of the new members came to her and said earnestly : ''If 
you had but adopted this course earlier, your cause would have 
been won long ago.*' He was considerably surprised when 
she informed him that they had had just such hearings as this 
for the past twenty-six years. 

\ The legislature of New York had ordered the necessary 
measures to be taken for a delegate convention to revise the 
constitution. Governor Hill in 1887 and Governor Flower in 
1892 had recommended that women should have a representa- 
tion in this convention. The bill, as it finally passed both 
branches of the legislature, provided that any male or female 
' citizen above the age of twenty-one should be eligible to elec- 
tion as delegate. When the district conventions were called 
to choose these, both Democrats and Republicans refused to 
nominate any woman. As the delegates would draw $10 a 

I day for five months, the political plums were entirely too 



THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 759 

 

^aluable to give to a disfranchised class. The Republicans of 
l^iss Anthony's district would not consider even her nomina- 
tion, although she was recognized as the peer of any man in 
the State in a knowledge of constitutional law. The Demo- 
crats in that district, who were in a hopeless minority, made 
the one exception and, as a compliment, nominated Mrs. Jean 
Brooks Greenleaf , who ran several hundred votes ahead of the 
ticket. 

The women then proceeded to inaugurate a great campaign 
in order to create a public sentiment which would demand from 
^this convention an amendment conferring suffrage on women. 
To begin this, which would require a vast amount of money, 
they had not a dollar. No delegate owed his election to a 
woman, nor could any woman further his ambition for future 
honors to which his record in this body might prove a stepping- 
stone. So far as any political power was concerned, women were 
of less force than the proverbial fly on the wagon wheel, and the 
majority of men who go into a convention of this kind do so 
from that particular sort of lofty patriotism which sees an offi- 
cial position in the near or distant future. On the other hand, 
the element which is forever and unalterably opposed to any move 
in the direction of suffrage for women, represented the dominant 
financial and political power in the greatest metropolis in Amer- 
ica, whose ramifications extend to every city, village and 
cross-roads in the State. With its money and its votes this 
element can make and unmake politicians at will, and under 
present conditions, with the ballot in the hands of men only, 
it is virtually an impossibility for a candidate to be elected if 
this organization exert its influence against him. How to per- 
suade the parties and the individual men to risk defeat until 
they succeed in the enfranchisement of women, which alone 
will destroy the absolute domination of this oligarchy, is a 
problem yet to be solved. That the women of New York dared 
attempt it, showed courage and determination of the highest 
order. 
/ This necessarily had to be a campaign of education, of 
( forming new public sentiment and putting into definite shape 



] 



760 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

^that which already existed. This could be done in four ways : 

I by organization, by petitions, by literature and by speeches. 

VThe petitions were put into circulation in 1893.^ As it would 
be necessary to use every dollar to the very best advantage, 

\{he Anthony home in Rochester was put at the service of the 
committee in order to save rent. Practically every room in 
the house was called into requisition. The parlors became 
public offices ; the guest chamber was transformed into a mail- 
ing department ; Miss Anthony's study was an office by day 
and a bedroom by night ; and even the dining-room and 
kitchen were invaded. Here Mary 8. Anthony, correspond- 
ing secretary, and Mrs. Martha R. Almy, vice-president-at- 
large, with a force of clerks, worked day and night from 
December, 1893, to July, 1894, sending out thousands of let- 
ters, petition blanks, leaflets, suffrage papers, etc' The letter 
boxes were wholly inadequate, and the post-office daily sent 
mail-sacks to the house, which were filled and set out on the 
front porch to be collected. Hither came every day the State 
president, Mrs. Greenleaf, who toiled without ceasing from 
daylight till dark; and into this busy hive Miss Anthony 
rushed from the lecture field every Saturday to get the report 
of the work and consult as to the best methods for the coming 
week. It is not possible to describe in detail the vast amount 
of labor performed at these headquarters, but it is thus summed 
up in the report of the corresponding secretary : 

. Add to the correspondence incident to the circulation of oar great 
petition, the sending oat of nearly 5,000 hlank petition-books and instrac- 
tions to insare the work's being properly done, literature for free distriba- 
tion, the planning and arranging for sixty mass meetings in as many counties, 
and we have a task before which Hercules himself might well stand aghast. 
To accomplish this work has taken not only the entire time of your corre- 

* In November of this year Miss Anthony called at the office of the New York San and had 
an interview with Mr. Dana, who always had maintained that when any considerable num- 
ber of women expressed a desire for the ballot, the men would grant it. She asked him 
how many names would suffice and he replied : "If you can get a petition of 100,000 women 
it wiU be amply sufficient to compel the convention to submit the amendment." Although 
more than twice this number signed the petition, Mr. Dana's very first editorial after the con- 
vention had refused to submit the amendment, declared the reason was that not enough 
women had asked for it t 

* A salary was voted to Mary Anthony which she declined to accept ; Mrs. Almy received 
$60 a month; the clerks either donated their services or gave them for a mere trifle. 



6£^^i^'<SXy 



-^^^i^C^ 




THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 761 

sponding secretary, bat that of oar president, Mrs. Greenleaf, for a fall year. 
Handreds of women over all the State worked as never before, petitions in 
hand, travelling from house to hoase in all sorts of weather to secare the 
names of people who believe in the right of women to a voice in the govern- 
ment ander which they live. 

It has so often been asserted by those in power that when any considerable 
namber of women wanted to vote, there woald be perfect freedom for them 
to do so, that it was now decided thoroughly to test the truth of such asser- 
tion. Over 332,000 individual names, more than half being those of women, 
were thus actually obtained, neatly put up in book form and presented to the 
Constitutional Convention with a feeling that such a showing could not, by any 
possible means, fail to make the men of that convention and of the State 
clearly understand that vjomen do want to vote.^ 

The entire management of New York City was put in charge 
^of Lillie Devereux Blake, and Brooklyn in that of Mariana W. 
Chapman. While the petition work was going forward a 





I 



y^ great series of mass meetings was in progress, for which Miss 
Anthony, who knew every foot of New York State as well 
as her own dooryard, mapped out the routes. The manage- 
ment of these was placed in the hands of Harriet May Mills 

j and Mary G. Hay, who proved remarkably eflScient. Rev. 

\ Anna Shaw spoke at over forty of these meetings and Mary 

\geymour Howell at a large number. Several speakers from 

outside the State came in at different times and rendered 

/excellent service. Carrie Chapman Catt made nearly forty 

[speeches in New York, Brooklyn and vicinity. Miss Anthony 
herself, at the age of seventy-four, spoke in every one of the 

* The piesideDt's report pays this tribute : 

*' The corresponding secretary, Miss Mary S. Anthony, ostensibly had charge of the depart- 
ment of distribution and State correspondence, but all this was only a small fraction of the 
labor performed by her. Being president of the local dab of Rochester, she had charge of 
the canvass of that city ; and it is enough to say that no city or town equalled hers in the 
work done or results obtained. As our chieftain was leading our hosts through the State, 
the housekeeping, too, fell to the said secretary's charge and, it being convenient for the 
speakers and managers to stay at headquarters when in town, her family was seldom a 
small one ; and all this gratuitously, be it understood. I can not hope to tell the story in 
full, but I trust I have said enough to cause you all, when you say, " Qod bless Susan B. 
Anthony," to add "and her sister Mary, also." 



762 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Aixty counties of the State, beginning at Albion, January 22, 

\and ending at Glens Falls, April 28.* 

^ The campaign opened with a mass meeting at Rochester, of 
which the Democrat and Chronicle said in a leading editorial : 
' ' In pursuance of a call signed by over a hundred prominent 
citizens, a public meeting will be held January 8. . . . This 
should be largely attended, not only in honor of our distin- 
guished towns woman, Miss Susan B. Anthony, but to declare in 
terms which can not be mistaken that the constitution should 
be revised. The negro and the Indian have been enfranchised ; 
women alone remain under political disabilities. They demand 
justice. Let it be granted freely, and without any exhibition 
v^of that selfishness which has so long kept them waiting." 
Judge George F. Danf orth presided over this meeting and 
among the prominent citizens on the platform were Dr. E. M. 
Moore, Rev. Asa Saxe, Eugene T. Curtis, Mrs. Greenleaf, Mrs. 
Howell and Miss Anthony, all of whom made strong speeches 
in favor of the amendment. The list of vice-presidents com- 
prised the leading men and women of the city. Forcible reso- 
lutions were presented by Henry C. Maine, and letters of ap- 
proval read from Judge Thomas Raines, Rev. H. H. Stebbins, 
of the Central Presbyterian church, and others. The papers 
said, "Miss Anthony went home as happy as a young girl 
after her first ball." 

On January 9 Miss Anthony addressed the Political Equality 
Club of Syracuse, and a handsome reception was given to Eliza- 
beth Smith Miller and herself by its president, Mrs. E. S. Jen- 
ney. The next day, she went to a big rally at Buffalo, under 
the auspices of the city suffrage club. Dr. Sarah Morris, presi- 
dent, where speeches were made by Judge Stern, Rabbi Aaron, 
Rev. Joseph K. Mason and others. On the 22d, the great 

Asweep of county mass meetings began .* The scrap-books con- 

> Dnrinff this time Miss Anthony gave ten days to the national convention in Washinirton ; 
and the day after the last of the mass meetings she started for Kansas ; stopped in Cincin- 
nati for the Ohio convention, speaking each of the three days ; opened the Kansas campaign 
May 4, spoke in that State every day for two weeks ; and on May 21 presented herself, fresh 
and cheerful, at the Constitntional Convention in Albany, N. Y. 

* As has been noted, Miss Anthony spoke at Ann Arbor, Mich., January 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 ; 
at Toledo the 19th, and was ready to open the New York campaign the 22d. 



THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 763 

taining the voluminous accounts show that usually the audi- 
ences were large and sympathetic ; that the newspapers, almost 
without exception, gave full and friendly reports, and although 
most of them were non-committal in the editorial columns, a 
number came out strongly in favor of having a suffrage amend- 
ment incorporated in the constitution. '' Oh, if those who at- 
tend our meetings could do the voting," wrote Miss Anthony, 
'*it would carry overwhelmingly, but alas, the riff-raff, the 
paupers, the drunkards, the very chain-gang that I see passing 
the house on their way to and from the jail, will make their in- 
fluence felt on the members of the Constitutional Convention.'' 
In another letter she said : ' ' I am in the midst of as severe 
a treadmill as I ever experienced, travelling from fifty to one 
hundred miles every day and speaking five or six nights a 
week. How little women know of the power of organization 
and how constantly we are confronted with the lack of it I '" 

Most of the other speakers were paid for their services but 
Miss Anthony would not accept a dollar for hers, and refused to 
take even her travelling expenses out of the campaign fund. 
That year she received the bequest of her friend, Mrs. Eliza 
J. Clapp, of Rochester, who had died in 1892, leaving her 
$1,000 to use as she pleased. The court costs were $55 and 
she received $945. Although she was drawing from her small 
principal for her current expenses, she gave $600 of this to 
the State of New York and $400 to the national association, 
paying the court fees out of her own pocket. 
^ A new and gratifying feature of this campaign was the in- 
/ terest taken by the women of wealth and social position in 
(^ . New York and Brooklyn. Heretofore it had seemed impossi- 
( ble to arouse any enthusiasm on the question of woman's 
\enfranchisement among this class. Surrounded by every lux- 
ury and carefully protected from contact with the hard side of 
life, they felt no special concern in the conditions which made 
the struggle for existence so difficult among the masses of 

^ In December Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton had issued an address calling npon the 
women of New York to nnite in this grand effort for political freedom. During the entire 
cami>aign Mrs. Stanton contributed to the New York Sun masterly arguments for woman 
suffrage, which were widely copied by the press of the State. 



764 LIFB AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

women. All of a sudden they seemed to awake to the import- 
ance of the great issue which was agitating the State. This 
possibly may have been because it met the approval of many 
of the leading men of New York, for among those who signed 
the petition were Chauncey M. Depew, Russell Sage, Frederick 
Coudert, Rev. Heber Newton, Rev. W. S. Rainsford, Bishop 
Potter, Rabbi Gottheil, John D. Rockefeller, Robert J. Inger- 
soU, William Dean Howells and others of the representative 
men of the city. The wives of these gentlemen opened their 
elegant parlors for suffrage meetings, and in a short time the 
following card was sent to a large number of people : 

A committee of ladies invite yoa and all the adalt members of your house- 
hold, to call at Sherry's on any Saturday in March and April, between 9 and 
6 o'clock, to sign a petition to strike oat, in oar State Ck)nstitation, the word 
''male" as a qualification for voters. Circulars explaining the reason for 
this request may be obtained at the same time and place. — Mrs. Josephine 
Shaw Lowell, Mrs. Joseph H. Choate, Mrs. Mary Putnam Jacobi, Mrs. J. 
Warren Goddard, Mrs. Robert Abbe, Mrs. Henry M. Sanders, Miss Adele M. 
Fielde. 

Sherry, the famous restaurateur, placed one of his hand- 
somest rooms at the disposal of the ladies and, for many weeks, 
one or more of them might always be found there ready to re- 
ceive signatures to the petitions. The New York World ex- 
({^essed the situation in a strong article, saying in part : 

d Within the month there has been a sudden and altogether unexpected oat- 
break of the woman suffrage movement in New York. . . . Some one 
gave a signal and from all parts of the State rose the cry for the enfranchise- 
ment of women. It is not hard to discover the original cause which set on 
foot the insurrection—for in a certain sense it is an insurrection. It was an 
appeal which appeared in the latter part of February and was signed by 
many eminent men and women. Here were nearly twoscore of names, as 
widely known and honorable as any in this State — names of people of the 
highest social standing, not because of extravagant display or fashionable 
raiment, but because of distinction in intellect, in philanthropy and in the 
history of the State. The reason of the coming of the petition just at this 
time was, of course, plain. The meeting of the Constitutional Ck)nvention 
would be the one chance of the woman suffragists in twenty years. . . . 

It will be noticed that these women are in Mr. McAllister's Four Hundred, 
but not of it. They do not go in for frivolity. They go in for charity, for 
working among the masses, for elevating standards of living and morals in 
the slums of the city. They have awakened to the fact of the other half, and 



t 



THE SECOND NEW YORE CAMPAIGN. 765 

of how that other half lives, and they have expressed their indignation over 
the small salaries paid women for doing men's work ; over the dishonest men 
in political places, pat there because they coald vote and control the votes of 
a namber of saloon loungers; over the wretched lot of the woman school 
teacher, ill-paid and neglected because useless on election day. 

And to go back a little further, the most of these society women are the 
products of that higher education which the pioneer suffragists made possible. 
They are women of wide reading, of independent thought, of much self-reli- 
ance. They began to wonder why they could not vote, when the sloping- 
shouldered, slopingHskuUed youths who proposed to marry them, or had 
married them, had that right and did not exercise it and showed no informa- 
tion and no concern as to the rottenness of the local government. . . . 
The upper class of women are enlisted. Woman suffrage is the one interest- 
ing subject of discussion in the whole fashionable quarter. 

This campaign brought also another surprise. In all the 
forty years of suffrage work, one of the stumbling-blocks had 
\ been the utter apathy of women themselves, who took no in- 
^terest either for or against, but now they seemed to be aroused 
iall along the line. In Albany a small body of women calling 
ithemselves *' Remonstrants " suddenly sprung into existence. 
For a number of years there had been a handful of women in 
Massachusetts under that title, but this was the first appear- 
ance of the species in New York. They seemed to be fathered 
by Bishop William Croswell Doane, and mothered by Mrs. 
John V. L. Pruyn. Seven men and a number of women were 
present at the first meeting in that lady's parlor, and they 
formed an organization to counteract the vicious efforts of those 
women who were asking for political freedom. Evidently 
under the direction of her spiritual adviser, Mrs. Pruyn sub- 
jnitted a set of resolutions, which were adopted, begging the 
Constitutional Convention " not to strike out the word 'male';'' 
setting forth ' ' that suffrage was not a natural right ; that there 
was no reason why this privilege should be extended to women ; 
that no taxation without representation did not mean that every 
citizen should vote; that universal suffrage was a mistake; 
that the possession of the suffrage would take women into con- 
flicts for which they were wholly unfitted ; and that it would 
rudely disturb the strong and growing spirit of chivalry." 
Another branch was formed in Brooklyn with Mrs. Lyman 



766 LIFE AND WOKK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Abbott at its head and the Outlook at its back, edited by Rev. 
Lyman Abbott. A society appeared in New York at about the 
same time and opened headquarters at the Waldorf. There 
was also an "Anti " club at Utica.* 

^ The Democrat and Chronicle published a long interview with 
/ Miss Anthony in regard to these *^ Remonstrants," from which 
the following is an extract : 

I ' ' This oppoeition movement is not the work of women," she said, " althoojch 
it has that appearance. There was held in Albany yesterday afternoon a 
meeting at which resolutions condemning our work were adopted. Listen 
to the names of the women who were present. Do you see that they are all 
Mrs. John and Mrs. Creorge and Mrs. William this and that ? There is not a 
woman's first name in the whole list, and I do not see a Miss, either. This 
goes to show that the women are simply put forward by their husbands. 

''Another point : These men who are stirring up the opposition would not only 
deny the right of women to vote but would qualify the word ' male ' as it now 
stands in the constitution. They say in so many words in their resolutions 
that the right of suffrage is already extended to too many men ; and they pay 
a doubtful compliment to the intelligence of their mothers, wives and sisters 
by adding that the class of undesirable voters would be swelled by giving the 
ballot to women. These are men of wealth who would confine the exercise 
of the right of suffrage to their own class — in fact would make this govern- 
ment an aristocracy." 

These new organizations seemed to be abundantly supplied 
with money, but though they were able to pay for the work of 
I circulating petitions, which with the suffrage advocates had to 
Ibe a labor of love, they secured only 15,000 signatures. The 
petitions asking for a suffrage amendment received 332,148 
individual signatures, including the 36,000 collected by the 
W. C. T. U. In addition to these the New York Federation of 
Labor sent in a memorial representing 140,000 ; the Labor 
Reform Conference, 70,000 ; several Trades Unions, 1,396 ; 

*Mn. Jane Marsh Parker, a newspaper woman of Rochester, attempted to or^nise a club 
there and seonre a iwiition in opposition to the amendment. Her efforts eyidently did not meet 
with marked snooess for, in a letter to the New York Evening Post, she says, " In offering the 
'protest* for signatures, quality rather than quantity has been considered.' ' That prince of edi- 
tors, Joseph O'Connor, at that time in charge of the Rochester Post-Express, gave the lady 
a delicious dressing down in an editorial beginning: "What is 'quality'?" and ending: 
*' Probably she means no more by the offensive words 'quality' and 'quantity' than this— that 
she has secured to the protest only the signatures of a f^w representative women, no better 
and no worse than many of their opponents. Such an interpretation saves the statement 
from being insulting; but unhappily very many women in Boohester give it a different in- 
terpretation." 



THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 767 

Oranges, 50,000 ; total, 593,544. Added to these were peti- 
tions from a number of societies, making in round numbers 
about 600,000. It had been impossible, for several reasons, 
to make a thorough canvass, and this was especially true of 
New York and Brooklyn, containing half the population of the 
State ; and yet there were over one-half as many signers as 
there were voters in the entire State. 

/ The Constitutional Convention assembled in Albany, May 
kt and elected Joseph H. Choate, of New York City, presi- 
/ dent. Although only a few months previous he had expressed 
\ himself favorable to woman suffrage, all his influence in the 
Neonvention was used against it. Mr. Choate, according to 
jiniversal opinion, accepted this office with the expectation 
ihat it would lead to his nomination as governor of the State, 
lind he had no intention of offending the power behind the 
gubernatorial chair. The amendment was doomed from the 
moment of his election. His first move was to appoint a com- 
mittee to have charge of all suffrage amendments, and on this 
^ommittee of seventeen he placed twelve men, carefully selected, 
^because they were known to be strongly opposed to woman suf- 
(frage. He appointed as chairman a man who could be de- 
pended on to hesitate at no means which would secure its 
(defeat.^ Jn all his efforts to kill the amendment beyond hope 
of resurrection, Mr. Choate was actively supported by his first 
lieutenant, Hon. Elihu Root, also of New York City. 

Having ruined all the chances of the amendment. President 
Choate then announced that every courtesy and consideration 
'^ would be extended to the ladies having it in charge. Miss 
^Anthony was invited to address the suffrage committee May 
24, and the hearing was held in the Assembly room of the 
Capitol. Not only the committee but most of the delegates 
were in their seats and a large audience was present. This 
was said to be one of her best efforts and she seemed to have 
almost the complete sympathy of her audience. She spoke 

* Mr. Choate might oUim that he did not know the position of these men on this question, 
bnt it was so well understood that Miss Anthony and her associates felt all hope depart 
when they read the names of the committee. John Billow and Gideon J. Tucker had 
favored a woman suffrage amendment when they were members of the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1867, bat, being now over eighty, were not able to make an aggressive fight for it. 



768 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

I for three-quarters of an hour, and then urged that those 
opposed should state their reasons and give her an opportunity 
to answer them. Although there were twelve men on the com- 
mittee who even then intended to bring in an adverse report, 
and ninety-eight delegates who afterwards voted against it, not 
one could be persuaded to rise and present his objections. It 

\ was said by many that if the vote could have been taken at 

t that moment, no power could have prevented a majority in 

J favor. 

The women of New York City were accorded a hearing May 
31, and it was on this occasion, with the petitions of the 600,- 
000 stacked on a table in front of her, that Dr. Mary Putnam 
Jacobi made that masterly speech which ranks as a classic. 



^^^ ^L'SS:^^^---^' 



Miss Margaret Livingstone Chanler, in a beautiful address, 
also spoke in behalf of the ''Sherry contingent." The regular 
New York City League was ably represented by Lillie Devereux 
Blake and Harriet A. Keyser. The platform was filled with 
the distinguished women of the State, Miss Anthony, Mrs. 
Oreenleaf and Dr. Jacobi occupying the central position. 

On June 7 a hearing was granted to the women from the 
senatorial districts, each presenting in a five-minute speech 
the claims of the thousands of petitioners from her district. 
Among these speakers were some of the best-known women in 
the State, socially and intellectually ; and a number of others, 
of equal standing, who never had taken part in public work 
and who now left their homes only to plead for the power 
which would enable women better to conserve the interests of 
home.* The State president, Mrs. Greenleaf, presided over all 
of these hearings, her commanding presence, great dignity 
and fine mental power giving especial prestige to these bodies 
of women, who in character and intellect could not be sur- 
passed. The final hearing of those in favor of the amend- 

* The addresses made on this occasion were issned in pamphlet form and presented to 
the saffra^ association by Messrs. Lanterbach and Towns, of the committee* 



THB SECOND NEW TORE CAMPAIGN. 769 

ment was held June 28, when U. S. Senator Joseph M. 
Carey, who had come by urgent invitation, made a most con- 
vincing speech, describing the practical workings of woman 
suffrage in Wyoming and urging the men of New York to en- 









franchise the women of the State. He was followed by Mrs. 
Mary T. Burt, representing the W. C. T. U., and by Mary 
Seymour Howell. 

One hearing was given to the ** Remonstrants," or "Antis,*' 
as the press had dubbed them. Because of their extreme mod- 
esty, and for other more obvious reasons, they did not make 
their own appeals but were represented by the male of their 
species. Their petition was presented by Elihu Root. Hon. 
Francis M. Scott, whose wife was one of the leading "Antis** 
in New York, made the principal address. He described pa- 
thetically the timid and shrinking class of women for whom 
he pleaded, insisted that the legislature never had refused 
women anything they asked, declared the suffrage advocates 
represented only an '* insignificant minority,"* and closed with 
the eloquent peroration : ' ' I vote, not because I am intelligent, 
not because I am moral, but solely and simply because I am a 
man." Rev. Clarence A. Walworth, Hon. Matthew Hale and 
J. Newton Fiero were the other speakers. The first individual 

> Althomrh their petitioDs contained 600,000 names and those of the "Antis " 15,000. 
Ant.— 49 



770 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

did not believe in universal manhood sufifrage and could not 
favor anything which would double the vote. Mr. Hale de- 
voted most of his argument to the so-called *' bad women," 
declaring there were over 100,000 of them in the State who 
would sell their votes as they did their bodies— enough to over- 
come the votes of the virtuous women. Mr. Fiero said woman 
was unfitted for the ballot because she was influenced by pity, 
passion and prejudice rather than by judgment. A letter was 
read from Hon. Abram S. Hewitt, objecting to the amendment 
because the majority of women do not care to vote. 

These insults to their sex seemed very acceptable to the fash- 
ionably dressed ''Antis'^ who occupied the front rows of seats. 
How far their influence affected the adverse vote of the con- 
vention it is of course impossible to determine. While the 
liquor dealers were sending to wavering members their kegs of 
beer and jugs of whiskey, the ''Antis " supplemented their ef- 
forts with champagne suppers, flowers, music and low-necked 
dresses. And the suffrage advocates hoped to offset these po- 
litical methods by trudging through mud and snow with their 
petitions and using their scanty funds to send out literature I 
A mistaken policy, perhaps, but the only one possible to the 
class of women who are asking for enfranchisement. 

The committee, as had been foreordained, brought in an 
adverse report. The evenings of August 8, 9, 14 and 15, 
were devoted to a discussion of this report. The Assembly 
chamber was crowded at each session. The women had known 
for weeks that they were defeated but had not abated their 
efforts in the slightest degree. Their work was now finished 
and they assembled in large numbers to hear the final debate. 
The amendment had, from first to last, an able and earnest 
champion in Edward Lauterbach, of New York, who opened 
the discussion in a speech of an hour and a quarter, said to 
have been the ablest made in the convention. Nineteen members 
spoke in favor and fourteen in opposition. The debate through- 
out was serious and respectful and as dignified as was possible 
with the frivolous objections made by the opponents. The 
r delegates showed an evident appreciation of the importance of 



[^ 



THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 771 

Ahe question at issue, which was about to be sacrificed as usual 

Lto political exigency. 

The opponents were led by Elihu Root, of New York, who 
begged pathetically that ''we be not robbed of the women of 
our homes ; " and declared that '' he would hesitate to put in- 
to the hands of women the right to defend his wife and the 
women he loved and respected." William P. Qoodelle, of 
Syracuse, chairman of the committee, closed the discussion 
with a long speech in which he asserted that ''the question 
was not whether large numbers of male and female citizens 
asked for woman suffrage, or protested against it, or are taxed 
or not, but was it for the benefit of the State ? " This being 
the case, why did Mr. Goodelle not favor its being submitted 
to the voters of the State in order that they might decide ? 

It required an hour and a half to take the vote, as most of 
the members found it necessary to explain why they voted as 
they did. While it was being taken President Choate left his 
chair and talked earnestly with many of the delegates — ^prob- 
ably about the weather — stopping occasionally to receive the 
approving smiles of the "Antis." When his name was called 
for the last vote he recorded himself against the amendment, 
^nd the great battle was over I^ In favor of submission 58, op- 
posed 98. 

f No question before the convention had attracted so much at- 

(^tention throughout the State. The New York Recorder led 
the newspapers which championed the submission of the 
amendment, and Harper's Weekly and the Evening Post were 
prominent among the opposition, a mighty descent from the 
days when they were under the editorial management of George 
William Curtis and William CuUen Bryant. The day after the 
vote was taken the suffrage committee closed its Albany head- 
quarters in the Capitol and the ladies returned to their homes. 

*Mra. Choate was one of the women who signed the first call for the suffrage advocates to 
meet at Sherry's; Jast as, in 1887, Mrs. Qreeley canvassed her whole county to secure sig- 
natures to the woman's petition. Horace Greeley, as chairman of the suffrage committee 
of that Constitutional Convention, threw the whole weight of his influence against the 
amendment, lest it might hurt the Bepublican party ; Just as Mr. Choate did in this one, 
lest it might hurt the party and himself. Significant answers to the threadbare assertion 
that the husband represents the wife I 



772 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

They had raised $10,000 and expended it in the most econom- 
ical manner ; they had given a year of the hardest and most 
conscientious work ; and they did not regret a dollar of the 
money or a day of the time.^ In her president's report Mrs. 
Jean Brooks Greenleaf said : 

These days will never be forgotten by the trio of the State committee who 
daily met to work and plan— to make the campaign ** bricks " withoat finan- 
cial ** straw." No one with a heart will recall the pecuniary distress of last 
winter withoat a shudder, and to those who had, what was in their estima- 
tion, a cause at stake precious as life itself, the outlook was often well nigh 
disheartening. . . . Gould the full history of the past winter's work be 
given, the doubts expressed of woman's desire for the ballot would be set at 
rest forever. No more pathetic stories are told of the struggle for liberty in 
the days of the Revolution than could be told of the women of New York in 
this campaign. . . . 

In closing, we come to the name of one who, we all know, is the inspired 
leader of women up the heights of honor, purity and self-devotion — 8nsan 
B. Anthony. To her marvellous energy and resolution we owe both the con- 
ception and the success of this wonderful campaign. In her seventy-fifth 
year she started out as one of the principal speakers to be heard in the sixty 
counties of the State ; never once did she fail to keep an appointment, never 
once did she cry a halt. . . . This noble woman, leaving a home of which 
she is as fond as any woman can be, travelled night or day, as the case re- 
quired, not only speaking, but plying her busy pen — and all for what ? Not 
for money, for she has stoutly refused to receive one penny of a salary, which, 
had it been paid, would have exceeded the sum of ^,000. She gave her serv- 
ices for love of liberty and justice, with the hope that New York would prove 
to be in truth the Empire State of the Union. 

From the hour when she learned that a Constitutional Con- 
vention would be held y up to the opening of this convention, 
Miss Anthony had believed that it would incorporate a suffrage 
amendment which, in all probability, would be allowed by the 
voters to pass with the rest of the constitution. She found 
. herself outwitted by the politicians, as she had been so many 
\ times before, but while this defeat was the bitterest disappoint- 



^From official report: Emily Howland generously contributed $1,200. That stanneh 
friend, Sarah L. Willis, of Rochester, gaTe|720. Abby L. Pettengill, of Chantaaqaa county, 
gave $220. General Christiansen, of Brooklyn, began the contributions of $100, of which there 
were, if I mistake not, seven others from our own State— Semantha V. Lapham, Ebeneaer 
Butterick, of New York, Mrs. H. S. Holden, of Syracuse, Marian Skidmore, of Chautauqua 
county, Hannah L. Howland, of Sherwood, Mr. and Mrs. James Sargent and Colonel H. 8, 
Greenleaf, of Rochester, completing the number. 



THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 773 

ment of her life, it did not crush her dauntless spirit. It is 
related of her that as she came down the steps of the Capitol 
with the other ladies at midnight, after the vote had been 
taken y she began planning another campaign. 
i Among the many appreciative and sympathetic letters she 

received at this time was one from Isabella Charles Davis, sec- 
retary International King's Daughters, saying for herself and 
Mrs. Mary Lowe Dickinson: "I do not believe you know 
how tenderly we love you and in what high respect and honor 
we hold you. Mrs. Dickinson was present at one of those 
meetings at Sherry's, and she said the only thing lacking to 
make the occasion perfect was dear Miss Anthony's strong, 
brave face looking down upon the great multitude." Henry 
B. Blackwell wrote : " You are to be congratulated on hav- 
ing made a splendid fight in New York. To have secured 
600,000 petitions is itself a victory." 

In answer to a letter from Isabel Howland, the efficient 
State recording secretary, she expressed the welcome recogni- 
tion which she always extended to young workers : ''Well, I 
am truly glad for the discovery of our twin New York girls, 
Harriet May Mills and Isabel Howland, who promise to take 
up the laboring oar and pull us to the promised land. Give 
my warmest regards to your precious mother and aunt Emily; 
how I have learned to know and love the two I " She went as 
a guest of the Howlands for a few brief days in the Catskills, 
and they drove over to Eagle's Nest, in Twilight Park, where 
Miss Willard and Lady Henry Somerset were spending the 
summer. 

Miss Anthony lectured at Keuka College, August 7, and on 
the 22d, gave the annual address on suffrage, at Cassadaga 
lake. The next day she found herself thus reported in the 
Buffalo Express : 

If, instead of Spiritaalists, this great body of people had been Baptists, 
Presbyterians, Methodists or Catholics, their praises for the firm stand they 
have taken for the enfranchisement of half the people of this country, would 
have been everywhere sung in song and told in story. But the suffrage 
women of America always have been afraid to give voice to the " thank you " 



774 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

in their hearts, for SpiritaaHBm has been tally as anpopalar as woman suf- 
frage ; and they feared if they displayed too much gratitude for this endorse- 
ment the public would at once pronounce them Spiritualists and they would 
thus be doubly damned. But there are a few of our members who are brave 
enough to rejoice in the damnation of orthodox religions and orthodox poli- 
tics 1 

Her consternation at these closing words was intensified by 
the letters which began coming in upon her before forty-eight 
hours. She wrote at once to the paper: ''This is all right 
until you come to the last sentence. I had illustrated also the 
danger of expressing kind words to unpopular political par- 
ties, and then I concluded — not as printed — ^but with : ' There 
are still a few of us brave enough to rejoice in every good word 
and work said and done for woman, and to publicly express 
our thanks therefor, notwithstanding the ''denunciation ** (not 
damnation ) of orthodox religionists and orthodox politicians. ' ' * 
The Express published her correction, but it is doubtful if it 
ever was able to overtake the original statement. 

Miss Anthony was very anxious to influence the next legis- 
lature, through the public sentiment which had been created, 
V^^ to submit a suffrage amendment. For this purpose she laid 
/^ out a plan of work to continue the organization and petitions, 
V^and herself held meetings in a number of counties. It was 
Voided by the committee to go before the Republican and 
Democratic State Conventions, which were to be held at Sara- 
toga. An address was prepared and a resolution asking for an 
endorsement of a woman suffrage amendment. Miss Anthony, 
Mrs. Greenleaf and Mr. Lauterbach went before the resolution 
committee, September 18, which allowed five minutes for the 
three to present their case, and never gave it one minute's 
attention afterwards. 

Frances Willard and Lady Somerset came down from their 
mountain retreat to attend this convention, and after their return 
Miss Willard wrote : "... As for you, our leader of leaders, I 
wish I could transfer to your brain all the loving thoughts and 
words of our trio toward you. As you stood before that roomful 
of people, so straight and tall and masterful, with that fine sena- 



r 



THE SECOND NEW YORK CAMPAIGN. 775 

torial head and face, on which the strength and heroism of your 
character are so plainly marked, I thought, ' There is one of 
the century's foremost figures ; there is the woman who has 
been faithful among the faithless and true among the false I ' " 




Five minutes allowed such women I Had they represented 
an enfranchised class, the whole committee would have been 
at their feet. 

. Miss Anthony, Mrs. Blake and Mrs. Greenleaf went to the 
/Democratic convention and met with about the same experi- 
i^ ence. They were permitted to address the resolution commit- 
tee and bowed out as quickly as possible. There was no 
especial rudeness or discourtesy, but they had no constituency 
behind them, no political power, and in the hurry and worry 
of a State convention the men did not care to waste time with 
them, even had they been the most eminent women on the face 
of the earth. 

Miss Anthony had a number of urgent invitations to spend 
the hot months of July, August and September at various 
charming summer homes in the mountains and at the seaside, 
but she declined all and resolutely continued at work. The 
hardest for her to resist had been a triumphant call from the 
women of Colorado to come and help them celebrate the Fourth 
of July. It was to be the jubilee of their political emancipa- 
tion, the first since their enfranchisement. The State presi- 
dent, Mrs. Mary C. C. Bradford, wrote: "The women of 
Colorado feel that their precious holiday will be less precious 
if the beloved suffrage leader and the suffrage flag are not 
present." At first she sent an acceptance, but later, affairs in 



776 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

New York became so pressing that she was obliged, most 
reluctantly, to recall it. After filling an engagement to lecture 
before the alumnse of the Girls' Normal School in Philadelphia, 
October 13, she started on the 16th for the final struggle in 
Kansas. 




CHAPTER XLIII. 

THB SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 

1894, 

!E Kansas legislature of 1898 had submitted an 
amendment conferring full suffrage on women, 
to be voted on in November, 1894. Mrs. Laura 
M. JohnSy president of the State Suffrage Associa- 
tion, had written Miss Anthony in April, 1893 : 
'' Republicans and Populists are' pledged to the support of the 
amendment. I consider both parties equally committed by 
their platforms this year, and by their votes in the legislature. 
We ought to have somebody present in each county convention 
of both, next year, to secure a suffrage resolution which would 
insure such a plank in each State platform. You see if one 
party leaves it out the other will take it up and use it against 
the first." 

During all the voluminous correspondence of 1893, in which 
Mrs. Johns assured Miss Anthony again and again that her 
assistance in the campaign was absolutely necessary to success, 
the latter did not once fail to impress upon her that the en- 
dorsement of the political parties was the one essential without 
which they could hope for nothing. She mapped out and sent 
to Mrs. Johns a complete plan of work, covering many pages 
of foolscap, arranging for a thorough organization of every 
precinct in the State, for the speciiSc purpose of bringing to 
bear a pressure upon the political conventions the next sum- 
mer which would compel them to put a plank in their plat- 
forms endorsing the amendment. She made it perfectly clear 
that, if the conventions did not do this, she would not go into 

the State. 

(777) 



[778 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

When the Kansas women came to the Washington conven- 
tion in February, 1894, Miss Anthony for the first time had 
her suspicions aroused that the politicians of that State were 
getting in some shrewd work to prevent them from pressing 
the question of planks in the platforms. Mrs. Johns had made 
the serious mistake of accepting also the presidency of the 
State Republican Woman's Association, and had been actively 
organizing clubs and conferring with Republican leaders. She 
insisted that she was making woman suffrage the primary 
feature of her work, but Miss Anthony held that her strong 
Republican affiliations could not avoid weakening her influence 
with the Populists. She did, it is true, send out circulars 
urging the local organizations to work for planks in both State 
conventions ; and she did advise the women to keep clear of 
partisan action, but this advice could hardly be effective coming 
from the State president of the Republican Woman's Association. 
Miss Anthony wrote her : '* My dear Laura, you must choose 
whom you will serve — the Republican party or the cause of 
woman's enfranchisement ; " and she replied : '* Please don't 
insult my loyalty with any such suggestion as this ; I have 
never served anything but the suffrage cause since I began the 
suffrage work ; " and continued to look after the welfare of her 
Republican clubs and arrange Republican meetings. 

There is no question that a tremendous pressure was brought 
to bear upon the suffrage leaders by the Republican politicians. 
If space would permit the publication of their many letters 
now on file they would make interesting reading. That of 
Charles F. Scott, of the lola Register, urging Mrs. Johns to 
call off her women and telling her the exact language in which 
to do it, is a masterpiece of political shrewdness. It concludes : 
**Try to get E. W. Hoch nominated for governor and we won't 
need any platform." As a specimen of pure humor might be 
quoted one from Case Broderick, M. C, in which he says : 

I have thoaght a good deal about this question and have concluded we can 
recognize the movement by a resolution similar to this : '^ While the ques- 
tion of the amendment of the constitution, now pending, granting the right 
of suffrage to women, is wholly non-partisn and should not be made a test of 



THE SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 779 

Bepablicanism, yet we can not view with apprehension the effort to folly con- 
fer apon the women of Kansas the elective franchise." 

He then closes : ' ' Some will contend that we ought to say 
one thing or the other . . . but such a resolution as this 
would not drive any from our party." One must admit that it 
would not scare them to death. Mr. Broderick, however, was 
an honest believer in woman suffrage and later did attempt to 
secure some recognition for it in the platform. The Republi- 
cans sent an agent of adroit address among the suffrage clubs 
to explain to them how '' an endorsement by the political par- 
ties would be really a hindrance to their success/' and it was 
charged that this was done with the consent of some of the 
leading women. 

Miss Anthony wrote to Mrs. Johns at this time: *'You 
know as well as I do that not one of those Republicans thinks 
party endorsement will damage the suffrage amendment, as 
they are trying to make the women believe, but every one of 
them does fear that it will hurt his chances for some position 
and lose the party the votes of the Germans and the whiskey 
dealers. The shame for them now is vastly greater than it 
was twenty-seven years ago, for then they feared to lose the 
enfranchisement of the negro. Their proposal to leave out the 
plank now, after they have carried the question thus far, is 
too wicked to be tolerated by any sane woman ! ^ I marvel that 
you do not see and feel the insult and humiliation.'' 

On March 6, 1894, Mrs. Johns wrote: '^ I find a stampede 
here on the plank question. Women of both parties are going 
against it. Judge Johnston of the supreme bench is opposed 
to it; so is Judge Horton. Do write them for their views; 
you know they are good friends of ours. I am worried. The 
Republicans will hold the first convention, and the general 
talk of candidates, managers and leaders is against a plank. I 
was yesterday about to go into print in regard to it, but am 

* It was the Bepablioans who framed the original oonstitation of the State so aa to give 
women liberal property rights, eqnal gaardianship of their children, and school snfiFrage. In 
1887 they gave to women an eqnal voice on the question of local option. In 1887 they 
granted to them municipal suffrage. In various State conventions they adopted an une- 
quivocal endorsement of full suffrage for women. 



( 



780 LIFB AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

afraid if I make strenuous efforts and am beaten that it will 
hurt us more than if I keep quiet. Prominent men are writ- 
ing and besieging me to relieve the party of the embarrassment 
of this demand. I am not clear in my own mind what to do." 
As the weeks went on it became more and more apparent 
that the women were yielding to the pressure. The officers of 
the National- American Association, which had pledged nearly 
$2,300 to help Kansas, insisted that the women should con- 
tinue to demand the endorsement of the political parties and 
let the onus of failure rest upon the men and not upon them- 
selves. It might not be worth while to quote from the official 
letters sent, the campaign having passed into history, but for 
the fact that they may serve as a guide to other States in the 
future. 

Carrie Chapman Catt, the national organizer, wrote: '^It 
is very plain that the chief fight is now. We must compel en- 
dorsement, and I believe we can do it. How any man in his 
sane senses could think non-endorsement would give votes 
and sympathy, I can not conceive ; or how the women can 
have a hope of winning without it, after all the experience of 
\ our campaigns." Henry B. Blackwell, editor of the Woman's 
' Journal and an experienced politician, wrote Miss Anthony : 

At the reqaest of Mrs. Johnfl I enclose a letter from Mr. Wagener, of 
Topeka. He gives the worst possible advice, and Mrs. Johns' letter seems to 
show that she is sarroanded by bad advisers and in doubt as to her coarse. 
If there is anything which twenty-seven years' work has taaght as, it is that 
a woman saffrage amendment can not be carried withont at least one political 
party sqaarely behind it. In Colorado, for the first time, we have had a 
majority ; and Mrs. Catt, and Mrs. Reynolds and Mrs. Stansbary of Denver, 
all say that the amendment coald not have been carried if the Repablican, 
Popalist and many of the Democratic district conventions had not first 
endorsed it in their platforms. It thas became a live issae and the masses of 
voters became interested and enlightened. 

On the other hand, oar Soath Dakota experience is conclusive. . . . All 
three parties ignored it, and the press of the State joined in a conspiracy of 
silence. The campaign speakers were instructed not to name it. We had to 
rely for the discussions upon the efforts of suffragists as outsiders. Conse- 
quently ... we were beaten two to one. The same will surely be true 
.in Kansas in 1894. . . . If we do not capture the Republican and Popu- 
list State conventions we shall be beaten in advance. All hinges on that I 



THE SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 781 

I have just talked with Mrs. Lease, who fally a^ees with me. The Repabli- 
can convention will be the first to meet. If Mrs. Johns will go before the 
resolution committee and urge her plank, securing at least its presentation as a 
minority report offered in open session, it will stampede the convention and 
be carried. Then the Populists will put one in so as not to be behind the 
Republicans, and then we shall probably win. Do write Mrs. Johns to stand 
by her guns. No one but her can do this work, because she is personally 
dear to the Republicans. The fate of the amendment will be then and there 
decided. 

Rev. Anna Shaw, vice-president-at-large, wrote Mrs. Johns 
in this vigorous language : 

I must confess that while I can readily understand the abject cowardice and 
selfishness which prompt men and political tricksters to urge the abandonment 
of the plank, I can not understand how you or any other woman with a grain 
of sense can listen to such proposals for a moment. That endorsement is 
our only hope. If that fail us, our cause is lost in advance ; for it will show the 
body of the party what the leaders think and feel on the subject, and be a 
tacit command to kill it. The hypocrisy of the whole business should not 
receive from women even a show of belief. What wonder men despise us as 
a shallow lot of simpletons, if we are deceived by so thin a pretense as this ? 
I for one protest against it so strongly that if your committee agree to it and 
do not push party endorsement, I must decline to fool away my time in Kan- 
sas. If you give up that point I must refuse to go a single step or raise a 
dollar. I am sick of the weakness of women, forever dictated to by men. 
Experience has taught us what a campaign unendorsed means. Think of 
submitting our measure to the advice of politicians I I would as soon submit 
the subject of the equality of a goose to a fox. No ; we must have party en- 
dorsement or we are dead. 

If I am not to go to Kansas, I want to know it immediately. It is too late 
even now, for I refused twenty consecutive engagements for May in one 
State, thinking it was all given up to Kansas. The man or woman who urges 
surrender now is more a political partisan than a lover of freedom. I care 
nothing for all the political parties in the world except as they stand for 
justice. I can not tell you how even the suggestion of this surrender 
affects me. For the love of woman, do not be fooled by those men any 
longer. 

Finally, as the case grew more hopeless, Miss Anthony, as 
president of the National-American Association, on March 11, 
sent the following : 

To the Kansas Woman Suffrage Amendment Campaign Committee — Laura M, 
Johns, Bina M. Otis, Sarah A. Ihurstonf Annie L, Diggs and Others: 
My Deab Friends: I have the letter of your chairman, Mrs. Johns, to- 
gether with one she forwards from a lawyer of Topeka, with the added 



782 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

aBsertion that Jadges Horton, Johnston et al., and leading editors and poli- 
ticians, are begging your committee to cease to demand of the two great 
political parties, the Repablican and People's, that they pnt a sofErage plank 
in their platforms ; bat instead, simply allow the amendment to go before 
the electors on its merits— that is to say, repeat the experiment as it has 
been made and has failed eight times over. . . . 

The one and only sure hope of carrying the amendment in Kansas is to 
have on its side all the aid of the political machinery of its two great parties. 
My one object in consenting to go into year campaign for May and June, 
was to create so strong a public demand as to make sure that every delegate 
elected to the State nominating conventions of the Republican and People's 
parties shall be instructed by his constituents, in county convention assem- 
bled, to vote for a woman suffrage plank in the platform. The moment your 
committee abandons this aim, I shall lose all interest in your work. You 
say : " Prominent Republicans are besieging us to relieve their party of the 
embarrassment of this demand." 80 did they besiege us twenty-seven 
years ago. No ; not for a moment should you think of relieving the politi- 
cians from the duty of declaring for this amendment. If you do, you are 
unworthy the trust reposed in you. I surely never would have promised to 
go into your campaign, or begged the friends to contribute, had I dreamed 
of the possibility of your surrendering to the cowardice of political trim- 
mers. 

If the convention which meets first do not endorse the amendment, then 
the other will not ; in which event, its discussion will not be germane in 
either party's fall campaign. On the other hand, if the first put a plank 
in its platform, the other will be sure to do so ; and then the question will be 
a legitimate one to be advocated in the meetings of both parties and this will 
ensure the presentation of our cause to all the voters of the State. 

By this means the two parties will run your amendment campaign, and yoa 
will not be compelled to make a separate suffrage campaign. That you can 
not do in any event, because (Ist) you can not get either the speakers or the 
money necessary ; and (2d) if you could get both, you would have only 
women in your meetings, and defeat would be just as certain as in the 
eight States which have had such separate woman's campaigns. Therefore, 
if you decide to abandon the demand for political endorsement and active 
help, as the first and chief object of this spring's work, you may count me 
out of it; for I will not be a party, even though a protesting one, to such a 
surrender of our only hope of success. 

I came home for a rest over Sunday, after speaking five successive nights in 
five different counties, in our New York campaign, and these letters with the 
weak — the wicked — ^thought of not demanding of the political leaders to make 
their parties help carry the amendment, raged through my brain all night 
long. How to put the shame of surrender strongly enough was my constant 
study, sleeping and waking alike. No, a thousand times no, I say ; and if 
yon do yield to this demand at the behest of men claiming to be your friends, 
you make yourselves a party with those men to ensure your defeat. The 
speakers will advocate no measure, and the vast majority of men will vote 
for none, which is not approvingly mentioned in the platform. If you give 



THE SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 783 

up trying for political endorsement, or fail after trying, all hope of carrying 

the amendment will be gone. So, over and over I say, demand party help! 

Lovingly bat protestingly, Susan B. Anthony. 

Mrs. Johns, of course, indignantly rejected the imputation 
that she was not working night and day to secure a plank 
from the Republican convention. She was a most efficient 
manager, but the cause of her weakness and that of the other 
women, was that they were trying to serve two masters. The 
very fact that the Republican men were begging them not to 
ask for a plank, shows the power which the women already 
possessed in their municipal suffrage, and they should have 
had the courage to stand firm in their demands for recognition 
in the platform, for the dignity of their cause and their woman- 

(hood, whether there were hope of getting it or not. There is 
no doubt that Mrs. Johns did make an earnest effort to this 
end, but there is also no doubt that every Republican leader 
understood that even if the party did not endorse the suffrage 
amendment, she and her associates still would be no less Repub- 
licans and would work no less vigorously for the party's success. 
Miss Anthony's Kansas correspondence during 1894 comprises 
300 letters and all confirm the statements thus briefly outlined. 
The Republican politicians made the women believe if they 
would not insist on the party's placing itself on record and 
. thus losing the support of the elements opposed to woman suf- 
'. frage, all of them would vote for the amendment. Should the 
women of Kansas ever become politically free, the publication 
of these letters would be fatal to some aspiring male candidates, 
but so long as the men still have it in their power to grant to 
women or to withhold the full franchise, it is the part of wis- 
dom to leave them on their files. There were many Kansas 
women, however, who refused to be deceived and sustained 
Miss Anthony's position. In April she wrote to one of the 
Republican leaders : 



/ 



If the Repablicans had two grains of political sense, they would see that 
for them to espouse the amendment and gain the glory, as they surely would, 
of lifting the women of the State into full suffrage, would give them new life, 
prestige and power greater and grander than they ever possessed ; and they 



784 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

would not be halting and belittling themselves with sach idiotic staff and non- 
sense as their advice to let the amendment go to the electors of the State 
** on its own merits." Bat however politicians may waver^ our suffrage 
women must not have a doubt, but must persist in the demand for full recog- 
nition in both platforms. We must exact justice and if they do not give it, 
the curse be on their heads, not ours. 

The same month she wrote Mrs. Johns : 

I can not tell you how more and more it is borne in upon me that our ond 
chance lies in securing the Republican pledge to carry us to victory, for that 
will mean a Populist pledge, and both planks will mean a clean-cut battle be- 
tween the different elements of the grand old party combined as one on this 
question — and the Democracy of the State. £ven with so solid an alliance of 
the two branches, we shall have a hard enough fight of it. Every woman who 
listens to the siren tongues of political wire-pullers and office-seekers not to 
demand a plank, will thereby help to sell Kansas back into the hands of the 
whiskey power. Behind every anti-plank man's word, written or spoken, is 
his willingness to let Kansas return to saloon rule. Sugar coat it as they 
may, that is the unsavory pill in the motive of every one of them. 

Sincerely and hopefully yours, trusting in good and keeping our powder 
dry. 

Enough has been quoted to show the situation. Miss An- 
xhony, Mrs. Catt and Miss Shaw went to Kansas to open the 

''spring canvass, May 4, to influence the State conventions. 

( Miss Anthony had been advertised for forty-three speeches. 
The women of New York, where a great campaign was in prog- 
ress, were highly indignant that she should leave her own 
State, but she had put her heart into this Kansas campaign as 
never into any other, and she fully believed that, if properly 
managed, the result could not fail to be victory for the amend- 
ment. The three ladies held the first meeting in Kansas City, 
May 4. Miss Anthony made a speech which fairly raised the 

) hair of her audience, demanding in unqualified terms the 
endorsement of the amendment by the Republican and People's 

' parties. She closed by offering the following resolution, which 
was unanimously adopted : 

Whbbeab, From the standpoint of justice, political expediency and grateful 
appreciation of their wise and practical use of school suffrage from the organ- 
ization of the State, and of municipal suffrage for the past eight years, we, of 
the Republican and People's parties, descendants of that grand old party of 



THE SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 785 

Splendid majorities which extended these rights to the women of Kansas, in 
mass meeting assembled do hereby 

Resolve, That we urgently request our delegates in their approaching State 
conventions to endorse the woman suffrage amendment in their respective 
platforms. 

That night she wrote in her journal: ** Never did I speak 
under such a fearful pressure of opposition. Mrs. Johns, 
presiding, never smiled, and other women on the platform 
whispered angrily and said audibly, ' She is losing us thou- 
sands of votes by this speech.' " Miss Anthony repeated it 
in the county mass conventions at Leavenworth and Topeka, 
to the dismay of the Republican women and the wrath of the 
men.* While at the latter place she received an urgent sum- 
mons to return immediately to New York, as fresh dangers 
threatened ; and so she hastened eastward, leaving the others 
to fill her engagements. On her way, she stopped by invita- 
tion at Kansas City, Mo., and with Miss Shaw held a Sunday 
afternoon meeting at which $133 were raised for the Kansas 
/ campaign. 

< In three weeks Miss Anthony returned to Kansas, arriving 
I June 5. She found the Republican Woman's State Convention 

fin session, Mrs. Johns presiding. The committee reported 
a weak resolution declaring that they would not make the 
adoption of a suffrage plank by the Republican State Convention 
'* a test of party fealty," etc. Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw 
condemned this in the strongest English they could command. 
Mrs. Johns also severely criticised the committee, but Mrs. J. 
Ellen Foster, who had come for both conventions, said : "I 
care more for the dominant principles of the Republican party 
than I do for woman suffrage." The committee finally were 
f compelled to report a stronger resolution asking for recogni- 
i tion. 

The Republican convention met June 6. C. V. Eskridge, of 
Emporia, the oldest and bitterest opponent of woman suffrage 
in the State of Kansas, was made chairman of the committee 

* See Appendix for full speech. 
Ant.— 50 



\ 



786 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

on resolutions. The proposal to hear the women speak, during 
an interim in the proceedings, was met by a storm of noes. 
Finally Mrs. Foster and Mrs. Johns were permitted to present 
the claims of women, but neither Miss Anthony nor Miss Shaw 
was given an opportunity to address the convention. They 
did, however, plead the women's cause most eloquently before 
the resolution committee of thirty-five members, but the plat- 
form was entirely silent on the subject, not even containing the 
usual complimentary allusions, recognition of their services, 
etc.^ Not the slightest attempt was made to deny the fact that 
agents of the party had been at work for weeks among the 
various county conventions to see that delegates were appointed 
who were opposed to a suffrage plank, and that the resolution 
committee had been carefully ' ' packed ' ' to prevent any dan- 
ger of one. In conversations which Miss Anthony held with 
\ several of the leading candidates who in times past had advo- 
\ cated woman suffrage, they did not hesitate to admit that the 
party had formed an alliance with the whiskey ring to defeat the 
[ Populists. *' We must redeem the State,'' was their only cry. 
*' Redeem it from what ? " she asked. *' From financial here- 
sies," was the answer. *' Yes," she retorted, **even if you 
sink it to the depths of hell on moral issues." 

It is not probable that any earthly power could have 
secured Republican endorsement at this time, although here- 
tofore the party always had posed as the champion of this 
cause. There never was a more pitiable exhibition of abject 
subserviency to party domination. Men who had stood boldly 
for woman suffrage in the legislature, men who had spoken for 
it on the platform in every county in the State, sat dumb as 
slaves in this convention, sacrificing without scruple a life- 
long principle ^ y 
^ for the sake of Q^^^tyiy^/jrz sr^^^TtZ^ 

' a paltry po- ^ ,2$y<^ ^^^ik^^^ ^ y 

' litical reward. ^ 

"While many of the papers had spoken earnestly in favor of 

* The women of the Topeka Bqaal Suffrage Club, at their next meeting, adopted a resolntion 
thanlcing the Republican convention for not declaring against the amendment! 




THE SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 787 

the amendment, the Leavenworth Times, owned and edited 
by D. R. Anthony, was the only one of size and influence 
which demanded party endorsement.* The Republican mana- 
gers had but one idea — to overthrow Populist rule and get 
back the reins of government — ^and they were ready to take on 
r pitch overboard whatever would contribute to this end. 

A suffrage mass meeting was held in Topeka the Saturday 
following the convention and, in spite of a heavy thunder- 
storm, there was an audience of over one thousand. Annie 
L. Diggs presided and Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw spoke, 
the former on " Reasons why the dominant parties do not put 
a plank in their platforms;" the latter on, ''Woman first. 
Republican or Populist afterwards." 

The great question now was whether it were wise to ask for 
a suffrage plank in the Populist platform, and here again was 
great diversity of opinion. Some thought that endorsement 
^y this party would make it appear like a Populist measure, 
and the Republicans would vote against it rather than allow 
them to have the credit of carrying it. Others held that the 
Populists carried the State at the last election and were likely 
to do so again, and with their party vote, the Prohibition 
and such Republican votes as certainly could be counted on, 
the amendment would go through without fail. Miss Anthony 
belonged to the latter class and directed every energy towards 
^ecuring an endorsement in their State convention, June 12. 
Although woman suffrage had been one of the tenets of this 
party from its beginning, there was by no means a unanimous 
Sentiment in favor of a plank of endorsement. This was 
especially true in regard to the leaders. Governor Lewelling, 
who was a candidate for re-election, was openly opposed, and 

* It will be oowardioe for the Bepnblicans to fail to endorse woman snffrage in their State 
platform. In past years, when no amendment was pending, the Republican party of Kan- 
sas has enoonraged the presentation of such an amendment. Will it now attempt to sneak 
ont of the responsibility and go back on its past record? The women of our State have 
shown themselTCS intelligent Toters, in every way worthy of being entmsted with fall suf- 
frage. None of the evils have come upon us which were predicted by the opponents of 
the reforin, and they never will come. To place a plank in the platfbrm will save many 
votes to the party. It is the right, the brave thing to do. What is brave and right has, in 
the past, been the thing that the Republican party has done. Let it not now begin to do the 
cowardly thing.—Leaven worth Times, May 17, 18M. 



788 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

P. P. Elder, chairman of the resolution committee, made a 
determined fight against it. 

While the resolution committee was out Miss Anthony ad- 
dressed the convention, saying in the course of her remarks : 
'* I belong to but one party under the shadow of the flag, and 
that is the party of idiots and criminals. I don't like my 
company. Are you going to leave your mothers, wives 
and sisters in that category? I ask you to say that every 
woman by your side shall have the same rights as you have." 
When she concluded one of the delegates said : *' Miss 
Anthony, with all due respect, I wish to ask, in the event of 
the Populists putting a woman suffrage plank in their plat- 
form, will you work for the success of this party? '' The 
newspapers thus report her reply and what followed : 

'' For forty years I have labored for woman's enfranchisement, and I have 
always said that for the party which endorsed it, whether Bepablican, 
Democratic or Popalist, I woald wave my handkerchief. I will go before 
the people at yoor meetings, and though I know very little about the other 
principles of your party and never discuss finance and tariff, I will try to 
persuade every man in those meetings to vote for woman suffrage." 

" Miss Anthony," said Mr. Carpenter, '' we want more than the waving 
of your handkerchief, and if the People's party put a woman suffrage plank 
in its platform, will you go before the voters of this State and tell them that 
because the People's party has espoused the cause of woman suffrage it 
deserves the vote of every one who is a supporter of that cause ? " 

Miss Anthony answered : " I most certainly will I " 

Immediately upon hearing this, the convention went wild — yelled and 
cheered and applauded to its very utmost— hundreds rose to their feet— the 
cheering lasted five minutes without intermission. 

In the confusion Miss Anthony thus finished her interrupted 
sentence : 

" For I would surely choose to ask votes for the party which stood for the 
principle of justice to women, though wrong on financial theories, rather than 
for the party which was sound on the questions of money and tariff, and 
silent on the pending amendment to secure political equality to half the peo- 
ple." 

None of the reporters caught this and, as a result, the sim- 
ple statement, '^ I certainly will," appeared in all the Kansas 
papers and went the rounds of the press of the entire country. 



THE SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 789 

The suffrage question had its opponents and advocates 
among leaders and delegates. It occupied the resolution com- 
piittee until late at night, and finally went down to defeat^ 8 
Ho 13. When the resolutions were reported they considered 
finance, labor, taxes, banks, bonds, arbitration, pensions, irri- 
gation, freight rates, transportation, initiative and referendum 
—everything under the sun but the suffrage amendment. In 
regard to that much agitated point they were painfully silent. 
On this committee was one woman delegate, Mrs. Eliza Hud- 
son, who could not be coaxed or bullied. She gave notice at 
Dnce that she would make a minority report and carry it to 
ihe floor of the convention. The following was signed by her- 
self and seven other members of the committee: ** Whereas, 
The People's party came into existence and won its glorious 
victories on the fundamental principles of equal rights to all 
and special privileges to none ; therefore be it resolved that we 
favor the pending constitutional amendment." 

Meanwhile Miss Anthony, Mrs. Catt and Miss Shaw 
addressed the convention and were enthusiastically received. 
When the minority report was presented and every possible 
parliamentary tactic had failed to prevent its consideration, it 
was vehemently discussed for four hours, in five-minute 
speeches. Judge Frank Doster leading the affirmative. The 
debate was closed by Mrs. Diggs, and the resolution was 
adopted, ayes 337, noes 269 ; carried by 68 majority in a dele- 
gate body of 606. During the fray a tail in some way tacked 
itself on to the resolution, which said, *'bvi we do not regard 
this as a test of party fealty.'* So the party adopted a plank 
declaring that it did not regard a belief in one of its own 
fundamental principles as a test of fealty ; but in the wild ex- 
citement which ensued, a little thing like this was not noticed. 
The State Journal thus describes the scene : 

When it became evident the resolation had carried, and before the vote 
could be announced, the convention jumped up and yelled. Canes were 
waved, hats thrown high in the air, men stood on chairs and shouted frantic- 
ally. The whole convention was one deep, all-prevailing impersonated voice. 



790 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

How they howled and stampedi as though every one loved suffrage and sol- 
f ragists with all their hearts I 

" I want Miss Shaw to come forward and give that Populist whoop that she 
promised she would last night/' said a delegate. Miss Shaw came to the 
front of the platform and said : *' I do not know any better whoop than that 
good old tune, * Praise God From Whom All Blessings Flow.' " " Sing," 
said Chairman Dunsmore. The vast audience shook every particle of air in 
the big hall with the full round notes of the long meter doxology. '* Let all 
the people cry amen," said Alonzo Wardall, who was on the platform. 
Hundreds of voices which had not pronounced the word for years joined in 
the great, resounding, unanimous ** amen " that filled the hall. 

Susan B. Anthony, Annie L. Diggs and Anna Shaw leaned over the front 
of the stage and shook every man's hand as he passed along, and hundreds 
of brown, calloused hands were thrust up to give a grasp of congratulation. 
Miss Anthony warmed to her work and had to push up her sleeves, but she 
didn't mind that for suffrage, for which she had just won a glorious victory. 
Many said, as they grasped her hand: '' You're going to be a Populist now, 
ain't you?' 



)i> 



During the confusion an old soldier came up and pinned a 
Populist badge on her dress, and this was magnified by the 
newspapers into the thrilling description: ''Miss Anthony 
seized a Populist badge and, pinning it on her breast, declared: 
' Henceforth and forever I belong to the People's party I ' " 

The State Prohibition convention was in progress at Em- 
poria at the same time, and the women had been notified that 
a suffrage plank would be adopted without any effort on their 
part. On June 13 the following telegram was sent by the sec- 
retary of the convention to Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw : 
'' Recognizing the right of suffrage as inherent in citizenship, 
the Prohibition party stands unequivocally pledged to use its 
utmost efforts to secure the adoption of the pending constitu- 
tional amendment for the enfranchisement of women." This 
was their response from the Populist convention hall : " The 
National- American Woman Suffrage Association sends greet- 
ing, and is gratified that there is one political party which 
does not need to be urged to declare for justice to women." 
The Capitol said : "There was a wild demonstration as their 
names were read." 

It is hardly possible to give an adequate idea of the storm 
which followed the announcement of Miss Anthony's declara- 



THE SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 791 

tion in regard to the People's party. There was scarcely a 
newspaper in the country which did not have its fling. Kate 
Field's Washington led off with a full first page entitled, *' The 
Unholy Alliance." Editors opposed to woman suffrage made 
it a text for double leaders. Republican papers berated her 
without mercy. Letters poured in upon her from personal 
friends, judges, mayors, ministers, members of Congress, ac- 
cepting the published reports and condemning her in unmeas- 
ured terms. Others wrote begging her to set herself right in 
the eyes of the public, as they knew she had been misrepre- 
sented. It seemed impossible, however, for her to make her- 
self clearly understood. She writes in her journal: *'One 
would think I had committed the unpardonable sin against the 
Holy Ghost in thanking the Populists for their good promise 
and saying I preferred them with justice to women, no matter 
what their financial folly, to the Republicans without justice 
to women, no matter what their financial wisdom." 

She returned home June 20 and all the Rochester reporters 
were on hand for an interview. The following from the Dem- 
ocrat and Chronicle is practically what appeared in all : 

Miss Anthony was perfectly willing to talk, and this is a resome of what 
the reporter learned : 1. Miss Anthony is not a Popalist. 2. Miss Anthony 
is not a Democrat. 3. Miss Anthony is not a Repablican. 4. Miss Anthony 
can not say what party she will join when the right to vote is given her. 

" I didn't go over to the Populists by doing what I did in Kansas/' she 
said. " I have been like a drowning man for a long time, waiting for some one 
to throw a plank to me. The Bepablicans refused, but the Populists threw an 
excellent plank in my direction. I didn't step on the whole platform, but 
just on the woman suffrage plank. I went forward at the close of the con- 
vention and told the men how glad I was to see one of the dominant parties take 
up woman suffrage. I said that we had been besieging the big political parties 
for twenty-five years. Here is a party in power which is likely to remain in 
power, and if it will give its endorsement to our movement, we want it. 

" I do not claim to know anything of the merits of the issues which brought 
the Populist party into existence. All I know is that it is chiefly made up 
from the rank and file of the old Republican party of that State, and that the 
men who compose it think they have better methods for the correction of ex- 
isting evils. They are protesting against the present order of things, and 
certainly no one will deny there is ground for it. I do not endorse their 
platform, but I would be one of the last to condemn an honest protest." 



792 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

** Bat," said the reporter, " it always has been understood that you are a 
strong Republican." 

''Why has it been so understood? Simply because a majority of the 
national legislators who have favored us have been Republicans. Suppose 
the Republican party of New York, at its coming convention, refuses to en- 
dorse woman suffrage ; suppose the Democratic does endorse it. My action with 
the Democrats would be just what it was with the Populists of Kansas. I am 
for woman suffrage and will work with any party which will help us. Re- 
member I say * with,' not * for.' " 

Miss Shaw finished her two months' engagement in Kansas 
and did not return to that State. Mrs. Gatt wrote Miss An- 
thony a few weeks after the conventions : 

It is remarkable the difference of opinion that is floating about. We hear 
of Populists who are so mad about the plank they declare they will go back to 
the Democratic party. Others, even those who are suffragists, are so mad at 
the women for putting the plank forward they say they will vote against the 
amendment. Democrats say there can be no fusion and that will mean death 
to the Populist party. Some Republicans say they will not vote for the 
amendment because it is now a Populist question. Again some Republicans 
and some Democrats say they will vote the Populist ticket because of the 
plank. From all these varied ideas it is impossible to find out whether we are 
better or worse off. ... At any rate, the question now has a political 
standing, and it will depend upon party developments where we find our- 
selves. My own hope is that it may bring the Republicans to time, but if the 
Populists say too much, it may drive them to secret opposition, and then we 
are done for. 

Miss Anthony took a much more cheerful view and replied 
to the various letters : 

At last one of the dominant parties in a State, and that one the party in 
power, has adopted a woman suffrage amendment, and upon that one plank I 
have planted my feet. The Republicans by ignoring us give party sanction to 
every anti-suffrage man among them ; while the Populists' endorsement makes 
every anti-suffrage man among them feel that he will be the better Populist 
if he vote "yes." . . . 

Meantime, every Farmers' Alliance picnic, every school-house meeting, will 
be on fire with the enthusiasm bom of their party's heroic action ; for such it 
was, in defiance of their leaders' command to imitate the Republicans and ig- 
nore the amendment. The 900 Republicans in the State convention obeyed 
their masters; while 68 more than one-half of the 606 Populists rebelled 
against theirs. Surely there is more to hope from the party, a majority of 
whose men dare vote opinions against their bosses, than for the one in which 
not a single man dares even raise a protest. What would our friends have 



THB SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 793 

had as do ? Bless the Repablicans for slapping as in the face, and blast the 
Populists for giving us a helping hand 7 

Among the comforting letters which came during these 
troublous times was one from Wm. Lloyd Garrison, with 
whose father she had fought the battle of Abolitionism, in 
which he said : '^ I saw Mrs. Isabel Barrows yesterday and 
heard from her of your weary journey together from Chicago, 
your discouragement regarding Kansas, and the personal pain 
occasioned you by untrue newspaper reports and the harsh 
criticism of friends. I write to express my word of sympathy 
and cheer. Send me a brief statement of the Populist matter 
and let me break a lance in your behalf. A reformer's life is 
full of misrepresentations. How little they signify in the long 
run and, if they did not wound the spirit, would not be worth 
the mention. To be misjudged by one's own friends hurts 
more than all the bitterness of the rest of the world." 

In a public address made this summer. Miss Anthony re- 
ferred to the matter in the following beautiful words : 

Had the Republicans of Kansas adopted a woman suffrage plank, and Miss 
Shaw and Miss Anthony declared that, because of such endorsement, they 
would prefer the succesi^ of that party, nobody would have thought it meant 
that they had endorsed the whole Republican platform, and made themselves 
responsible for the right conduct of every officer and nominee of that party. 

I was bom and reared a Quaker, and am one still ; I was trained by my 
father, a cotton manufacturer, in the Plenry Clay school of protection to 
American products ; but today all sectarian creeds and all political policies 
sink into utter insignificance compared with the essence of religion and the 
fundamental principle of government — equal rights. Wherever, religiously, 
socially, educationally, politically, justice to woman is preached and prac- 
ticed, I find a bond of sympathy, and I hope and trust that henceforth I 
shall be brave enough to express my thanks to every individual and every 
organization, popular or unpopular, that gives aid and comfort to our great 
work for the emancipation of woman, and through her the redemption of the 
world. 

To a letter from Henry B. Blackwell, urging her to be non- 
partisan if she could not be Republican, she replied, July 9 : 

The difference between yourself and me, and Mrs. Johns and me, is pre- 
cisely this—that you two are and have been Republicans per se, while I have 
been a Republican only in so far as the party and its members were more 



794 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

friendly to the principle of woman soffrage. I agree with yon that it will be 
in line with Mrs. Johns' ideas for her to work for the Republican party, false 
though its platform and its managers are to the pending amendment; bat I 
could not do so. The rank and file of the Populist men of Kansas may not 
possess equal book or brain power with the Republicans, but they are more 
honest and earnest to establish justice, and 387 of their delegates had man- 
hood enough to break out of the whiskey-Democratic bargain which their 
leaders, like the Republican fixers, had made. No, I shaU not praise the 
Republicans of Kansas, or wish or work for their success, when I know by 
their own confessions to me that the rights of the women of their State have 
been traded by them in cold blood for the votes of the lager beer foreigners 
and whiskey Democrats. . . . 

I have not allied and shall not ally myself to any party or any measure save 
the one of justice and equality for woman ; but the time has come when I 
strike, and proclaim my contempt for the tricksters who put their political 
heel on the rights of women at the very moment when their help is most 
needed. I never, in my whole forty years' work, so utterly repudiated any 
set of politicians as I do those Republicans of Kansas. When it is a mere 
matter of theory, a thousand miles from a practical question, they can resolve 
pretty words, but when the crucial moment comes they sacrifice us without 
conscience or honor. The hubbub with the Republicans shows they have 
been struck in the right place. I never was surer of my position that no self- 
respecting woman should wish or work for the success of a party which 
ignores her political rights. 

These few extracts from scores of similar letters, speeches 
and interviews^ show the position consistently and unflinchingly 
maintained by Miss Anthony, and justified by many years of 
experience in such campaigns. During the summer of 1894, 
while she was being thus harassed, she kept steadily on, speak- 
ing and working in the New York campaign and preparing to 
return to Kansas in the fall. She wrote to the Republican 
and the Populist central committees, offering to speak on the 
suffrage question upon their platforms. The former, through 
its chairman, Cyrus Leland, declined her offer. 

To John W. Breidenthal, of the People's party, she wrote : 
*'Do you not think it will be a great deal better, both for the 
suffrage amendment and the Populist party, if in all the an-- 
nouncements it shall be distinctly stated that Miss Anthony 
speaks only on the subject of woman's enfranchisement ?" To 
this he replied, August 6 : "I leave the matter entirely with 
you whether you confine yourself only to the suffrage amend- 
ment, or whether you add to that the discussion of the other 



THE SECOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 795 

questions now attracting public attention.'' Meanwhile she 
had been receiving cheerful messages from the Populist women 
of Kansas, among them a long and cordial letter from Annie 
L. DiggS; written August 16 : 

Nearly everything along the line of my experience and observation would 
make yoa glad. I have large aadiences, say the best and strongest things I 
know for suffrage and always find the heartiest response. I see more and 
more the wisdom of your insistence on platform mention. Oh, I am so 
thankful that I, too, saw straight before it was too late to get the Populist 
endorsement. I have been speaking almost constantly, sometimes twice a 
day, and at every meeting other speakers and candidates say the best kind of 
words for the amendment. Governor Lewelling speaks in warm endorse- 
ment, reports to the contrary notwithstanding. I can not say that he does 
so always, but he did at the three meetings which we held together. The 
Populists who wanted to shake my head oS at the convention, give me, if 
possible, warmer greetings than the others. They are truly glad they took 
that righteous step. . . . 

We Populists wish so much for you and Miss Shaw to come to Kansas. 
People constantly ask me if you will talk for the Populists when you come. 
I answer that you will talk suffrage at Populist meetings and will also say 
that, inasmuch as in Kansas the Populists endorse suffrage, therefore the 
party ought to win. Is not that your intention? How I wish I could 
describe to you some of the success I have had in talking to German audi- 
ences. But I have not another minute only to thank you for your kind 
words about me, and to say again, as I have said so many years, " I love and 



revere you." 




Mrs. Johns wrote, August 27: "I think the Republicans 
are conscious dimly of the increasing strength of the Populists. 
It looks as if they will win, and it is generally believed the 
amendment will go through." As late as October 12, Mrs. 
Catt, who had been speaking at suffrage meetings for the past 



796 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

six weeks and whose judgment was generally sound, said in 
a letter from Hutchinson : 

After all the vicissitades, hard feelings and distresses of the campaign, it 
begins to look as if we were going to come in " on the home stretch." The 
last two weeks have wroaght wonderful changes. The tide has set in oar 
favor. I think the chief caase is the pablished fact that we are going to 
count the votes to see how many out of each party are cast for the amend* 
ment, and Republicans understand they will be in a bad way if they don't 
make a good showing. Since this came out, Morrill has spoken for the 
amendment. Judge Peters, at the big McKinley meeting here, advocated it 
and they tell me it created more enthusiasm than anything else during the 
meeting. Cyrus Leland admits that it will carry. The Republicans are com- 
ing over splendidly and, if the Populists stand firm, we will surely come in 
with a fine majority. It seems as if nothing can defeat us now. 

Two weeks before the election, October 21, Mr. Breidenthal 
wrote her : ''I am confident the amendment will have 30,000 
majority.'' Miss Anthony reached the State October 20 and 
began her two weeks' tour the 22d, speaking at Populist meet- 
ings in the largest cities up to election day, November 6.' 
From the hour of her arrival she realized there was not a 
shadow of hope for the amendment^ and it was marvellous to 
her how the others could have been so deceived. 

At the previous election when the Populists came into power 
it had been through a fusion with the Democrats. This year 
the Democrats had their own ticket, and not only had ignored 
the pleading of the Democratic women for a suffrage plank, 
but had adopted a resolution denouncing it.' The great rail- 
road strike and its attendant evils, during that summer, were 
attributed by many to Populistic sentiment and created a strong 
prejudice against the party. The argument was made that if the 
amendment carried, the women would feel so grateful to the 
Populists that it would result in securing to them the woman's 

*Mi88 Anthony did not recelTe a dollar f6r her services during the year in RiM*ffi^, and 
was enabled to make the tluee tripe there solaly throng the kindness of her brother 
Daniel B., who famished transportation. It was also by his assistance that she had made 
her long railroad jonmeys from east to west during the past thirty years. 

'Fifteenth.— We oppose woman suffrage as tending to destroy the home and family, the 
true basis of political safety, and express the hope that the helpmeet and guardian of the 
family sanctuary may not be dragged from the modest purity of selMmposed seclusion to 
be thrown unwillingly into the nnfeminine places of political strife. 



7 



THE SBGOND KANSAS CAMPAIGN. 797 

vote, thus keeping them in power. This induced many to 
vote against it who disliked Populism, and it decided a num- 
ber of even those Republicans who believed in woman suffrage 
to reject the amendment this year rather than allow the Popu- 
lists to have the credit of carrying it. To destroy the last hope, 
word came from Colorado that the People's party was about to 
be defeated there. It was the first time for the women of that 
State to vote and, while there was no evidence to prove that 
they were responsible, the bare possibility was enough to 
stampede the Kansas Populists and prevent their giving the 
ballot to the women of that State. 

The amendment was lost by 34,827 votes; 95,302 for; 130,139 
against. The total vote cast for governor was 299,231; total vote 
on suffrage amendment, 225,441 ; not voting on amendment, 
73,790. There was an attempt to keep count of the ballots ac- 
cording to parties, but it was not successful and there was no 
way of correctly estimating the political complexion of the 
vote. The vote for Governor Morrill lacked only 1,800 of that 
for the other three candidates combined, which shows how 

! easily the Republican party might have carried the amend- 
ment. Subtracting the 5,000 Prohibition votes which it was 
conceded were cast for the amendment, it lacked 28,000 of re- 
ceiving as many votes as were cast for the Populist candidate 
for governor. Since some Republicans must have voted for it, 
the figures prove that a vast number of Populists did not do 
so. In Miss Anthony's journal on the night of the election 
she wrote : * * Our friends remembered to forget to vote for the 
suffrage amendment, while not an enemy forgot to remember 
to stamp his ticket against it." 

Though she had expected defeat, her regret was none the 
less keen. In all the past years she had given more time and 

\ work to Kansas than to any other State, even her own. Her 
'ihopes had been centered there. It having been the first State 
^o grant school suffrage and the first to grant municipal suffrage 
io women, she had confidently expected that when the amend- 
inent for full suffrage was again submitted it would be carried. 
JThe events of the campaign confirmed her belief that the grant- 



798 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

/ng of municipal suffrage is a hindrance rather than a help 
/toward securing full enfranchisement. By its exercise women 
I naturally become partisan, show the influence they can wield 
1 through the ballot, and thereby create enmities and arouse an- 
I tagonisms which bitterly oppose any further extension of this 
I power. She resolved henceforth to advise women not to at- 
I tempt to secure fragmentary suffrage, but to demand the whole 

right and work for nothing less. 




CHAPTER XLIV. 

THE SOUTHERN TRIP — THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 

1895. 

HE day following the Kansas election, November 
7, 1894, Miss Anthony started at 10 o'clock in 
the morning for Beatrice, Neb., to make the 
opening speech at the State Suffrage Convention ; 
arrived at 6 p. m., took a cup of tea, dressed and, 
without having had one moment's rest, found herself at the opera 
house in the presence of a splendid audience. After she was 
seated on the platform a telegram was handed her saying the 
suffrage amendment had been lost in Kansas by an immense 
majority. Yet, in spite of the terrible physical strain of the 
past weeks and in the face of this stunning news, it is said 
she never made a stronger, more logical and comprehensive 
speech than on this occasion. She reviewed the amendment 
campaigns of the last twenty-five years, describing the causes 
of defeat or success, and pointing out the necessity of educa- 
tional effort beginning with the primaries and continuing 
through all the conventions and political meetings up to the 
very day of election. 

Although she received urgent invitations to speak at various 
points in the State, she declined all and left the next morning 
early for Leavenworth ; and the day following, November 9, was 
on her way eastward. After a day in Chicago she went directly 
to Philadelphia, where she attended a reception given by the 
New Century Club to Mary Mapes Dodge ; had several busi- 
ness meetings regarding the affairs of the national association ; 
then hastened by night train to the New York convention at 

(799) 



800 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Ithaca. Here again, without a day's rest, she made a stir- 
ring address to an audience which packed the opera house to 
the top row of the upper gallery, sat on the steps and filled the 
aisles. The convention was welcomed by the mayor of Ithaca 
and President Schurmann, of Cornell. The latter invited the 
officers and delegates to visit the university and accompanied 
them on their tour of inspection. Miss Anthony spoke to 
the girls of Sage College after dinner, gave them many new 
ideas long to be remembered, and was received with enthusi- 
asm and affection. 

The next evening, November 15, she returned to Rochester. 
She had just concluded two of the hardest campaigns ever 
made for woman suffrage ; for almost one year she had found 
no rest for the sole of her foot, not an hour's respite for the 
tired brain, and yet the letters and the entries in the journal 
show her to be as cheerful, as philosophical, as full of hopeful 
plans, as ever she had been in all her long and busy life. 
After just one day at home she started for Cleveland. The 
W. C. T. U. were holding a national convention in that city 
and were to have a great '' gospel suffrage " meeting in Music 
Hall, Sunday afternoon, which she was invited to address. 
The Cleveland Leader, in describing the occasion, said : 

Miss Willard, the chieftain of the white ribhon army, introdaced Miss 
Anthony, the chieftain of the yellow ribbon army, saying: ** Once we woald 
not have allowed the yellow ribbon to be so generoasly displayed here. Had 
its wearers asked us to admit it with the white we might have voted it down ; 
but the yellow badge of the suffragists looks natural now. The golden rule 
has done it. Well do I remember that in the hard struggle mother and I had 
in paying the taxes on our little home, no man appeared to pay them for us. 
Had I been condemned to death I would not have expected a man to start up 
and take my place. Susan B. Anthony— she of the senatorial mind—will be 
remembered when the politicians of today have long been doomed to ' innoc- 
uous desuetude.'" Miss Willard then quoted a few familiar lines ending 
with the sentence, "And Susan B. Anthony has been ordained of God to lead 
us on." 

Miss Anthony was greeted with a rousing Chautauqua salute. " I am 
delighted beyond measure," she said, ** that at last the women of this great 
national body have found there is only one way by which they can reach 
their desired end, and that is by the ballot. What is ' gospel suffrage ? ' It 
is a system by which truth and justice might be made the uppermost princi- 



THE SOUTHERN TRIP — THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 801 

pies of government. Every election is the solution of a mathematical prob- 
lem, the figaring out of what the majority desire. We have in this country 
mercantile, mining, manufacturing and all kinds of business by which money 
can be made. The interests of every one of these are put into the political 
scale, but when the moral issues are put in the other side the material pull 
them down. Why ? Because the moral issues are not weighted with votes. 
The men who are associated with women in movements of reform get no 
more in the way of legislation than do women themselves, because when 
they go to the legislatures or to Congress they have back of them only a dis- 
franchised class. 

" If you would have your requests granted your legislators must know that 
you are a part of a body of constituents who stand with ballots in their 
hands. Women, we might as well be dogs baying the moon as petitioners 
without the power to vote I If you have no care for yourselves, you should 
at least take pity on the men associated with you in your good works. So 
long as State constitutions say that all may vote when twenty-one, save 
idiots, lunatics, convicts and women, you are brought down politically to the 
level of those others disfranchised. This discrimination is a relic of the dark 
ages. The most ignorant and degraded man who walks to the polls feels 
himself superior to the most intelligent woman. We should demand the 
wiping out of all legislation which keeps us disfranchised. 

Almost every sentence of this brief address was punctuated 
with applause from the immense audience. 

Always when in Cleveland Miss Anthony was a guest at the 
palatial home of Mrs. Louisa South worth. At this time, with 
her hostess' permission, she had summoned the entire National- 
American Board to a business meeting, and all were enter- 
tained under this hospitable roof. For thirty years Mrs. 
Southworth had been among the leading representatives of 
the suffrage movement in northern Ohio, and during all that 
time had been Miss Anthony's staunch and unfailing friend. 
She had given thousands of dollars to the suffrage cause, and 
hundreds to Miss Anthony for her personal use. On this occa- 
sion she presented her with $1,000 to open the much desired 
national headquarters. One such supporter in every State 
would win many battles which are lost because of insufficient 
funds to do the necessary work. 

Miss Anthony soon afterwards went to New York to prepare 
with Mrs. Stanton the call and resolutions for the approaching 
national convention, and to revise the article on ** Woman's 

Ant. — 61 



I 



802 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Rights " for Johnson's new edition of the Encyclopedia. She 
was the guest of her cousin, Mrs. Semantha Vail Lapham, 
whose home overlooked Central Park. Mrs. Stanton's cosy 
flat was on the other side, and through this lovely pleasure 
ground each bright day Miss Anthony took her morning walk. 
When the weather was inclement she was sent in the carriage, 
and the two old friends talked and worked together as they 
had done so many times in days gone by. 

The evenings were spent with her cousin and various friends 
and relatives. Once they dined with a kinsman in his ele- 
gant Tiffany apartments. She and Mrs. Stanton, Mrs. Jose- 
phine Shaw Lowell, Mrs. Henry M. Sanders and Mrs. George 
Putnam, had a delightful luncheon with Dr. Mary Putnam 
Jacobi. She was invited by Mr. and Mrs. Edward Lauter- 
bach to hear the opera of Faust, which was followed by a 
supper at the Waldorf. With a relative she attended the 
"Authors' Uncut Leaves Club," at Sherry's. One Sunday 
she went to hear Robert CoUyer and the diary says : " His 
grand face, his rich voice, his white hair, were all as attrac- 
tive as ever ; he was a beautiful picture in the pulpit. He 
gave me a cordial greeting at the close of the sermon. " She ran 
over to Orange for a few days with a loved cousin, Ellen Hoxie 
Squier ; and then on down to Philadelphia and Somerton for 
a little visit with the friends there, of which she writes: *' Rachel 
and I had a soul-to-soul talk all the day long and until after mid- 
night." She was a guest at the Foremothers' Dinner, Decem- 
ber 22, given at Jaeger's by the New York City Woman Suf- 
frage League, Lillie Devereux Blake, president, with nearly 
300 prominent women at the table.* The dinner and the 
speeches lasted until after 5 o'clock, Miss Anthony responding 
to the toast, ** Our Future Policy." 

Thus a month slipped pleasantly by, and then, with the 
work all finished, the body rested and the mind refreshed, she 
returned home to spend Christmas. The two sisters dined 
with Dr. and Mrs. F. H. Sanford and a few old-time friends, 

* At these axmnal feasts gentlemen are permitted to sit in thegaUery, listen to the toasts 
and watch the ladies enjoy the dinner. 



THE SOUTHERN TRIP — THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 803 

and passed a happy day. Among the numerous Christmas 
remembrances were several pieces of fine china and an elegant 
velvet cloak from Mrs. Gross.* 

On December 30, Miss Anthony received word of the death 
£l her old co-worker, Amelia Bloomer, at Council Bluffs, la., 
/aged seventy-seven, and sent a telegram of sympathy to the 
, (husband. A death felt most keenly in 1894 was that of 
Virginia L. Minor, of St. Louis, August 14, which closed a 
beautiful and unbroken friendship of thirty years. She left 
Miss Anthony a testimonial of her love and confidence in a 
legacy of $1,000. 

The year ended amidst the usual pressure of requests, in- 
vitations and engagements. Would she lecture for the Art 
League, for the Musical Society, for the Church Guild and for 
a dozen other organizations of whose purposes she knew prac- 
tically nothing? Would she accept a *' reception" from the 
Scribblers' Club of Buffalo? Would she send a package of 
documents to the girls of Vassar College, who were going to 
debate woman suffrage? Would she please reply to the fol- 
lowing questions, from various newspapers: **Have not 
women as many rights now as men have ? What is woman's 
ideal existence and what woman has most nearly attained it ? 
Have you formed any resolutions for the coming year, and 
what has been the fate of former New Year's resolutions? " 
and so on, ad infinitum. 

The *' woman's edition " fever raged with great violence at 
this time, and it is not an exaggeration to say that the editors 
of ninety-nine hundredths of them wrote to Miss Anthony for 
an article. Of course it was an impossibility to comply, but 
occasionally some request struck her so forcibly that she made 
time for an answer. For instance, the woman's edition of the 
Elmira Daily Advertiser was for the purpose of helping the 
Young Men's Christian Association, and to its editor, Mrs. J. 
Sloat Fassett, she wrote : 

' During this year Mrs. Groas had presented Miss Anthony with $1,000 to oompiete the eda- 
tation of a nephew and niece. 



804 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY* 

I should feel vastly more interested in, and earnest to aid the T. M. 0. A., 
if the men composing it were, as a body, helping to educate the people into 
the recognition of the right of their mothers and sisters to an equal voice 
with themselves in the government of the city, State and nation. Neverthe- 
less, I avail myself of your kindly request, and urge all to study the intricate 
problem of bettering the world ; not merely the individual sufferings in it, 
but the general conditions. Such study will show the great need of a new 
balance of power in the body politic ; and the conscientious student must 
arrive at the conclusion that this will have to be obtained by enfranchising a 
new class — women. If the Y. M. C. A. really desire to make better moral 
and social conditions possible, they should hasten to obey the injunction of 
St. Paul, and ** help those women " who are working to secure enfranchise- 
ment. 

Miss Anthony received soon after this a consignment of 
pamphlets, etc., that she had ordered printed, on the outside 
of which the manager of the printing house, a man entirely 
unknown to her, had written : 

''A wreath, twine a wreath for the brave and the true, 
Who, for love of the many, dared stand with the few.'' 

Among the pleasant letters was one from Mrs. Mary B. Wil- 
lard, who was then abroad, in which she said: ''I am so 
glad that you live on to know how much you are loved and to 
enjoy the fruit of your blessed labors." One invitation which 
Miss Anthony especially appreciated came from Rev. Jenkin 
Lloyd Jones, of Chicago, editor of Unity and pastor of All 
Souls cliurch : '' I am sure your heart goes out with us in our 
dreams as represented by the enclosed printed matter.^ One 
number of the program is, 'What is woman's part in this 
larger synthesis,' or * What can woman do for liberal relig- 
ion?' I enclose Dr. Thomas' letter that it may reinforce my 
own pleading that you should come and speak on this topic. 
Phrase it yourself. Pour your whole heart into it. Make it 
the speech of your life. Give your large religious nature free- 
dom. We will pay all your expenses and I do hope you will 
make an effort to come. We will give you from thirty to forty 
minutes, then we would want to ask one or two women to fol- 
low in the discussion, perhaps a Jewess and may be some 

* A plan for a great Liberal Beligious GongreBB, the oat«rowth of the Parliament of Beligions 
in 1893. 



THE SOUTHERN TRIP — THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 805 

woman who represents the independent church, like Dr. 
Thomas' and Prof. Swing's. ..." 

Dr. H. W. Thomas' letter said in part : *' Your suggestion 
is wise ; no other can perhaps so fittingly and ably represent 
the larger place and work of woman as Susan B. Anthony. It 
will honor her and help the cause to have her speak at the 
congress. Bless her dear soul, how I would like to see her — 
to hear her — ^to have her one with us — her counsel, her spirit, 
her great heart of love and hope so much like the Christ." 

After the receipt of Miss Anthony's reply Dr. Jones wrote 
again : ''I received your modest protest against being made, 
as you are, one of the vice-presidents of the Liberal Congress 
organization ; but the very reason you urged against it is the 
very reason for putting you on. We want you not for what 
you can do but for what you are. We can not take the con- 
gress into the polemics of the woman question, but George 
Washington went into the first Continental Congress with his 
uniform on, said nothing, yet that was his speech. So we or- 
ganize with Susan B. Anthony's name among our vice-presi- 
dents, and this is our war speech on that question. Do let 
your name stay there. . . . Ever rejoicing in your work and 
its slowly approaching triumph, I am, brotherly yours." 

The New Year of 1895 promised less in the way of work and 
anxiety than the one which had just closed. There were to be no 
State amendment campaigns with their annoying complexi- 
ties, their arduous labors, their usual defeats. So many capa- 
ble and energetic women had come into the national organiza- 
tion that Miss Anthony was relieved of much of the burden 
which used to rest upon her in the olden times, when she had 
to attend personally to details of arrangement and assume the 
V financial responsibility. She found it difficult at first to adapt 
herself to the new regime, but soon learned to have confidence 
in the judgment and ability of her much-loved "body guard," 
as she liked to call the official board. It was not so easy for 
others of the old workers to accept the new order of things, 
and they rebelled occasionally against the ' ' red tape ' ' require- 
ments of this executive body. To one of these Miss Anthony 



806 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

wrote : '' My dear, what we older ones all have to learn is that 
these young and active women now doing the drudgery in each 
of the forty -five States, must be consulted and must have a vote 
on all questions pertaining to the association, and we must 
abide by the decision of the majority. This is what I am try- 
ing to learn. No one or two can manage now, but all must 
have a voice." 

The voluminous correspondence shows, however, that the 
new workers were very glad to feel the touch of her firm and 
experienced hand on the helm, and that usually she was con- 
sulted on every point. She especially impressed upon them 
the necessity of keeping the financial accounts with the strict- 
est care and accuracy, and for a number of years would not 
allow a report to be published until she herself had examined 
every detail. At one time when two contributions had been 
accidentally omitted from the statement sent for her inspection, 
she wrote : '' Not finding those two in your copy congealed 
the blood to the very ends of my fingers and toes, lest the 
givers should think I had not sent their money to you.'' 

New Year's Day twelve friends were gathered around the 
Anthony table, the Gannetts, the Greenleafs, the Sanfords, 
Mrs. Hallowell and Mrs. Willis, and the occasion was a pleas- 
ant one. A week later Miss Anthony started on an extended 
southern trip. There had been practically no suffrage work 
done in the South, with the exception of Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Missouri and Louisiana. As the national convention 
was to meet in Atlanta, Miss Anthony thought it advisable to 
make a lecture tour through the South to arouse a sentiment 
which might be felt there a month later. She invited Mrs. 
Chapman Catt to accompany her, guaranteeing her expenses 
although she had no assurance she would be able to make 
even her own. 

At Lexington they were guests in the fine old home of Mrs. 
Mary J. Warfield Clay and daughter Laura, and spoke in the 
Christian church to a sympathetic audience. They held meet- 
ings at Wilmore, Louisville, Owensboro, Paducah and Milan, 
receiving many social courtesies at each place visited, and they 



THE SOUTHERN TRIP — THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 807 

reached Memphis January 17. The management here was in 
the capable hands of the Woman's Council and a fine audience 
greeted them at the Young Men's Hebrew Association Hall. 
They were introduced by their hostess, Mrs. Lide Meriwether, 
president of the Equal Suffrage Club, and cordially received. 
The Appeal, Avalanche and Scimitar gave long and interest- 
ing reports. The next morning Miss Anthony and Mrs. Catt 
were handsomely entertained by the ladies of the Nineteenth 
Century Club. In the afternoon Mrs. Mary Jameson Judah, 
president of the Woman's Club, gave a reception in their 
honor. Saturday morning they were guests of the Colored 
Women's Club; in the afternoon the Woman's Counsel, com- 




yCy^JuA^ .f^^^Hi^ .^^""^ 




posed of forty-six local clubs, tendered a large reception, and 
in the evening they lectured again. Sunday morning they 
spoke in the Tabernacle to the colored people ; and they left at 
6 :30 p.m. feeling they had not wasted much time at Memphis. 
They reached New Orleans Monday morning ; were met at 
the train by the president and several members of the Portia 
Club, and escorted to the residence of Judge Merrick. Each of 
the daily papers contained lengthy and excellent mention of 
the lectures. The Picayune said at the beginning of a four- 
column report. 

If any one doubted the interest that southern women feel in the all-absorb- 
ing question of the day, "Woman and her Bights," that idea would have 
forever been dispelled by a glance at the splendid audience assembled last 
night to hear Miss Susan B. Anthony, the world-famed apostle of woman 
suffrage, and Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, the distinguished western leader. 
The hall was literally packed to overflowing, not only with women but with 



808 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

men, prominent representatives in every walk of life. Standing room was at 
a premium, corridors and windows were filled with a sea of earnest, inter- 
ested faces, the name of Miss Anthony was on every lip, and all eyes were 
directed to the platform, which was heaatifally decorated with palms and pot- 
ted plants, the suffrage color, yellow, predominating among the verdant 
foliage. 

Seated upon the platform were the four ladies who have successively filled 
the position of president of the Portia Club, Mrs. Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, Mrs. 
Caroline E. Merrick, Mrs. Evelyn B. Ordway and Miss Florence Huberwald. 
The entrance of Miss Anthony and Mrs. Catt was the signal for a burst of 
applause, which rose into an ovation when Miss Huberwald, in a few grace- 
ful words, presented Mrs. Merrick, who in turn introduced Miss Anthony 
as the most famous woman in America. When the applause subsided, Miss 
Anthony, whose voice is singularly sweet and clear, began to speak. 

She was presented with a basket of flowers and a bouquet 
from Mrs. J. M. Ferguson, president of the Arena club. At the 
close hundreds pressed forward to take the hands of the 
speakers. 

They left this charming and hospitable city Wednesday 
evenings Mrs. Catt going to Greenville, Miss Anthony to 
Shreveport. Here she was entertained by Mrs. M. F. Smith 
and Professor C. E. Byrd, principal of the high school. The 
Hypatia Club sent her two lovely floral offerings. Of her 
lecture the Times said editorially : 

This veteran apostle of woman's rights addressed a magnificent audience 
last evening at the court-house, a representative assemblage comprising all 
the best elements of all the best classes of Shreveport's citizens, and one 
which was equally divided between men and women. Miss Anthony is 
certainly a remarkable woman in every respect, and one whose genius will 
leave its mark not only on the recorded history of the nineteenth century, 
but in the advanced position of woman now and for all time to come. She 
was one of the first women in America to raise her voice in advocacy of 
woman's rights, and she has lived to see herself and her sisters gradually 
released from legalized bondage and, in everything but suffrage, made the 
full equal of man. No one can deny that her claims are founded on justice ; 
and in the light of cold and clear reason, divested of all sentiment and 
cleansed of all prejudice, her arguments can not be successfully controverted. 

By failure of the train to connect with the ferry she was un- 
able to join Mrs. Catt and keep her appointment at Jackson. 
When, after waiting two hours, she finally reached that sta- 
tion at half-past nine, she found a message from Mrs. Catt 



THE SOUTHERN TRIP — ^THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 809 

that she was holding a magnificent audience for her. Accord- 
ing to her journal she '' was too oozed-out even to he looked 
at, much less to try to speak in the House of Representatives 
packed with the flower of southern chivalry ; " so she went 
on to Birmingham. Here she found inadequate arrangements 
had been made and a northern blizzard interfered with her 
meetings. The News, however, gave an excellent two-column 
account beginning : 

Only a moderate audience greeted Susan B. Anthony, the chief saffrage 
leader in the United States, bat that audience was cultured and able to appre- 
ciate the very energetic, clear-minded and vigorous woman, whose name is as 
well-known as that of any man in the Union, and who has done more than 
any other woman to prove, by her strong and unique personality, the mental 
equality of woman with man and her fitness for the things sought to be 
entrusted to her care, share and share alike with the sterner sex. After a 
graceful introduction by Ck)lonel J. W. Bush, the lecturer plunged at once 
with ease and distinction into her subject and line of argument. . . . She 
is a very able and incisive speaker, talks fluently and distinctly, and makes 
easy and graceful gestures. In a word, she is as good a lecturer as a good 
man-lecturer. 

They spoke in the opera house at New Decatur, and were the 
guests of Mrs. E. S. Hildreth. At Huntsville they were en- 
tertained by Mrs. Milton Hume, and introduced to the audi- 
ence by Mrs. Clay-Klopton. The Evening Tribune headed its 
report, ''Grand and Enthusiastic Meeting; Eloquent Ad- 
dresses Presented by Noble and Gifted Women ; " and said : 

Much to the surprise of a great many, the city hall was filled last night with 
a very large and intelligent audience of ladies and gentlemen. . . . Miss 
Anthony spoke for an hour in a plain, unassuming manner, but ably and 
learnedly. 8he has been an active worker for more than forty years in this 
cause and no^, at life's closing hours, sees the right accorded woman in the 
States of Wyoming and Colorado, and the cause gaining momentum as intel- 
ligence spreads and the blessings become known which follow in the pathway 
of woman's ballot. No one can look upon the face of that venerated, noble 
woman, who has grown gray in her life-work, and not be impressed that there 
has been something more than sentiment, more than a cranky idea, impelling 
her in all these long, sacrificing years. 

Mrs. Chapman Catt as completely charmed as she surprised the large au- 
dience. She is a young woman of winning personality, as beautiful as she is 
brilliant, with a command of language and convincing eloquence that would 
do credit to the matchless Prentiss. . . . 



r 



810 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

The next day, with Mrs. Alberta Chapman Taylor, they 
started for Atlanta, joining the Kentucky delegation at Knox- 
ville and reaching their destination at noon. The headquarters 
were at the Aragon, where they found a large number of dele- 
gates, warm rooms and everything bright and comfortable, 
with the promise of a fine meeting. 

The Twenty- seventh Annual Convention opened at De Give's 
opera house, January 31, continuing six days. Ninety-three 
delegates were present from twenty-eight states, numbers were 
in attendance from southern cities, and the people of Atlanta 
turned out en masse. An evidence of the interest taken in this 
convention is the fact that a number of the New York papers 
had daily reports of several thousand words telegraphed, and 
the large newspapers throughout the country had extended ac- 
counts. The Atlanta Constitution had had columns of matter 
pertaining to it, pictures and personal descriptions of the 
prominent women, which, added to its extended daily reports, 
contributed largely to the success of the meeting ; but it was 
as careful to avoid editorial endorsement as its contemporaries 
in the North. The other city papers were generous with space 
and complimentary n^ention, but the Sunny South, edited by 
Colonel Henry Clay Fairman, was the only one which advo- 
cated the principle of woman suffrage. 

Many beautiful homes were opened to the visitors, and all 
the officers and speakers were entertained at the Aragon at the 
expense of the newly formed Georgia State Association. The 
most of it was borne, in fact, by three sisters residing at 
Columbus, H. Augusta Howard, Miriam Howard Du Bose 
and Claudia Howard Maxwell. With the genuine southern 
hospitality, they declined the offer of several societies and of 
the association to reimburse them. A handsome reception at 
the hotel was attended by hundreds of Atlanta's representative 
citizens. Mrs. W. A. Hemphill, one of the board of the At- 
lanta Exposition, received the visitors in her lovely home, as- 
sisted by the wife of the recently-elected Governor Atkinson. 

A Baptist preacher, Rev. J. B. Hawthorne, built on the an- 
tiquated plan, delivered a sermon not only denouncing suf- 



THE SOUTHERN TRIP — THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 811 

frage but abusing its advocates. The result was to make the 
other ministers in the city offer their pulpits to the convention 
speakers, and on Sunday lectures were given in various 
churches by Emily Rowland, Elizabeth Upham Yates, Mrs. 
Colby and Mrs. Meriwether. Rev. Anna Shaw preached in 
the opera house and the Constitution prefaced its report as fol- 
lows: "When the opening hour arrived there was not an 
empty chair in the house. So dense became the crowd that 
the doors were ordered closed before the services began. The 
vast congregation was made up of all classes of citizens. 
Every chair that could be found had been utilized and then 
boxes and benches were pressed into service. Many prominent 
professional and business men were standing on the stage and 
in different parts of the house." 

Miss Anthony, besides her president's address, made many 
brief speeches and also read Mrs. Stanton's fine paper on 
"Educated Suffrage," which was especially acceptable to a 
southern audience.^ One of the most eloquent speakers was 
General Robert R. Hemphill, member of the South Carolina 
legislature. Among the able and interesting southern dele- 
gates Laura Clay and Josephine K. Henry, of Kentucky, and 
A. Viola Neblett and Helen Lewis Morris, of North Carolina, 
were especial favorites. After the convention a mass meet- 
ing was held in the courthouse, which was crowded with an 
enthusiastic audience. Mrs. M. L. McLendon, president of 
the Atlanta Club, requested Miss Anthony to take charge. The 
Constitution said : 

Miss Anthony was received with such a warmth of demonstration on the 
part of the larg^ audience as to thoroughly convince her that she was address- 
ing those who were in sympathy with the suffrage movement. As she stood 
ap in thcf presence of the vast congregation of faces a profound silence filled 
the hall and every one seemed to be intently waiting for her opening words. 

* After 1892 Miss Aothony had to read most of Mrs. Stanton's addresses, and the latter 
wrote her: " If yon prononnoe what I write *grood,' I know it is np to the mark. Many thanks 
for reading all my papers so well as everybody says yon do. I am snre of your rich voice 
and deep sympathy with the snbject, and I mnch prefer to have yon read my speeches rather 
than any other jwrson, as I am always told that yonr reading makes a deep impression. 
Onr thoughts have the same trend on the woman suffrage question, and we have written 
and talked over every phase of the subject so much together that what I write is essen- 
tially yours as well as mine.*' 



812 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Within the railing a large namber of men, who preferred to stand near the 
speaker rather than secure seats in the rear of the hall, were grouped in a 
solid mass, and appeared to be equally as much concerned as the ladies. 

There were many distinguished women present at the con- 
vention, from the South and the North, and all separated with 
the feeling that fraternal bonds had been strengthened and 
many converts made to the belief in equal suffrage. 

Miss Anthony was much revered by the colored race and 
while here she addressed the students of the Atlanta Univer- 
sity, and spoke with Bishop Turner to an immense audience 
at Bethel church. She was invited also to address the alumnse 
of the girls' high school. At the close of the convention she 
went, with her sister Mary, niece Lucy, Anna Shaw and Mrs. 
Upton, for a three days' visit at the spacious old-time mansion 
of the Howards, in Columbus. She left for Aiken, S. C, 
February 9, where she spoke in the courthouse and was intro- 
duced by the Baptist minister. Here she was the guest of 
Miss Martha Schofield, and was much interested in the very 
successful industrial school for colored children, founded by 
her during the war. On February 12, she lectured at Colum- 
bia for the Practical Progress Club, introduced by Colonel V. 
P. Clayton. The Pine Tree State contained an excellent edi- 
torial in favor of woman suffrage, but thought * ' it could be 
more successfully advocated in that locality by some one of 
less pronounced abolitionism." Her hostess, Mrs. Helen 
Brayton, gave a reception for her, and she met a large num- 
ber of the representative people of Columbia. Her last lecture 
was given at Culpepper, Va. The six weeks' southern trip 
had been very pleasant ; she had made many friends and found 
much sentiment in favor of suffrage. The only drawback had 
been the severity of the weather, the coldest ever known in 
that locality, which will long be remembered because of the 
destruction of the orange groves. 

J Miss Anthony reached Washington on the morning of her 
iseventy-fifth birthday, February 15. The National Woman's 
kJouncil was to open its second triennial meeting on the 18th, 
and its official board and many delegates were already in the 



THE SOUTHERN TRIP — THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 813 

city. When she arrived she found that '' her girls/' as she 
was fond of designating the younger workers, had arranged 
for a banquet in her honor at the Ebbitt House that evening. 
Covers were laid for fifty and it was a beautiful affair. After 
a number of speeches had been made, Rachel Foster Avery 
arose and stated that the friends of Miss Anthony from ocean 
to ocean and the lakes to the gulf, had placed in her hands 
sums of money amounting to $5,000. This she had put into 
a trust fund, purchasing therewith an ''annuity *' of $800, 
which she now took great pleasure in presenting. There were 
202 contributors and although Mrs. Avery had been for 
several months collecting the money, incredible as it may seem, 
the whole matter was a complete surprise to Miss Anthony. 
Realizing that during the last forty-five years she had spent 
practically all she had earned and all that had been given her, 
to advance the cause to which she had devoted her life, they 
determined to put this testimonial into such shape as would 
make it impossible thus to expend it. She was greatly over- 
come and for once could not command the words to voice her 
feelings. 

As each three months have rolled around since that occasion, 
and the $200 check has been sent with a pleasant greeting 
from the Penn Mutual insurance company, hoping that she 
might live to use the entire principal, her heart has thrilled 
anew with gratitude and affection to Mrs. Avery and the 
friends who put their love and appreciation into this material 
shape. It suffices to pay the monthly expenses of the modest 
household and, with the income from the few thousands that 
have been laid away, an occasional paid lecture and the gifts 
from generous friends, Miss Anthony is freed from financial 
anxiety, although obliged to exercise careful economy. 

it is impossible in this limited space to attempt a description 
of that great council extending through the days and evenings 
of two weeks, attended by delegates from twenty national or- 
ganizations, representing the highest intellects and activities 
among women and covering a wide range of vital questions. 
Miss Anthony stood for the department of Government Re- 



814 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

form. Although at this council she desired to be simply one 
of the many representatives of different organizations, the 
public would make her the central figure of all occasions. On 
February 28, Mrs. John R. McLean, assisted by Mrs. Calvin 
Brice, gave a reception in her honor, attended by many of the 
official, literary, artistic and musical people of the capital. 

Frederick Douglass came into the council the afternoon of the 
20th and was invited by the president, Mrs. Sewall, to a seat 
on the platform. He accepted, but declined to speak, acknowl- 
edging the applause only by a bow. Upon entering his home 
in Anacostia, a few hours later, he dropped to the floor and 
expired instantly. Funeral services were held in the African 
Metropolitan church, Washington, February 25, in which, at 
the request of the family. Miss Anthony took part, paid a brief 
tribute and read Mrs. Stanton's touching memorial of the only 
man who sustained her demand for the enfranchisement of 
women in that famous first convention of 1848. 

At the close of the council Miss Anthony lectured at Lincoln, 
Va., in the ancient Quaker meeting house. Returning to 
Washington she was entertained by Mrs. Mary S. Lockwood at 
a dinner party on the evening of the Travel Club, at which she 
was one of the speakers. Reaching Philadelphia March 9, she 
turned her steps, as was always her custom, directly towards 
her old friend Adeline Thomson, and her surprise and grief 
may be imagined when she found that she had died a month 
previous. Her relations with Adeline and Annie Thomson, 
who had passed away nearly ten years before, had been those 
of affectionate sisters, and for nearly forty years their home 
had been as her own. She had received many contributions 
from them, and Adeline had made her a personal gift of $1,000. 
She often had said to her and written in her letters, that she 
had $5,000 more laid away for her after she herself should 
have no further use for it, but as is so often the case she neg- 
lected to make provision for this, and all her property went to 
a nephew. 

From Mrs. Avery's suburban home at Somerton, Miss An- 
thony sent grateful letters to every one of the 202 contributors 



^2A..y^ ^^^^^^^-"-^ 



THE SOUTHERN TRIP — ^THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 815 

to her annuity. She addressed the 500 students at Drexel In- 
stitute, and left for New York March 12. Here she had an im^ 
portant business meeting with Mary Lowe Dickinson, the newly 
elected president of the National Council, and then went to tel] 
all about the Atlanta convention, the Woman's Council and vari- 
ous other events to Mrs. Stanton, who still felt the liveliest in- 
terest although not physically able to take an active part. 

The day after Miss Anthony reached home she read in 
the morning paper that two of the State Industrial School girls 
and two of the free academy boys had been seen the night be- 
fore coming out of a questionable place ; the girls were arrested 
and locked up in the station house, the boys were told to go 
home. It was an everyday injustice but she determined to 
protest, so she went straightway to the police court, where she 
insisted that the boys should not go free while the girls were 
punished. She pleaded in vain ; the girls were sent to the 
reformatory, the boys being used as witnesses against them 
and then dismissed without so much as a reprimand. 

A short time afterwards Miss Anthony went to the Baptist 
church one Sunday evening to hear a young colored woman, 
Miss Ida Wells, lecture on the lynching of negroes in the 
South. The speaker was rudely interrupted several times by 
a fellow from Texas who was in Rochester attending the theo- 
logical school. She answered him politely but at length he 
asked : ''If the negroes don't like it in the South, why don't 
they leave and go North ? " At this Miss Anthony, who had 
been growing more indignant every moment, sprung to her 
feet and, with flashing eyes and ringing voice, said : ''I will 
tell you why ; it is because they are treated no better in the 
North than they are in the South." She then related a num- 
ber of instances, which had come to her own knowledge, of 
the cruel discrimination made against colored people, to the 
utter amazement of the audience who did not believe such 
things possible.^ 

She took Miss Wells home with her for the rest of her stay. 

> The Rochester dailies came out next morning with fall reports of this episode and edl* 
torial remarks ; citizens of both sexes wrote to the papers, pro and con ; other newspapers 
took np the question, and a wave of comment swept over the country. 



816 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

She had employed a young woman stenographer for a few 
weeks to clear up her accumulated correspondence and, having 
to go away the next day, she told Miss Wells the girl might 
help her with her pile of letters. When she returned in the 
evening she found her scribbling away industriously and the 
stenographer at leisure. In answer to her inquiry the latter 
replied : "I don't choose to write for a colored person. *' ** If 
you can not oblige me by assisting a guest in my house/' said 
Miss Anthony, '* you can not remain in my employ." The 
girl, although in destitute circumstances, gave up her situa- 
tion. 

Miss Anthony had been feeling for a long time that, in jus- 
tice to herself and to the State Industrial School, she should re- 
sign her position on the board of managers. When she ac- 
cepted it she had intended to give up the greater part of her 
travelling and direct her forces from the seat of government in 
her own home, but she had found this practically impossible. 
The demands for her actual presence and personal work were 
too strong to be resisted. There were very few women in the 
country who could draw so large an audience as herself, or who 
knew so well how to manage a convention or carry on a cam- 
paign, and the women of the different States, who had one 
or the other of these in hand, were unwilling to accept a sub- 
stitute. She was as well and vigorous as at fifty, and there 
seemed to be no adequate reason why she should refuse the 
many opportunities to advance the cause for which she had 
given the active service of nearly half a century. The 
several years since she began housekeeping, therefore, had 
found her at home no more of the time than those which had 
preceded. 

When she first visited the school she found the boys' depart- 
ments fitted up with all the appliances of a steam laundry, 
while a large number of the girls were bending their backs 
over washtubs and ironing-boards the whole of every week. 
She soon succeeded in having the washing sent over to the 
laundry, where a few girls were able to do it all in two or three 
days ; she also made many valuable suggestions in the sewing 



THE SOUTHBBN TRIP — THE ATLANTA CONVENTION. 817 

department. When in the city she went to the school on Sun- 
day, helped with the services and talked to the 700 boys and 
150 girls. Some of the latter came to her one Sunday and said 
pathetically that it was the first time a speaker ever had 
seemed to know there were any girls there ! She wrote in her 
journal, with quiet humor, that the men on the board were 
going the next day to select a cooking stove. She realized even 
more strongly than ever that, though the best and wisest men 
may be on the boards of public institutions, there is need also 
of women, but she felt that, with so vast an amount of other 
work on hand, she could not do her duty by the school. As 
she was about to go away again for a number of months she 
decided to delay her resignation no longer and forwarded it to 
Governor Morton April 15, after having served about two and 
a half years. She then finished her lecture engagements and 
completed arrangements for what proved to be one of the 
pleasantest journeys of her life. 
Ant.— 62 




CHAPTER XLV. 

THB SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 

1895. 

^T has been said in another chapter that Miss 
Anthony established herself firmly and forever in 
the hearts of the people at the Columbian Expo- 
sition of 1893. Men and women were there from 
every State in the Union, many of whom never 
had seen or heard her and had been deeply prejudiced 
against her, but she conquered all and they returned home 
henceforth to sing her praises. Naturally they wanted their 
friends and neighbors to be converted like themselves, and 
invitations to lecture came from all quarters. One of the 
most urgent was from the Woman's Congress Auxiliary of the 
great California Midwinter Exposition, which followed the 
World 's Fair, but as she had two campaigns on hand in 1894 she 
could not accept it. Out of this auxiliary had grown a perma- 
nent Woman's Congress Association, with Sarah B. Cooper at its 
head. When a pressing request came to attend their first 
anniversary in San Francisco, in 1895, she accepted with 
pleasure. The corresponding secretary, Mrs. Minna V. Gaden, 
wrote in reply : 

I can not attempt to express to yon the joy and gratification of the execn- 
tiye board over yoar consent to be with as and take part in the congress in 
May. I wish I could have phonographed the exclamations of delight and 
photographed the beaming coantenances of the members when I read them 
yoar letter. In answer to yoar question as to whether we desired to have 
yoa speak upon some special point of the subject for which you stand, I would 
say we want Susan B. Anthony and all that she is; and we are sure that the 

(819) 



1 



820 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

right word will be said, the great facts made plain and the tme inspiration 
given. We want you and all that yoar presence means and all that yoar 
life's work has brought. 

Miss Anthony had another reason for wishing to go to Cali- 
fornia in addition to the desire of meeting and helping the 
women of that beautiful State in their congress. Its legisla- 
ture, the previous winter, had submitted a woman suffrage 
V amendment which was to be voted on in 1896. This visit 
would enable her to look over the field, talk with the men 
and women, and render any assistance they might desire to- 
wards planning their campaign. She wrote Mrs. Cooper stat- 
ing that she did not wish to make the journey alone, that she 
liked to have one of her " lieutenants " to relieve her of the 
burden of much speaking, and would be glad of the privilege of 
bringing with her Rev. Anna Shaw. Mrs. Cooper responded with 
a check of $450, for travelling expenses, saying : ** We rejoice 
to know that Miss Shaw will come with you, as another grand 
helper for us. I send you the money and want you to have 
every possible comfort on the journey.*' 

From that time until Miss Anthony reached California not 
over three days ever passed without a letter from Mrs. Cooper, 
rejoicing over the promised visit. *' Everybody is full of 
expectancy looking for your advent. I have engaged the First 
Congregational church of San Francisco for Miss Shaw's ser- 
mon. Hattie and I send you a heart full of love. May God 
hold you safe in His keeping. ' ' ' ^ San Francisco and the whole 
Pacific coast have a warm welcome for you both ; every one is 
looking forward to meeting you, great and noble champion of 
all that is good." So the letters ran, and they were supple- 
mented by long and loving ones from the daughter Harriet, 
who lived but to second her mother's work and wishes. 

When the papers heralded abroad the news that Miss An^ 
thony was going to California, the large western towns along 
the route sent earnest requests for lectures and visits, and the 
journey assumed the aspect of a triumphal tour. She started 
April 27, full of health and spirit and with happy anticipa- 
tions ; spent one day with Mrs. Upton, at Warren, 0., one 



THE SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 821 

with Mrs. Sewall, at Indianapolis, going thence to Chicago , 
where she was entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Gross. Here 
she found Harriet Hosmer, who had been with them seven 
months, while she worked on her statue of Lincoln. In 
the evening half a dozen reporters called and the papers bris- 
tled with interviews. The next day she went with her hostess 
to the famous Woman's Club. Miss Shaw joined Miss Anthony 
in Chicago, and May 1 they left for St. Louis, where they 
remained four days at the New Planters' Hotel, the guests of 
Mrs. Gross, who had accompanied them. 

Their mission at St. Louis was to address the Mississippi 
Valley Woman's Congress, under the auspices of the W. C. T. 
U., Mrs. E. B. Ingalls, presiding. Miss Anthony spoke on 
*'The Present Outlook," and the papers described enthusias- 
tically 'Hhe splendid ovation" she received, the many floral 
offerings, and the hundreds of personal greetings at the close 
of the evening. Just before her address, seventy-five little 
boys and girls, several colored ones among them, marched 
past her on the platform, each laying a rose in her lap. The 
day after the congress the State Suffrage Association held its 
convention, and on the evening of May 4. a handsome banquet, 
with covers laid for 200, was given for her at the Mercantile 
Club rooms. 

She reached Denver May 8, at 4 a. m., remained in the 
sleeper till six and then could stand it no longer but took a 
carriage and sallied forth. When the reception committee 
came to the station at seven to escort her to the elaborate break- 
fast which had been prepared at the Brown Palace Hotel, 
where a large number of friends were waiting, the guest had 
flown and could not be fpund. While in the city she was 
entertained at the home of Hon. Thomas M. Patterson, of the 
Rocky Mountain News, whose progressive and cultured wife 
was her warm personal friend and had been an advocate of 
suffrage long before it was granted to the women of Colorado. 
Reverend Anna was the guest of ex-Governor and Mrs. Routt. 
That afternoon Miss Anthony went to Boulder, where she was 
engaged to lecture. 



822 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

The next day the Woman's Club gave a large reception in 
their honor at the Brown Palace Hotel, attended by over 1,200 
women. The News, in its account, said : " The scene marked, 
to the retrospective mind, the enormous change that has taken 
place in the status of the sex within the lifetime of one woman. 
It hardly seemed possible, as the spectator beheld Miss An- 
thony surrounded by the richest and most conservative women 
of Denver, to believe that in her youth the great lecturer was 
hissed from the stage in the most cultured and liberal cities of 
the United States, and cast out from polite society like a 
pariah. It is not often either that one who has been a pioneer 
in an unpopular cause lives to see it become fashionable and 
herself the center of attention from a younger generation which 
has profited by her labors of earlier years." The same paper 
commented editorially: *' To accomplish the political enfran- 
chisement of her sex and open a broader field of work and in- 
fluence for women everywhere. Miss Anthony has devoted her 
life. . . . Among all the noble women who have stood 
boldly to champion the cause of their sisters, she is easily 
chief, and is worthy of all the honors that have been bestowed 
upon her. It must have been a proud satisfaction for her yes- 
terday to meet the women of Colorado, who are now endowed 
with equal political rights because of the crusade she has been 
instrumental in starting and maintaining. Well may these 
newly enfranchised women do her reverence. Not more loyal 
should the silver men of Colorado be to Dick Bland, than the 
women of Colorado to the apostle of equal suffrage — Susan B. 
Anthony." 

The Denver Times said in a leading editorial : *'To Miss 
Anthony the women of today owe a great debt, for through 
her life's work they enjoy a hundred privileges denied them 
fifty years ago. From her devotion to a cause which for dec- 
ades made her a martyr to the derision of an unsympathetic 
public, has grown a new order of things. Her hand has most 
helped to open every profession and every line of business to 
women. While all the women of the United States are under 
many obligations to her, those of Colorado, who are now equal 



THE SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 823 

citizens, owe her the greatest allegiance. ' ' The Times also quotes 
in an interview with Miss Anthony : ''When asked what sub- 
ject she would take for her speeches to the people of Colorado, 
she shook her head with a kindly smile and said : ' My usual 
lectures will not do. What can I say to the women who have 
the franchise ? I can only encourage them to use their new 
power wisely, to stand bravely for the right, and to help the 
equal suffrage cause in other States.' " 

The ladies lectured that evening to an immense audience in 
the Broadway Theater. The papers reported with great head- 
lines : ''Enthusiastic Greeting by Colorado's Enfranchised 
Citizens. Miss Anthony Overcome with Hearty Congratula- 
tions. America's Joan of Arc Shakes Hands with an Army 
of Women Voters." One searches in vain in these newspa- 
pers for evidences of the terrible loss of respect which women 
were to experience when they were endowed with the ballot. 
The News, in over a column report, said : 

Miss Anthoiiy's voice was clear and powerfali filling the big theater 
without any apparent effort. She began by saying that she believed the thing 
she had always claimed had come trae ; that the women had learned a new 
and higher self-respect with their added rights and responsibilities. . . . 
She paid the men of Colorado the compliment of declaring them the best in 
the world. The men of Wyoming had occupied this proad position np to 
/1893, but those of Colorado had granted the ballot to a disfranchised class not 
/ through the legislature, but by a popular vote. This act stands alone in the 
history of the world ; no class of men has ever done as much for even another 
class of men. . . . 

She said she had heard that some of the women had voted with sagacity 
and some had not. This was not strange, since men continued to do this 
after more than one hundred years of voting. If women made mistakes 
this year, they would remedy them next year, and in time she believed they 
would become the balance of power between the two parties in all social, 
moral and educational questions. 

At Cheyenne Senator and Mrs. Carey gave an elegant din- 
ner party in their honor, attended by Governor and Mrs. 
Rich, Senator and Mrs. Warren, Mrs. Esther Morris, the first 
woman judge, Mrs. Therese Jenkins, State president, Mrs.- 
Amalia Post, a suffrage pioneer, and other distinguished 
guests. They went immediately from dinner to the new Bap- 



824 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

tist church, which was filled to overflowing, and were intro- 
duced by the governor. At the close of the lectures, Mrs. 
Jenkins said, ''Now I desire to introduce the audience to 
the speakers." She then called the names of the governor 
and all his staff, the attorney-general, the United States judges, 
the senators and congressmen, the mayor and members of the 
city council. Each rose as his name was mentioned, and be- 
fore she was through, it seemed as if half the audience were on 
their feet, and the applause was most enthusiastic. Here 
again one could not discern an indication of the dreadful loss of 
respect which was to be the portion of enfranchised women. 

It was long after midnight before the travellers were quietly 
in bed in the delightful home of the Careys, but at half-past 
seven they had finished breakfast and were on board train en 
route for Salt Lake City. Learning from the conductor that 
Mrs. Leland Stanford's private car was attached, Miss Anthony 
sent her card and soon was invited to a seat in that luxurious 
conveyance, where she enjoyed a visit of several hours. Mrs. 
Stanford told her of the government suit against the estate, and 
Miss Anthony's parting words were a warning not to leave her 
lawyers to go before the Supreme Court alone, but to be pres- 
sent herself in Washington to protect her own interests and 
those of the great university. 

At Salt Lake, on Sunday morning, a large delegation of 
women, representing the different religious sects and political 
organizations, met the travellers and drove to the Templeton, 
where seventy-five sat down to breakfast, and they were then 
taken for a drive over the city. Miss Anthony was the guest of 
Mrs. Beatie, daughter of Brigham and Zina D. H. Young, and 
Miss Shaw of Mrs. McVicker. At 3 p. m., the Reverend Anna 
preached in the great Tabernacle, Bishops Whitney and Rich- 
ards assisting. At the close they congratulated her on having 
preached a Mormon sermon ; afterwards a Methodist minister 
who was in the audience thanked her for her good Methodist 
sermon ; and a little later a Presbyterian minister shook her 
hand heartily and expressed his pleasure at hearing her Pres- 
byterian doctrine ; so she concluded she had made a politic 



THE SECOND VISIT TO CALIFOBNIA. 825 

address. Sunday evening she preached in the theater at what 
was intended to be a union service. All of the Gentile minis- 
ters had been invited to take part and all declined but the 
pastor of the Unitarian church. He and the principal of the 
public schools, formerly a Unitarian minister, were the only 
men on the stage. 
/"The Inter-Mountain Woman Suffrage Association of Utah, 

/Montana and Idaho opened the next morning, May 13. The 
nrst day's sessions were held in the new city building, but it 
was so crowded that an overflow meeting was necessary and 
the next day the convention was transferred to the big assem- 
bly hall. The seat of honor was given to Miss Anthony ; on 
her right Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells, president of the Utah as- 
sociation, on her left, Rev. Anna Shaw. They were surrounded 
by a semicircle of the illustrious women of the Territory who, 
for many years, had been active in the work for suffrage. The 
hall was draped with the national colors and above the stage 
were portraits of Lincoln, Miss Anthony and Mrs. Stanton. 
The introductory address was made by Governor West, who, 
after paying an earnest tribute to Miss Anthony, predicted 
that the new State constitution, which was to go to the voters 
containing a woman suffrage clause, would be overwhelmingly 

\^atified. 

During their stay in Salt Lake Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw 
received the highest consideration. Monday afternoon Mr. 
and Mrs. F. S. Richards gave a reception in their honor, and 
were assisted in receiving by Governor West, President Wood- 
ruff, Hon. George Q. Cannon, and many ladies. The next 
afternoon a reception was tendered by the W. C. T. U. In 
the evening, a large party went to Ogden, where a banquet 
was given, a great meeting held in the city hall, and an over- 
flow meeting in one of the churches. 

The 16th of May found the travellers at Reno, Nev., where 
they were the guests of Mrs. Elda A. Orr, president of the 
State association. In the morning Miss Anthony talked to the 
800 men and women students of the State University. In the 
evening they spoke in the opera house, which was crowded to 



826 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

its limits^ while on the stage were the representative men and 
women of the city and neighboring towns. The house was 
beautifully decorated with flowers and banners, a brass band 
played on the balcony and an orchestra within. They were 
introduced by Miss Hannah H. Clapp, who had presented Miss 
Anthony to a Nevada audience at Carson, in 1871. Saturday 
afternoon they enjoyed a charming reception in the parlors of 
the women's clubhouse. 

Late that day they resumed their journey, took supper at 
Truckee on the summit of the Sierras, and had a delicious 
glimpse of Lake Donner just as they plunged into the forty 
miles of snow-sheds. They were glad of a long night's rest 
after the strain of the last three weeks and, when they awoke 
the next morning, were rolling through the fertile Sacramento 
valley. California in May I Never was there a pen inspired 
with the power to describe its beauties. Not the brush of the 
most gifted artist could picture the mountains with their green 
foot"hills and snow-capped summits; the valleys, nature's own 
lovely and fragrant conservatories of brilliant blossoms and 
luxuriant, riotous vines, and the great oaks with their glossy 
foliage, all enveloped in a warm and shimmering atmosphere 
and, bending above, the soft blue sky scarcely dimmed by a 
fleeting cloud. They can not be put into words, they must be 
lived . 

The travellers had been up and dressed and enjoying the'sweet 
air and lovely landscape for a long time when the train 
stopped at the Oakland station at half-past seven Sunday 
morning. May 19. Early as was the hour, with the mists 
still hovering over the bay, they found awaiting them, laden 
with flowers, Mrs. Cooper and her daughter Harriet, from San 
Francisco, Mrs. Isabel A. Baldwin, Mrs. Ada Van Pelt and 
several other Oakland ladies, and Rev. John K. McLean, the 
Congregational minister, whose eldest brother was the husband 
of Miss Anthony's sister. He conveyed her at once to his own 
home, while the others took charge of Miss Shaw. At 11 o'clock 
the reverend lady was in Dr. McLean's pulpit, fresh and 
smiling, in her soft, black ministerial robes, with dainty white 



THE SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 827 

lawn at neck and wrists. Every seat wi^s filled, chairs were 
placed in the aisles, people sitting on the steps, and the hap- 
piest woman in all the throng was Susan B. Anthony as she 
sat beside her friend. That evening the scene was repeated in 
the Congregational church of San Francisco, where the chan- 
cel was adorned with lilies and the revered Sarah B. Cooper 
made the opening prayer. 

r The Woman's Congress opened at Golden Gate Hall, on the 
morning of May 20. The newspapers of San Francisco had 
decreed that this congress should be a success, and to this end 
I they had been as generous with space and as complimentary in 
xone as the most exacting could have desired. The result was 
that at not a session during the week was the great hall large 
enough to hold the audience which sought admission. It pre- 
sented a beautiful sight on the opening morning, festooned 
from end to end with banners ; the stage a veritable conserva- 
tory, with a background of palms, bamboo and other tropical 
plants, and in front a bewildering array of lilies, roses, carna- 
tions, sweet peas and other fragrant blossoms. Grouped upon 
the platform, on chairs and divans, under tall, shaded lamps, 
were the speakers and guests. At the right of the president's 
desk was a large arm-chair artistically draped with flowers be- 
neath a canopy of La France roses. At half -past ten Mrs. 
Cooper stepped out from the wings escorting Miss Anthony, 
followed by Mayor Adolph Sutro and Rev. Anna Shaw. The 
audience burst into a storm of applause and, amid cheers and 
the waving of handkerchiefs. Miss Anthony was conducted to 
her floral throne. As soon as she was seated, one woman after 
another came up with arms full of flowers until she was liter- 
erally buried under an avalanche of the choicest blossoms. No 
one who was present ever will forget the lovely scene. 

Mayor Sutro made the address of welcome, in which he em- 

hasized his belief that "the ballot should be placed in the 

ands of woman as the most powerful agent for the uplifting 

of humanity." At the preceding congress the general topic 

had been, **The Relation of Women to the Affairs of the 

orld," and the criticism had been made that it was too mucl) 



828 LIFE AND WOBE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of a woman suffrage meeting. For this one the subject selected 
was " The Home," but the results were the same. Whatever 
the paper — "Hereditary Influence, " "The Parents' Power," 
" The Family and the State " — ^all led to suffrage ; and the more 
suffrage, the greater the applause from the audience. Mrs.Cooper 
had written Miss Anthony, " I told the committee to put you 
and Miss Shaw anywhere on the program, that you could speak 
on one subject as well as another ; " so they found themselves 
down for '* Educational Influences of Home Life ; " ** Which 
Counts More, Father's or Mother's Influence ? " " Does Wife- 
hood Preclude Citizenship ? " " The Evolution of the Home ; " 
"The Family and the State;" "Shall We Co-operate?" 
"The Rights of Motherhood; " and numerous other topics. 
Both spoke every day during the Congress and the people 
seemed never to tire of hearing them. 

Mrs. Cooper presided in her dignified and beautiful manner, 
and in her presentation said : "I have the very great honor 
and pleasure of introducing to this assembly one who has done 
more towards lifting up women than any other one person — 
Miss Susan B. Anthony." The Chronicle reported : " Then 
the audience made still further demonstrations. They clapped 
and cheered and waved, and some of the gray-haired women 
wiped their eyes because it is so seldom that people live to be 
appreciated. But Susan B. stood like a princess of the blood 
royal. Very erect of head and clear of voice she began her lit- 
tle speech. It was full of reminiscences, but some few people 
have the privilege of telling recollections without the fear of 
ever boring any one. Miss Anthony is one of these. ..." 

Miss Shaw also received a hearty welcome; and all 
through that wonderful week the bright, appreciative, warm- 
hearted California audiences crowded the hall and listened and 
applauded and brought their offerings of flowers and fruit to 
lay at the feet of these two women, who had come from the far 
East to clasp their hands and unite with them in one great 
cause— the uplifting of womanhood. The Chronicle said : 

Twelve hundred women went to Golden Gate Hall on Monday ; foarteen 
hundred went Tuesday; two thousand Wednesday; twenty-fiye hundred 



<Mi*^^/i iy^&S&iZ^y\%it/f 



THB SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 829 

Tharsday. Golden Gate Hall coald not hold one-foarth of the crowds, bo all 
three of yesterday's sessions were held at the First Congregational charch. 
Even there a stream of humanity blocked every aisle clear to the platform. 
Nobody ever supposed that the women of San Francisco cared for aught ex- 
cept their gowns, their teas and their babies. But they do. They like brains, 
even in their own sex. And they can applaud good speeches even if made 
by women, and they have all fallen madly, desperately in love with a very 
short, very plump little woman whose name is Anna Shaw. A year ago there 
were not more than a hundred women in San Francisco who could have been 
dragged to a suffrage meeting, but yesterday twenty-five times that number 
struggled and tore their clothing in their determination to hear Miss Anthony 
and Miss Shaw. 

Again it commented : ' ' There has been some talk that the 
Woman's Congress which expired last night attracted its 
crowds under false pretenses — ^that it promised to talk about 
the home and then preached suffrage. That is usually the case 
when Miss Anthony is about, but it was always suffrage in its 
relation to the home. Who, knowing Miss Anthony's reputa- 
tion , could suppose that she would cross the continent in the 
evening of her life to discuss the draping of a lace curtain or 
the best colors for a parlor carpet ? . . . Five thousand 
people waiting on the steps of the Temple Emanu-El for the 
purpose of hearing the woman preacher's last address does not 
look as if her position were uncertain. Mere curiosity does 
not take the same people to nineteen consecutive sessions." 

''Apotheosis of Woman," the Examiner headed its fine re- 
ports ; and the Call, the Bulletin, the Post, the Report, and the 
newspapers around the bay all gave columns of space to this 
great meeting which had discovered to the State of California 
its own remarkable women. 

Miss Anthony had been the guest of her old friend, Mrs. A. 

A. Sargent, whose hospitality she had enjoyed so many years 

in Washington City. As the suffrage amendment was to come 

''up the next year. Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw met with a 

/ large number of ladies at the Congregational church and 

helped them organize a campaign committee, with .Mrs. Cooper 

, as its chairman. In accepting the office she said : "I intend 

to put all there is of me into current coin and use it to forward 

this Heaven-ordained work. If ever a woman was thoroughly 



830 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

converted to this idea I have been, and in this spirit I accept 
the charge. '^ 

In the afternoon of this same day Mrs. Cooper escorted them 
to the Y. M. G. A. Hall to address the Congregational minis- 
ters at their regular Monday meeting, to which they had been 
officially invited. That evening they were the guests of honor 
at the Unitarian Club dinner at the Palace Hotel, Miss Anthony 
responding to the toast, **The Rights and Privileges of Man ; '* 
Miss Shaw to '' The Manly Man ; " Rev. A. C. Hirst and Dr. 
Horatio Stebbins to *' The Rights and Privileges of Woman '* 
and '*The Womanly Woman; '' and the evening was a lively 
one. They addressed the girls' high school, and accepted also 
an invitation to speak to the 900 teachers at the institute in 
session at Golden Gate Hall. They were the guests of the 
Century Club, Sorosis and other San Francisco societies of 
women. 

A friend, Mrs. Mary Grafton Campbell, wrote from Palo Alto 
that she heard President Jordan say every remaining day and 
evening of the semester were filled, and when she exclaimed, 
" But Miss Anthony is coming ; what about her ? " he replied, 
" There will be room for Miss Anthony if we have to give up 
classes." Immediately he wrote her a cordial invitation to 
visit the university, offering to pay her travelling expenses and 
expressing a wish to entertain her in his home. She accepted 
for herself and Miss Shaw, and they spoke to as many students 
as could crowd into the chapel. Mrs. Stanford sent a personal 
invitation for them to attend the reception which she was to 
give the first graduating class in her San Francisco residence.^ 



/^irm^; 












> Ab soon as they arriTed in California they were presented by Mn. Stanf6id with railroad 
paseeB thronffhont the State. 



THB SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 831 

They were invited to the beautiful Water Carnival at Santa 
Cruz, and to the Flower Festival at Santa Barbara. It would 
be impossible, indeed, to mention all the delightful invitations 
of both a public and private nature, and there was not a day 
that did not bring a remembrance in the shape of flowers and 
the delicious fruit in which Miss Anthony revelled. 

On May 29 the Ebell Club of Oakland gave them a breakfast 
at 11: 30 ; at 2 p. m. they addressed the Alameda County Aux- 
iliary of the Woman's Congress, Rev. Eliza Tupper Wilkes, 
president. The audience filled every inch of space in the Uni- 
tarian church, the most prominent ladies of Oakland occupied 
seats on the platform, and a large reception in the parlors fol- 
lowed the speaking. The evening session was held in the Con- 
gregational church, an enthusiastic crowd in attendance. The 
next afternoon they started for the Yosemite Valley, having for 
companions Dr. Elizabeth Sargent and Dr. Henry A. Baker, 
Miss Anthony's grand-nephew. There Miss Anthony, at the 
age of seventy-five, made the usual trips on the back of a mule. 
She relates that the name of her steed was Moses and Anna 
Shaw's Ephraim, and they had great sport over them. They 
enjoyed to the full all the beauties of that wonderful region, 
which never pall, no matter how often one visits them or how 
long one remains among them. During this trip Miss Shaw 
went with one of the Yosemite commissioners, George B. Sperry, 
to the Mariposa Big Trees. Two, in a group of the largest 
three, were christened George Washington and Abraham Lin- 
coln, and he offered her the privilege of naming the third. 
She gave it the title of Susan B. Anthony, it was appropriately 
marked, and thus it will be known to future generations. 
. At San Jose they were the guests of Mrs. Sarah Knox Good- 
rich, who gave a dinner for them, and over a hundred called 
during the evening. Sunday afternoon Miss Anthony spoke 
in the Unitarian church, and Monday morning addressed the 
students of the Normal School. At noon Mrs. Elizabeth 
Lowe Watson gave a luncheon party under the great trees at 
her lovely home, Sunny Brae, where the ladies spoke in the 
afternoon to several hundred people from neighboring ranches. 



832 LIFE AND WORE OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

In the evening they lectured at San Jose and, although fifty 
cents admission was charged, not nearly all who had bought 
tickets could get into the building. When they left for Los 
Angeles Mrs. Goodrich slipped into the hand of each $50 in 
goldy as a present ; just as Mrs. Sargent had done when they 
left San Francisco. 

Long before Miss Anthony had started for California, cordial 
invitations had been received from the southern part of the 
State, from old friends and new. It was of course impossible 
to accept more than a small fraction of these, but from the time 
the twain reached Los Angeles, there was one continuous ova- 
tion. On the evening of their arrival, June 12, they addressed 
an audience of over 2,000 in Simpson tabernacle, which had 
been transformed into a bower of choicest blossoms. While in 
the city they were the guests of Mrs. Caroline M. Severance, 
with whom Miss Anthony had worked for suffrage in Ohio 
forty years before. 

In Riverside a reception was given them at the Glenwood by 
Mr. and Mrs. F. M. Richardson, relatives of Miss Anthony. 
The beautiful drives for which that place is famous were greatly 
enjoyed, and they went into raptures over the oranges, which 
they never before had seen in such quantities. They spoke to 
a large audience in the handsomely decorated Methodist taber- 
nacle at Pasadena. While here they were the guests of Mrs. 
P. C. Baker, on Orange Avenue, and received many social at- 
tentions from the people of this lovely little city. Thence they 
went to Pomona, where they were met at the station by a dele- 
gation of ladies, escorted to the Palomares Hotel, and found 
the committee had adorned their rooms with flowers in a pro- 
fusion which would be impossible outside of California. They 
spoke here also in the Methodist church. The next day Miss 
Shaw preached in Los Angeles and Miss Anthony spent the 
Sunday at Whittier with Mrs. Harriet R. Strong at her ranche, 
so widely noted for its walnut groves and pampas fields. 

Monday morning they journeyed to San Diego where they 
were the guests of Miss Anthony's niece, Mrs. George L. 
Baker. Elaborate preparartions had been made to receive them 



THE SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 833 

and they addressed a large audience in the evening. The next 
afternoon a reception was given at the Hotel Florence by all 
the woman's clubs of the city. The Union said : *' The two 
guests of honor were simply loaded and garlanded with flowers. 
They were presented with baskets of sweet peas by the Y. W. 
C. A.f yellow blossoms by the suffrage club, red, white and blue 
by the Datus Coon corps ; bouquets of white roses by the W. C. 
T. U.y of red and white carnations in a holder of blue satin by 
Heintzelman W. R. C, of red roses by the Woman's League, of 
pink roses by the Jewish women. There was music by an 
orchestra as an accompaniment to the sociability of the occa- 
sion, in which some 700 women participated during the after- 
noon." 

The following day a picnic was given by the Woman's Club 
at *' Olivewood," the home of Mrs. Flora M. Kimball, near 
National City, where tables were spread on the lawn for the 200 
guests who came by train and carriage. That same evening, by 
request of many who could not be present at the first meeting, 
the two ladies lectured again in San Diego. The next day they 
returned to Los Angeles, laden with souvenirs of their delight- 
ful visit ; and that evening, without an hour's rest, addressed 
a mass meeting there. 

The following day the Los Angeles Herald gave an excursion 
to Santa Monica in their honor. The ladies of that pretty sea- 
side resort, under the leadership of Mrs. C. H. Ivens, met 
them with carriages and conducted them to the Hotel Arcadia. 
After luncheon, as they started for the hall where they were to 
speak, twelve little girls strewed flowers in their pathway, and 
after the addresses twelve large bouquets of choice blossoms 
were laid at their feet. They were taken for a long drive by 
Mrs. E. J. Gorham, then to the residence of her brother. Sen- 
ator John P. Jones ; and at the close of a lovely day, returned 
to Los Angeles. That evening a reception was given them by 
Mrs. Mark Sibley Severance, which Miss Anthony always re- 
membered as one of the handsomest in her long experience. 
The next morning they met a committee from the suffrage club 

Ant.— 63 



834 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

and had a conference on the broad piazza of their hostess in 
regard to the work of the coming campaign ; and in the after- 
noon took the train for San Francisco, after two of the most 
delightful weeks in all their recollection. An especially grati- 
fying feature was the attitude of the press of Southern Califor- 
nia. There had been scarcely a discordant note in the ex- 
tended reports of the public meetings and social entertainments, 
and the editorial comments on the two ladies and the cause of 
which they were leading representatives, were dignified, fair 
and friendly.' 

They reached San Francisco June 24 and were welcomed at 
the ferry by a number of friends from the two cities. The next 
day they were entertained at an elaborate dinner-party of ladies 
and gentlemen in the artistic home of Mrs. Emma Shafter 
Howard, of Oakland. From the table they went at once to the 
evening meeting. The Enquirer said: ''It needed no pre- 
liminary brass band or blare of trumpets to pack the Congre- 
gational church with a live Oakland audience. The simple 
announcement that Susan B. Anthony and Rev. Anna H. 
Shaw were to speak was sufiScient, and the chairman, Colonel 
John P. Irish, looked out over an animated sea of faces." 

The following evening the San Francisco farewell meeting 
was held in Metropolitan Temple. Friday and Saturday were 
filled with social engagements, sight-seeing and shopping. On 
Sunday Miss Shaw preached in the California street Methodist 
church in the morning and the Second Congregational in the 
evening, while Miss Anthony addressed a union meeting of all 
the colored congregations in the city at the M. E. Zion church, 
the historic building in which Starr King preached before the 
war. Monday they spoke again at the Ministers' Meeting. 
The fact that they would be present had been announced in the 
papers, and ministers of all denominations were there from 
most of the towns within a radius of forty miles. Miss An- 
thony told them in vigorous language: ''The reason why 
they, as a class, had so little influence with men of business 

^ The Los Angeles Times, Harrison Gray Otis, editor, famished the only exception of any 
importance to this rule. 



THE SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 835 

and political affairs was because the vast majority of the peo- 
ple they represented had neither money nor votes ; that if four 
or five hundred ministers of the State should go up to Sacra- 
mento to ask for any legislation, they would be treated politely 
and bowed out precisely as would so many of their women 
church members. Whereas, on the other hand, one manu- 
facturer, one railroad official, one brewer or distiller, could go 
before the same body and get whatever he asked, because every 
member would know that behind this request were not only 
thousands of dollars but thousands of votes." The ministers 
seemed to realize fully the force of this statement and many ex- 
pressed themselves thoroughly in favor of the enfranchisement 
of women. 

The State Suffrage Association, with a good delegate repre- 
sentation, met in Golden Gate Hall, July 3, for their annual 
convention. There had been heretofore some dissensions in 
this organization and, at this critical time, co-operation was 
so vitally necessary that the friendly offices of Miss Anthony 
and Miss Shaw were requested in the interests of harmony. 
In view of the arduous campaign approaching, all desired that 
Mrs. A. A. Sargent should accept the presidency, and the close 
of the convention found the forces united and ready for work. 

The Fourth of July witnessed the last public appearance of 
the two eminent visitors, and thereby hangs a tale. The last 
of May Miss Anthony had received from the chairman of the 
Fourth of July Executive Committee, William H. Davis, the 
following : ** Fully realizing the great importance of your life- 
work, and rejoicing with you in the certainty that the fruition 
of your labors and hopes is now no longer problematic, but 
merely a question of days, we take much pleasure in extend- 
ing to you the right hand of American fellowship 

We cordially invite you to an honorary position on our com- 
mittee, and hope that you will do us the honor of allowing us 
to select for you an appropriate and prominent place in the 
celebration of our national independence." 

When it had been decided to celebrate the Fourth on a more 
elaborate scale than usual, an auxiliary board was appointed, 



836 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

composed of the leading women of the city, with Sarah B. 
Oooper, chairman. Thinking to add an interesting feature to 
the occasion, she requested of the literary committee that Rev. 
Anna Shaw be placed on the program as one of the orators of 
the day. To her amazement she was refused in discourteous 
manner and language. The executive committeCi learning of 
this action, requested that it should be reconsidered and Miss 
Shaw invited to speak. This being refused, the executive 
committee notified them that unless it was done, their commit- 
tee would be discharged and a new one appointed. They then 
yielded to the inevitable, placing Miss Shaw's name upon the 
list of orators, and the announcement was received with cheers 
by all the other committees. The reverend lady had not the 
slightest desire to make a Fourth of July speech, but she did 
wish to see Mrs. Cooper win her battle with the little sub-com* 
mittee. Meanwhile the committee in Oakland, P. M. Fisher, 
chairman, did not wait to be asked, but invited her to deliver 
an oration in that city as soon as she had finished in San 
Francisco, and she accepted. 

In the great Fourth of July procession, the very next carri- 
age to that of the mayor contained Mrs. Cooper, Miss Anthony 
and Miss Shaw, and the rousing cheers of the people along the 
whole line of march showed their appreciation of the victory 
gained for woman. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon the ladies 
took seats on the platform at Woodward's Pavilion, facing an 
audience of 5,000 people. San Francisco never heard such an 
oration as was delivered that day by the little Methodist 
preacher, her natural eloquence fired by the efforts to prevent 
her making it. After she had finished and the cheers upon 
cheers had died away, there was a great shout from the im- 
mense crowd, '* Miss Anthony, Miss Anthony I " Finally she 
was obliged to come forward and, when a stillness had settled 
upon the audience, she said in strong, ringing tones : '' You 
have heard today a great deal of what Qeorge Washington, 
the father of his country, said a hundred years ago. I will 
repeat to you just one sentence which Abraham Lincoln, the 
savior of his country, uttered within the present generation : 



THE SECOND VISIT TO CALIFORNIA. 837 

' No man is good enough to govern another man without his 
consent.' Now I say unto you, 'No man is good enough 
to govern any woman without her consent; ' '' and sat down 
amidst roars of applause. 

Miss Shaw had been placed at the very end of the program 
and when she got out into the street it was 5 o'clock. It would 
require an hour to reach Oakland, and she supposed of course 
some one had telegraphed the situation and the people there 
had long since gone home ; but this had not been done, and a 
great audience on that side of the bay had assembled in the 
Tabernacle, many going as early as 1 o'clock, and had waited 
until 6. Knowing there was some mistake they separated with 
the understanding that if Miss Shaw could be secured for the 
evening the church bells would be rung. That lady had just 
seated herself at the dinner table when a telegram was received 
explaining the situation. She replied at once : "I will be 
with you at half -past eight." Miss Anthony would not let 
her go alone and so, exhausted as they both were by the hard 
demands of the day, they crossed the bay, reaching Oakland at 
8 o'clock. No one was at the station to meet them, so they 
took a carriage and drove to the Tabernacle but found it dark 
and deserted. They then went the rounds of the churches, 
but' all were closed. Finally they gave up in despair and 
made the long journey back to San Francisco, reaching the 
Sargent home at 11 o'clock. Why the telegram was not re- 
ceived was never satisfactorily determined. 

After a meeting with the amendment campaign committee 
the next morning and a long discussion of their plan of work, 
the travellers started eastward at 6 p. m. They were met at the 
Oakland ferry by a crowd of friends from both cities with flow- 
ers, fruit and lunch baskets, and left amidst a shower of 
affectionate farewells. They carried away the sweetest memo- 
ries of a lifetime and could find no words to express their love 
and admiration for the people of California. 

Miss Anthony preserves, as a memento of this visit, a large 
scrap-book of over 200 pages entirely filled with personal 
notices from the newspapers of that State during the six weeks 



838 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of her stay, all, with a few exceptions, of such a character as 
to make their reading a pleasure. A source of even greater 
satisfaction was the wide discussion of woman suffrage which 
her visit had inspired and the favorable consideration accorded 
\ it by the press. In the months which followed she received 
scores of letters from California women, many of them un- 
known to her, expressing the sentiments of one from a teacher, 
which may be quoted : " Many of us who could attend but 
few of the meetings and had not even time to meet you per- 
sonally, have caught something of their spirit and have been 
with you in heart. We bless the day which brought you to 
us ; for your kindly words to women, and to men for 
women, have lifted the fog, and the veiling mists are drifting 
away, leaving us a clearer view of our duty not only to hu- 
manity but to ourselves. You have left a trail of light.'* 




CHAPTER XLVI. 

MRS. Stanton's birthday — ^the biblb resolution. 

1895—1896. 

N the way homeward they were met at every large 
station by friends with something to add to the 
pleasure of their trip. Miss Shaw went through 
to Chicago, but Miss Anthony journeyed towards 
% Leavenworth. She dined with friends at Topeka, 
and while waiting in the station, one of them remarked, 
'^ We are to have our suffrage meeting tomorrow, what shall 
we tell them from you ? '' In a spirit of fun she dashed off a 
resolution saying that '^ since 130,000 Kansas men declared 
themselves against woman suffrage at the late election and 74,- 
000 showed their opposition by not voting; therefore it is the 
duty of every self-respecting woman in the State to fold her 
hands and refuse to help any religious, charitable or moral re- 
form or any political association, until the men shall strike 
the adjective ' male ' from the suffrage clause of the consti- 
tution." 

She was in Topeka only five hours, but during that time at- 
tended a dinner party, gave a two-column interview to a re- 
porter from each of the city papers, and furnished a resolution 
which set all the newspapers in the country by the ears. 
''Talk about hysterics," she said, laughingly, as she read the 
clippings, ''it takes the editors to have 'em, if they are opposed 
to woman suffrage and can get hold of something to help them 
out." Any one who could have the patience to read the fear- 
ful morals which were deduced, the frightful sermons which 
were preached,from what was intended as a joking resolution, 
would quite agree with her. Even had it been meant seriously, 

(839) 



840 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

it wGuId have been only such retaliation as men would have 
visited upon women had the latter been possessed of the power 
and voted three to one to take the ballot away from them. 

She visited a week in Leavenworth and Fort Scott, arrived 
at Chicago July 15, and was thus described by a Herald re- 
porter : 

Miss Anthony has grown slightly thinner since she was in Chicago attend- 
ing the World's Fair Congresses, thinner and more spiritaal-looking. As she 
sat last night with her transparent hands grasping the arms of her chair, her 
thin, hatchet face and white hair, with only her keen eyes flashing light and 
fire, she looked like Pope Leo XIII. The whole physical heing is as nearly 
submerged as possible in a great mentality. She recalls facts, figures, names 
and dates with anerring accuracy. It was no Argus-eyed autocrat who told 
with pardonable pride last night of how her chair at every great function in 
San Francisco was hung with floral wreaths, how bouquets were piled at her 
feet until she could scarcely step for them. It was a pleasing story , told by a 
sweet old woman, of honors which she accepted for the sake of a beloved cause. 

The next day she resumed her journey with Mr. and Mrs. 
Gross and Harriet Hosmer, who were going to Bar Harbor. She 
reached her own home at daybreak, and here, the diary shows, 
she sat down on the steps of the front porch and read the paper 
for an hour or two rather than disturb her sister's morning nap. 
The first word received from Miss Shaw was that she had arrived 
•^at her summer home on Gape Cod with a raging fever, the 
result of the great strain of constant speaking and travelling 
so many weeks without rest, and she continued alarmingly ill 
the remainder of the summer. She was much distressed be- 
cause of an engagement she had to lecture to the Chautauqua 
Assembly at Lakeside, 0., and to relieve her mind Miss 
Anthony telegraphed her that she would go in her place. She 
herself felt not the slightest ill effect from her journey, and the 
long interviews published in all the Rochester papers during 
the week she was at home, displayed the keenest and strongest 
; mental power. She reached Lakeside on the 25th of July and 
I the next day spoke to a large audience. Towards the close of 
-, her address, she ended abruptly, dropped into her chair and 
sank into a dead faint. 

She was taken at once to Mrs. Southworth's summer home, 



( 






MRS. Stanton's birthday — the biblb resolution. 841 

at which she was a guest, and telegrams were sent out by the 
press reporters announcing that she could not live till morning. 
She learned afterwards that long obituary notices were put in 
type in many of the newspaper oflSces. One Chicago paper 
telegraphed its correspondent : ** 5,000 words if still living ; 
no limit, if dead.'* She was very much vexed at this momen- 
tary weakness and, using her will-power, by the next day had 
rallied sufficiently to return home. The national suffrage 
business committee, by previous arrangement, met at her 
house, and she forced herself to keep up for two days, but felt 
very dull and tired, and on the morning of July 30 she did 
not rise. A physician was summoned and a trained nurse, 
and for a month she lay helpless with nervous prostration ; 
I her first serious illness in seventy-five years. 

She is quoted as saying that if she ''had pinched herself 
right hard she would not have fainted." One of the papers 
remarked that '' then she never would have known how much 
the American people thought of her." Every newspaper had 
something pleasant to say,^ many friends wrote letters of sym- 
pathy, and scores whom she had not known personally 
sent their words of admiration. Only her body was weak, 
her mind was abnormally alert ; she appreciated all that was 
said and done for her, and remarked often that this was the 
only real rest of her lifetime. A number of relatives came to 
visit her, and a little later Mrs. Coonley and Mrs. Sewall. Mr. 
and Mrs. Gross also stopped on their way home, the latter 
leaving $50 for *' the very prettiest wrapper that could be had." 
From her old anti-slavery co-worker, Samuel May, now eighty- 
five, came the words : 

I sappose there ia hardly another person in the United States, man or 

* The following from the Wichita Eagle is noteworthy heeauae In the Kansas campaign 
the year befors, and in all preyions years, it had been abnslTe beyond description and had 
at all times put every possible stumbling-block in the way of woman suffrage and berated 
all who advocated it : 

'* What an experience Miss Anthony has had I None but a remarkable woman could have 
accepted such a life-work at a time when prejudice and education ran all in the opposite 
direction. Finely-balanced and self-educated as to her special cause, she has not only won 
a name and fame world-wide, but turned perceptibly the entire current of human convic- 
tion. And she has been, through it all, the modest woman, truly womanly. The men and 
women of this country—of the world— who believe that the ballot for woman means better 
government and the elevation of society to a higher plane, must ever reoogniie Susan B. 
Anthony as the real pioneer prophetess of the cause, for so wUl history record her." 



842 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

woman, who has heen engaged in actaal hard puhlic labor so long as your- 
self ; and is it not a part of your business and a part of your duty — in view of 
the unattained results —to allow yourself larger spaces of rest and to put upon 
yourself more moderate and less exhausting tasks ? We would not willingly 
see you retire from the field altogether ; therefore we want you to do less of 
the common soldier's work and take charge of the reserves, keeping watch 
from your tower of experience, and personally appearing only when and 
where the enemy rallies in unusual numbers or with unusual craftiness. This 
does hot imply a lessening of your usefulness but an increase, being a wiser 
application of your strength and resources. 

From Parker Pillsbury, the old comrade, aged eighty-six : 
''We have heard of your late illness, a warning to constant 
prudence and care for your health as you come down to ' lifers 
latest stage.' Hold on, my dear — our dear — Susan, hold on 
to the last hour possible. You have seen great and glorious 
changes, almost revolutions, but yet how much remains to be 
encountered and accomplished. . . . We shall hope you 
may live to see the one grand achievement — ^the equal civil 
and political rights of all women before the law. Then you 
may well say : 'Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart 
in peace ; for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation.' '' 

Mrs. Stanton wrote : "I never realized how desolate the 
world would be to me without you until I heard of your sudden 
illness. Let me urge you with all the strength I have, and all 
the love I bear you, to stay at home and rest and save your 
precious self.'* From Mrs, Cooper this urgent message: 
"You are too far along in years to work as hard as you do. 
Take it easy, my beloved friend, and let your young lieuten- 
ants bear the heat and burden of the day, while you give 
directions from the hill-top of survey. Age has the right to 
be peaceful, as childhood has the right to be playful. You 
are the youngest of us all, nevertheless nature cries a halt and 
you must obey her call in order to be with us as our leader for 
a score of years to come." 

There is a long hiatus in the diary, and then for many days 
the brief entry, ** On the mend." In September she began to 
walk out a little and then to call on the nearest friends, and 
by the last of the month she attended a few committee meet- 
ings. The rumor had been persistently circulated that she 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — the bible resolution. 843 

was to resign the presidency of the National- American Associa- 
tion and retire to private life. In fact, she never had the 
slightest intention of giving up active work. She realized 
that inactivity meant stagnation and hastened both physical 
and mental decay, and she was determined to keep on and 
''drop in the harness '' when the time came to stop.^ It was 
evident, however, that she must have relief in her immense 
'correspondence. This she recognized, and so secured an effi- 
cient stenographer and typewriter in Mrs. Emma B. Sweet, 
who assumed her duties October 1, 1895. The five large files 
packed with copies of letters sent out during the remaining 
months of the year show how pressing was the need of her 
services. Miss Anthony relates in her diary with much satis- 
faction, that she " managed to have a letter at every State suf- 
frage convention held that fall." 

She thought possibly she might have to work a little more 
moderately for a while, and one of her first letters was written 
to the head of the Slay ton Lecture Bureau: "I should love 
dearly to say ' yes * to your proposition for a series of lectures 
at $100 a night. Nothing short of that would tempt me to go 
on the lyceum platform again, and even to that, for the pres- 
ent, I must say ' nay.' I am resolved to be a home-body the 
coming year, with the exception of attending the celebration 
of Mrs. Stanton's eightieth birthday and our regular Washing- 
ton convention." Among the characteristic short letters is 
this to Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson, of Chicago, who had 
asked for a word of encouragement in regard to a hospital she 
was founding for mothers whose children were born out of wed- 
lock : 

I hope yoar beneficent enterprise may sncceed. I trast the day will come 

* Miss Anthony was many times besought to tell the secret of her wonderful vitality and 
power for work, and on one occasion wrote the following : 

"As machinery in motion lasts longer than when lying idle, so a body and soul in active 
exercise escape the corroding mst of physical and mental laziness, which prematurely cuts 
off the life of so many women. I believe I am able to endure the strain of daily travelling 
and lecturing at over threescore years and ten, mainly because I have always worked and 
loved work. As to my habits of life, it has been impossible for me to have fixed rules 
for eating, resting, sleeping, etc. The only advice I could give a young person on this point 
would be : * Live as simply as you can. Eat what you find agrees with your constitution— 
when you can get It; sleep whenever you are sleepy, and think as little of these details as 
poMiUe/ " 



844 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY, 

when there will he no such unfortanate mothers, hat nntil then, it certainly 
is the daty of society to provide for them. The first step towards bringing 
that day is to make women not only self-supporting hat able to win positions 
of honor and emolument. Since no disfranchished class of men ever had 
equal chances in the world, it is fair to conclude that the first requisite to 
bring them to women is enfranchisement. It is not that all when enfran- 
chised will be capable, honest and chaste, hut it is that they will possess the 
power to control their own conditions and those of society equally with men. 
Therefore my panacea for the ills which your hospital woald fain mitigate is 
the ballot in the hands of women. 

The editor of the Voice wrote for her opinion as to the cause 
of the prevailing ''hard times/' and she answered: 

The work of my life has been less to find out the causes of men's failure to 
successfully manage affairs, than to try to show them their one great failure 
in attempting to make a successful goyemment without the help of women. 
It used to be said in anti-slavery days that a people who would tacitly con- 
sent to the enslavement of 4,000,000 human beings, were incapable of being 
just to each other, and I believe the same rule holds with regard to the injus- 
tice practiced by men towards women. So long as all men conspire to rob 
women of their citizen's right to perfect equality in all the privileges and 
immunities of our so-called " free " government, we can not expect these 
same men to be capable of perfect justice to each other. On the contrary, 
the inevitable result must be trusts, monopolies and all sorts of schemes to 
get an undue share of the proceeds of labor. There is money enough in this 
country today in the hands of the few, if justly distributed, to make " good 
times " for all. 

Reporters were constanUy besieging her for her views on 
** bloomers," which had been re-introduced by the bicycle, 
and she usually replied iir effect : 

My opinion about " bloomers " and dress generally for both men and 
women is that people should dress to accommodate whatever business or 
pastime they pursue. It would be quite out of good taste as well as good 
sense, for a woman to go to her daily work with trailing skirts, flowing 
sleeves, fringes and laces ; and certainly, if women ride the bicycle or climb 
mountains, they should don a costume which will permit them the use of 
their legs. It is very funny that it is ever and always the men who are 
troubled about the propriety of the women's costume. My one word about 
the " bloomers " or any other sort of dress, is that every woman, like every 
man, should be permitted to wear exactly what she chooses. 

When women have equal chances in the world they will cease to live 
merely to please the conventional fancy of men. As long as there was no 
alternative for women but to marry, it was about as much as any woman's 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — the bible resolution. 845 

life was worth to be an old maid, and her one idea was to dress and behave 
80 as to escape this fate. She now has other objects in life, and her new lib- 
erty has brought with it a freedom in matters of dress which is caase for 
rejoicing. 

These opinions might be multiplied almost to infinity and 
all would emphasize two points : Ist, the broad views enter- 
tained by Miss Anthony on all questions, based on her idea of 
individual freedom, the same for both sexes ; 2d, her funda- 
mental belief that, until women cease to be a subject class, and 
until they stand upon the plane of perfect equality of rights 
and privileges, there can be no such thing as a fair solution or 
adjustment of the issues of the day, either great or small; in other 
words, that these can not be satisfactorily and permanently set- 
tled through the judgment and decision of only one-half the 
people. 

/ On October 18 she celebrated her complete recovery by ac- 
,i:epting an invitation to ** come and take a cup of tea with 
Aunt Maria Porter, *' in honor of her ninetieth birthday. She 
was obliged to cancel her engagement to speak at the Atlanta 
Exposition, but during this month made a trial of her strength 
by an hour's speech at the annual meeting of the Monroe 
County Suffrage Club at Brockport, '* attempting it," she says, 
'' with fear and trembling, but going through as if I never had 

f had a scare." Assured by this that she had herself well in 

\ hand once more, she went to Ashtabula, Ohio, for a three 
days' convention of the State association, attending every busi- 
ness meeting and public session. This fact being duly her- 
alded in the newspapers, they put the obituary notices back 

i into their pigeonholes. 

She started for New York November 6 to be present at an 
fevent to which she had looked forward with more pleasure than 
I to anything of that nature in all her life — ^the celebration of the 
{eightieth birthday of Mrs. Stanton. At the convention in 
'February it had been unanimously decided that the National- 

.y American Association should have charge of this, but at the 
Woman's Council in Washington it was agreed that it would 



846 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

; have greater significance if held under the auspices of that 
l^ody, which cheerfully accepted the charge. Its new presi- 
dent, Mary Lowe Dickinson, urged Miss Anthony to take the 
chairmanship of the committee of arrangements, insisting that 
no one else could make so great a success of it, hut Miss An- 
thony assured her of what afterwards proved to be true, that 
no one could manage the affair more perfectly than Mrs. Dick- 
inson herself. 

Naturally many of the suffrage women resented having any 
one outside their own association as the leader on this great 
occasion, and Lillie Devereux Blake wrote: ''Mrs. Stanton 
stands for suffrage above all else and she should be honored by 
our societies. To have the celebration under the charge of the 
secretary of the King's Daughters, an orthodox organization, 
seems very much out of taste, greatly as I honor Mrs. Dickin- 
son. I do not think any one else will make the celebration 
such a success as you would ; you, the long-time companion and 
co-worker with our dear leader, are the person who should be at 
the head and, with your admirable manner as a presiding officer, 
you would give a tone to it that no one else could." To this 
Miss Anthony replied : 

All of you fail to see the higher honor to Mrs. Stanton in having the cele- 
bration mothered by a great body composed of twenty national sodeties, 
instead of by only our one. Sarely, for all classes of women — liberal, ortho- 
dox, Jewish, Mormon, saSrage and anti-saffrage, native and foreign, black and 
white— to unite in paying a tribute of respect to the greatest woman reformer, 
philosopher and statesman of the century, will be the realization of Mrs. 
Stanton's most optimistic dream. I am surprised and delighted at the action 
of the council. It shows a breadth and comprehensiveness on the part of the 
leaders of its twenty-in-one organization of which I am very proud. Of course 
Mrs. Stanton stands for suffrage first, last and all the time, and the conserva- 
tive women who join in this celebration do so knowing that she stands thus 
for a free and enfranchised womanhood. 

Don't you see that for Anthony to head the fray, preside and be general 
master of ceremonies, would reduce it to a mere mutual admiration affair ? 
The celebration is not taken away from us. We, the suffrage women, will 
have our modicum of time to set forth what Mrs. Stanton has done for oar 
specific cause, and the other women will have theirs. O, no, my dear, it is 
not possible that the greater can be less than one of the parts which com- 
pose it. 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — ^the bible resolution. 847 

Her own "girls," Mrs. Sewall and Mrs. Avery, could not 
help being a little jealous for their general, and insisted that 
her name should head the invitations, but to them she 
wrote : 

Do you not see that for Susan B. Anthony's name to stand at the top, will 
frighten the conservatives ? Everybody will conclude that the big suffrage 
elephant has possessed the council, body and soul — all thrust into the suffrage 
hopper and the wheel turned by S. B. A. To make me chairman will wholly 
spoil the intention of the council, which is and should be to bring the fruits 
of Mrs. Stanton's first demand, fifty years ago, and lay them at her feet ; not 
only the suffrage children, but those of education, literature, science, reform, 
religion, all as one. If Mrs. Dickinson single out the hoofed and homed 
head of suffrage as the commander-in-chief, not only the nineteen other 
societies but all the world outside will say it is suffrage after all ; which it 
will be, because the others won't train under our leadership. No, no ; Mrs. 
Dickinson herself must be the chief cook of this broth and appoint her own 
lieutenants, one of whom, with name far down in the middle of the list, I 
shall be most happy to be, and do all I possibly can to help, but always in 
the name of the president of the council. 

She was true to her word, and in every way assisted Mrs. 
Dickinson in the immense amount of preparation necessary 
for what was the largest and most perfect affair of this nature 
ever given in America. At her request Miss Anthony wrote 
over a hundred letters to collect funds, secure the presence of 
the pioneer workers among women, etc., but still insisted on 
keeping herself so much in the background as even to refuse 
to make one of the principal speeches of the occasion. When 
she reached New York, she went for the night to her cousin, 
Mrs. Lapham, and early the next morning to Mrs. Stanton's 
to read over the birthday speech, of which she writes : *' My 
only criticism was that she did not rest her case after describ- 
ing the wonderful advance made in state, church, society and 
home, instead of going on to single out the church and declare 
it to be especially slow in accepting the doctrine of equality to 
women. I tried to make her see that it had. advanced as 
rapidly as the other departments but I did not succeed, and it 
is right that she should express her own ideas, not mine." 

The next day she went to Newburgh to address the State con- 
vention, returning to New York on the 9th. Friends had 



848 LIFE AND WORK OF BUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

come from all parts of the country to attend the celebration, 
and the three days following were pleasantly spent in visiting 
with them at the different hotels. On the evening of the 12th 

L> occurred the birthday f§te. There is not room in these pages 
to describe in full that magnificent gathering, the great Metro- 

^politan Opera House crowded from pit to dome, each of the 
boxes brilliantly and appropriately decorated and occupied by 
the representatives of some organization of women. On the 
stage was a throne of flowers and above it an arch with the 
name '^ Stanton '' wrought in red carnations on a white 
ground. When Mrs. Stanton entered, the entire audience of 
3,000 rose to salute her with waving handkerchiefs. At the 
right and left of the floral throne sat Miss Anthony and Mrs. 
Dickinson. Instead of responding with a set speech, when 
called upon. Miss Anthony paid an eloquent tribute to the 
'^ pioneers," and then read the most important of the one 
hundred telegrams of congratulation which had been received 
from noted societies and eminent men and women in the 
United States and Europe.* The New York Sun said : ** In 
ordinary hands this task would have been dull enough, but 
Miss Anthony enlivened it with her wit and cleverness and 
made a success of it." It maybe truly said that not one 
woman in that audience, not even Mrs. Stanton herself, was 
prouder or happier than Miss Anthony over this splendid 
ovation. 

> Among others was a beautiful testimonial from Theodore Tilton, who had been tor 
many years a resident of Paris, in which he said : 

** At the present day, every woman who seeks the legal onstody of her children, or the legal 
control of her property ; every woman who finds the doors of a ooUege or a university open- 
ing to her ; every woman who administers a postt)fl9ce or a public library ; every woman 
who enters upon a career of medicine, law or theology ; every woman who teaches a school, 
or tills a farm, or keeps a shop; every one who drives a horse, rides a bicycle, skates at a 
rink, swims at a summer resort, plays golf or tennis in a public park, or even snaps a kodak ; 
every such woman, I say, owes her liberty largely to yourself and to your earliest and brav- 
est co-workers in the cause of woman's emancipation. So I send my greetings not to you 
alone, but also to the small remainder now living of your original bevy of noble assistants, 
among whom— first, last and always— has been and stiU continues to be your fit mate, chief 
counselor and executive right hand, Susan B. Anthony ; a heroine of hard work who, when 
her own eightieth birthday shall roll round, will likewise deserve a national ovation, at 
which she should not inappropriately receive the old Boman crown of oak." 

This was accompanied by a personal letter to Miss Anthony, saying, besidee other pleasant 
things : " I heard lately that you were dying I I did not believe the canard. Dying T No f 
You are to live forever. Give my love to the heroine of the hour— and prepare yourself 
for an equal picnic when your own time shall come. Ever yours as of old." 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — ^the bible resolution. 849 

The next day a large reception was given at the Savoy by 
Mrs. Henry Villard, the only daughter of Wm. Lloyd Garri- 
son; and after various luncheons and dinners and good -by 
^ calls, Miss Anthony returned to Rochester. She plunged into 
the mountain of correspondence and, expecting to spend most 
of the next year at home, gave every spare moment to the 
I arranging and classifying of her mass of documents, pre- 
/ paratory to some contemplated literary work. On November 
21, the Political Equality Club celebrated Mrs. Stanton's birth- 
day in a beautiful manner at the Anthony home, over 200 
guests attending. Several unkind newspaper attacks being 
made upon Miss Anthony by disgruntled women, she wrote 
Mrs. Stanton, who was much distressed: ''This fresh on- 
slaught reminds me of the old adage, 'When one is over- 
praised by the many, the few will try to pull down and de- 
stroy.' Certainly I know that in my head and heart there 
never has been any but the strongest desire that all the other 
workers should have their full meed of opportunity and re- 
ward." 

A telegram came November 25 announcing the sudden death, 
in Boston, of Mrs. Ellen Battelle Dietrick. She had been 
actively in the suffrage work for only a few years, but in that 
time Miss Anthony had learned her splendid powers and had 
said of her: " I feel that into her hands can safely fall the 
work of the future, both as to principle and policy.*' She 
had been made chairman of the national press work, and had 
shown an unsurpassed beauty and strength of style and thought. 
"She was a philosopher, a student," Miss Anthony wrote, 
''possessed of the conscience and the courage to stand by the 
truth as she saw it. Can it be that she is gone in the very 
prime of her womanhood? Why can not we keep with us the 
brave and beautiful souls; why can not the weak and wicked 
go? The world seems darker to me now, a light has gone 
out" 

On December 2 she gathered about her a group of the very 
oldest and dearest friends in memory of what would have been 

Ant.— 64 



850 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

her mother's one hundred and second birthday. She records 
attending a lecture by President Andrew D. White, at the close 
of which he presented his wife to her, saying: ^'I want you 
to know her; she is of your kind.'' The day before Christmas 
came another telegram, this one from May Wright Sewall, 
containing simply the words: "Dear General, my Theodore 
is taken." It meant the desolation of one of the happiest, 
most perfect homes ever made by two mortals. It told the 
breaking of as strong and sweet a tie as ever united husband 
and wife. What could she write? Only, ''Be brave in this 
inevitable hour; take unto yourself the 'joy of sorrow' that 
you did all in mortal power for his restoration, that his hap- 
piness was the desire of your life; find comfort in the blessed 
memories of his tender and never-failing love and care for 
you in all these beautiful years." But the poverty, the pow- 
erlessness of words in times like this! 

And so the old year rolled into the past and the record was 
finished. Among the letters which came to cheer its close, 
was one from Mary Lowe Dickinson, which ended: 

In every way, in all this work, how g^ndly you stood by and helped me! 
Some day you will anderstand how grateful I am, and how thoroughly I 
appreciate the support, moral and other, that you have given me. I know 
this holiday season will bring you a great many loving souvenirs from all 
over the world, and I haven't sent you anything at all ; but I have a gift for 
yon, notwithstanding, a gift of loyal reverence for the grand outspoken bravery 
of your life and service, a gift of genuine gratitude for what you have been 
and what you have done, and an affection that has been growing ever since 
my first talk with you in Chicago. This is quite a declaration for a reserved 
woman, but it is as sincere as it is unusual, and I wish you all sorts of bless- 
ings for the New Year, and most of all that it may show great progress in the 
work which lies so close to your heart. 

And this from her beloved friend, Mrs. Leland Stanford: 

It is needless for me to express all I feel in regard to your tender and long- 
continued friendship. I always prized it when I had my dear husband by 
my side to help me bear the burdens and sorrows of life, but now, standing « 
as I do alone with the weighty cares and sacred duties depending upon me, 
I cherish your sympathy, your friendship and your tender words as an evi- 
dence of God's love. He can instigate and guide hearts to reach out sustain- 
ing helpfulness to His children, who need just such support as you have given 



MEs. Stanton's birthday — the bible resolution. 851 

me. Long years past and gone, you and Mrs. Stanton were appreciated and 
extolled by my husband more than you ever realized. He predicted twenty 
years ago what has now come, and mainly through the instrumentality of 
yourself and her— the advancement and elevation of womanhood— and we 
are only on the eve of what is to follow in the twentieth century. 




Miss Anthony was very glad to go back to Washington with 
the annual convention, which was heldJanuary 23 to 28, 1896. 
She went on a week beforehand to satisfy herself that all was 
in readiness. Although the details of the work were assumed 
by the younger members of the board, she was always on the 
scene of action early enough to look over the ground before the 
, battle opened. This year the papers said : ''A notable fea- 
' ture of the suffrage movement is the large number of college 
alumnsd and professional women who are coming into the 
/ ranks." The committee reported organizations in every State 
\ and Territory except Alaska. Delegates were present from 
almost every one, among them Mrs. Hughes, wife of the gov- 
ernor of Arizona, Mrs. Teller, wife of the senator from Color- 
ado, Mrs. Sanders, wife of the ex-senator from Montana, the 
wives of Representatives Arnold, Allen, Shafroth and Pickler, 
Mrs. Ella Knowles Haskell, assistant attorney-general of Mon- 
tana. Most of them addressed the committees of the Senate 
and House, who gave long and respectful hearings. 
/^\ The principal cause of rejoicing at this convention was the 
/ admission of Utah as a State with the full enfranchisement of 
l^ women. A clause to this effect had been put into the State 
constitution, endorsed by all political parties, voted on by the 
men of the Territory and carried. This constitution had been 
accepted, the new State admitted by Congress, and the bill was 
signed by President Cleveland January 4,4.896. A noteworthy 
circumstance in this case was that, while the admission of 
Wyoming with a woman suffrage clause in its constitution was 
fought for many days in both Senate and House in 1890, that 



852 LIFE AND WORK OP SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

of Utah was accepted with scarcely a protest against its en- 
franchisement of women. There was also rejoicing over the 
fact that, during the autumn of 1895, the full franchise had 
been conferred upon the women of South Australia. 

The occurrence of the convention which forever made its 
memory a sad one to Miss Anthony was the so-called '* Bible 
resolution." It had this effect not only because of the resolu- 
tion itself but because those who were responsible for it were 
especially near and dear to her. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, as- 
sisted by a committee of women, had been for several years 
[ preparing a work called the ''Woman's Bible." It contained 
^ no discussion of doctrinal questions but was simply a commen- 
/ tary upon those texts and chapters directly referring to women, 
; and a few others from which they were conspicuously excluded. 
Naturally, however, this pamphlet caused a great outcry, 
especially from those who had not read a word of it. That 
women should dare analyze even the passages referring to 
themselves in a book which heretofore, neither in the origi- 
nal writing nor in all the revisions of the centuries, had 
felt the impress of a woman's brain or the touch of a woman's 
hand, stirred the orthodox to their greater or less depths. 
Mrs. Stanton was honorary president of the National- Ameri- 
can Suffrage Association, but had not attended its meetings or 
actively participated in its work for a number of years. 

Several members of the board, who were children when she 
and Miss Anthony founded that organization, and unborn when 
Mrs. Stanton called the first woman's rights convention, de- 
cided that her Woman's Bible was injuring the association, 
although only the chapters on the Pentateuch thus far had 
been published. They determined that this body should take 
official action on the question, but they understood perfectly 
that it would have to be brought before the convention with- 
out any previous knowledge on the part of Miss Anthony. 
Therefore it was planned to have a paragraph of condemnation 
and renunciation of the Woman's Bible incorporated in the 
report of the corresponding secretary. When it was read in 
open meeting she was struck dumb. Mrs. Colby sprung to 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — ^the bible resolution. 853 

her feet and moved that the report be accepted, all but the 
paragraph relating to the Woman's Bible. After an animated 
discussion the secretary's report was laid on the table and later 
was adopted with the offending clause stricken out. Miss 
Anthony supposed this was the end of the matter but, to her 
amazement, the committee on resolutions reported the follow- 
ing: ''This association is non-sectarian, being composed of 
persons of all shades of religious opinions, and has no official 
connection with the so-called Woman's Bible, or any theolog- 
ical publication." 

This resolution was wholly gratuitous. While true that the 
association was composed of persons of all shades of religious 
opinion, it comprised also among some of its oldest and ablest 
members those who entertained no so-called religious beliefs. 
Mrs. Stanton invariably had announced that this revision of 
the Scriptures was the individual work of herself and her com- 
mittee, and there was no ground for holding the whole associ- 
ation responsible. The resolution, however, was debated for 
an hour. Miss Anthony was moved as never before. Not only 
was she fired with indignation at this insult to the woman 
whom she loved and revered above all others, but she was 
outraged at this deliberate attempt to deny personal liberty of 
thought and speech. Leaving the chair she said in an im- 
passioned appeal : 

The one distinct feature of oar association has been the right of individual 
opinion for every member. We have been beset at each step with the cry 
that somebody was injuring the cause by the expression of sentiments which 
differed from those held by the majority. The religious persecution of the 
ages has been carried on under what was claimed to be the command of God. 
I distrust those people who know so well what God wants them to do, because 
I notice it always coincides with their own desires. All the way along the 
history of our movement there has been this same contest on account of 
religious theories. Forty years ago one of our noblest men said to me, " You 
would better never hold another convention than allow Ernestine L. Rose on 
your platform;" because that eloquent woman, who ever stood for justice 
and freedom, did not believe in the plenary inspiration of the Bible. Did we 
banish Mrs. Rose? No, indeed! 

Every new generation of converts threshes over the same old straw. 
The point is whether you will sit in judgment on one who questions the 
divine inspiration of certain passages in the Bible derogatory to women. If 
Mrs. Stanton had written approvingly of these passages you would not have 



854 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

brought in this resolation for fear the cause might be injured among the 
libercUs in religion. In other words, if she had written your views, you would 
not have considered a resolution necessary. To pass this one is to set back 
the hands on the dial of reform. 

What you should say to outsiders is that a Christian has neither more nor 
less rights in our association than an atheist. When our platform becomes 
too narrow for people of all creeds and of no creeds, I myself can not stand 
upon it. Many things have been said and done by our orthodox friends which 
I have felt to be extremely harmful to our cause ; but I should no more con- 
sent to a resolution denouncing them than I shall consent to this. Who is 
to draw the line ? Who can tell now whether these commentaries may not 
prove a great help to woman's emancipation from old superstitions which 
have barred its way ? Lucretia Mott at first thought Mrs. Stanton had injured 
the cause of all woman's other rights by insisting upon the demand for suf- 
frage, but she had sense enough not to bring in a resolution against it. In 
1860 when Mrs. Stanton made a speech before the New York Legislature in 
favor of a bill making drunkenness a ground for divorce, there was a general 
cry among the friends that she had killed the woman's cause. I shall be 
pained beyond expression if the delegates here are so narrow and illiberal as 
to adopt this resolution. You would better not begin resolving against indi- 
vidual action or you will find no limit. This year it is Mrs. Stanton ; next 
year it may be I or one of yourselves, who will be the victim. 

If we do not inspire in women a broad and catholic spirit, they will fail, 
when enfranchised, to constitute that power for better government which we 
have always claimed for them. Ten women educated into the practice of 
liberal principles would be a stronger force than 10,000 organized on a plat- 
form of intolerance and bigotry. I pray you vote for religious liberty, with- 
out censorship or inquisition. This resolution adopted will be a vote of 
censure upon a woman who is without a peer in intellectual and statesman- 
like ability ; one who has stood for half a century the acknowledged leader 
of progressive thought and demand in regard to all matters pertaining to the 
absolute freedom of women. 

Rev. Anna Shaw, Carrie Chapman Catt, Henry B. and Alice 
Stone Blackwell, Laura M. Johns, Annie L. Diggs, Rachel 
Foster Avery, Laura Clay, Mariana W. Chapman, Elizabeth 
Upham Yates, and others spoke in favor of the resolution ; 
Lillie Devereux Blake, Clara B. Colby, Mary S Anthony, 
Emily Howland, Charlotte Perkins Stetson and Caroline Hallo- 
well Miller were among those who opposed it. The vote 
resulted, 53 ayes, 41 nays; and the resolution was adopted. 
The situation was felicitously expressed in a single sentence by 
Mrs. Caroline McCuUough Everhard, president of the Ohio 
Suffrage Association: ''If women were governed more by 
principle and less by prejudice, how strong they would be! '* 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — the bible resolution. 855 

Miss Anthony's feelings could not be put into words. At 
flrst she seriously contemplated resigning her office, but from 
all parts of the country came letters from the pioneer workers — 
the women who had stood by her for more than twoscore 
years — pointing out that this action of the convention was a 
striking illustration of the necessity for her remaining at the 
helm. Mrs. Stanton urged that they both resign, but Miss 
Anthony replied : 

Daring three weeks of agony of soal, with scarcely a night of sleep, I have 
felt I mast resign my presidency, but then the rights of the minority are to 
be respected and protected by me quite as mach as the action of the majority 
is to be resented ; and it is even more my duty to stand firmly with the minor- 
ity because principle is with them. I feel very sure that after a year's reflec- 
tion apon the matter, the same women, and perhaps the one man, who voted 
for this interference with personal rights, will be ready to declare that their 
duty as individuals does not require them to disclaim freedom of speech in 
their co-workers. Sister Mary says the action of the convention convinces 
her that the time has not yet come for me to resign; whereas she had felt 
most strongly that I ought to do it for my own sake. No, my dear, instead 
of my resigning and leaving those half-fledged chickens without any mother, 
I think it my duty and the duty of yourself and all the liberals to be at the 
next convention and try to reverse this miserable, narrow action. 

In letters to the different members of her '* cabinet/' who 
had voted in favor of the resolution, she thus expressed her- 
self : 

In this action I see nothing but the beginning of a petty espionage, a re- 
vival of the Spanish inquisition, subjecting to spiritual torture every one who 
speaks or writes what the other members consider not good for the associa- 
tion. Such disclaimers bring quite as much of martyrdom for our civilization 
as did the rack and fire in the barbarous ages of the past. 

That a majority of the delegates could see no wrong personally to Mrs. 
Stanton and no violation of the right of individual judgment, makes me sick 
at heart; and still, I don't know what better one could expect when our ranks 
are now so filled with young women not yet out of bondage to the idea of the 
infallibility of that book. To every person who really believes in religious 
freedom, it is no worse to criticise those pages in the Bible which degrade 
woman than it is to criticise the laws on our statute books which degrade her. 
Everything spoken or written by Jew or Greek, Gentile or Christian, or by 
any human being whomsoever, is not too sacred to be criticised by any other 
human being. 

She was far too magnanimous, however, and loved the cause 
too well to relax her efforts for the welfare of the association. 



856 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Before the year closed she received from Mrs. Avery and Mrs. 
Upton most tender and beautiful letters, acknowledging their 
mistake, expressing their sorrow and begging to be reinstated 
in her confidence and affection.* 

In order that Miss Anthony's position maybe clearly under- 
stood and that she may not appear biased and one-sided, and 
in order also to consider this question all at one time, her 
point of view will be a little further illustrated. In an inter- 
view in the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle she is thus re- 
ported : 

" Did yoa have anything to do with the new Bible, Miss Anthony 7 " was 
asked. 

** No, I did not contribute to it, though I knew of its preparation. My 
own relations to or ideas of the Bible always have been peculiar, owing to 
my Quaker training. The Friends consider the book as historical, made up 
of traditions, but not as a plenary inspiration. Of course people say these 
women are impious and presumptuous for daring to interpret the Scriptures as 
they understand them, but I think women have just as good a right to inter- 
pret and twist the Bible to their own advantage as men always have twisted 
and turned it to theirs. ... It was written by men, and therefore its 
reference to women reflects the light in which they were regarded in those 
days. In the same way the history of our Revolutionary War was written, 
in which very little is said of the noble deeds of women, though we know 
how they stood by and helped the great work ; and it is the same with history 
all through." 

Although she stood so firm for individual rights she never- 
theless regretted that Mrs. Stanton should give the few remain- 
ing years of her precious life to this commentary, and fre- 
quently wrote in the following strain, when importuned to 
assist in it : 

I can not help but feel that in this you are talking down to the most 
ignorant masses, whereas your rule always has been to speak to the highest, 
knowing there would be a few who would comprehend, and would in turn give 
of their best to those on the next lower round of the ladder. The cultivated 
men and women of today are above the need of your book. Even the liber- 
alized orthodox ministers are coming to our aid and their conventions are 

' In a letter to the Woman's Tribune Mrs. Jean Brooks Greenleaf said : *' I was absent 
from the convention and could not vote against that resolution. The 'Woman's Bible' a hin- 
drance to orsranization f Of course it is. What of itf The belief in the old theories about 
women, which had their basis in doctrines taught from King James' version of the Bible, 
was a much more monumental hindrance to the work of the pioneers, in not only the woman 
suffrage movement but in all movements for the advancement of women." 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — the bible resolution. 857 

passing resolutions in favor of woman's equality, and I feel that these men 
and women who are just bom into the kingdom of liberty can better reach the 
minds of their followers than can any of us out-and-out radicals. But while 
I do not consider it my duty to tear to tatters the lingering skeletons of the 
old superstitions and bigotries, yet I rejoice to see them crumbling on every 
side. 

Months after this Washington convention, when Miss 
Anthony was in the midst of a great political campaign in 
Calif ornia, she sent Mrs. Stanton this self-explanatory letter : 

You say " women must be emancipated from their superstitions before en- 
franchisement will be of any benefit/' and I say just the reverse, that women 
must be enfranchised before they can be emancipated from their superstitions. 
Women would be no more superstitious today than men, if they had been 
men's political and business equals and gone outside the four walls of home 
and the other four of the church into the great world, and come in contact 
with and discussed men and measures on the plane of this mundane sphere, 
instead of living in the air with Jesus and the angels. So you will have to 
keep pegging away, saying, '* Get rid of religious bigotry and then get polit- 
ical rights; '' while I shall keep pegging away, saying, '* Get political rights 
first and religious bigotry will melt like dew before the morning sun; " and 
each will continue still to believe in and defend the other. 

Now, especially in this California campaign, I shall no more thrust into 
the discussions the question of the Bible than the manufacture of wine. 
What I want is for the men to vote ^' yes " on the suffrage amendment, and I 
don't ask whether they make wine on the ranches in California or believe 
Christ made it at the wedding feast. I have your grand addresses before 
Congress and enclose one in nearly every letter I write. I have scattered all 
your ''celebration" speeches that I had, but I shall not circulate your 
" Bible " literature a particle more than Frances Willard's prohibition litera- 
ture. So don't tell Mrs. Colby or anybody else to load me down with Bible, 
social purity, temperance, or any other arguments under the sun but just 
those for woman's right to have her opinion counted at the ballot-box. 

I have been pleading with Miss Willard for the last three months to with- 
draw her threatened W. C. T. U. invasion of California this year, and at last 
she has done it; now, for heaven's sake, don*t you propose a ''Bible inva- 
sion." It is not because I hate religious bigotry less than you do, or because 
I love prohibition less than Frances Willard does, but because I consider suf- 
frage more important just now. 

It seems that Miss Anthony's attitude ought to be perfectly 
understood by the testimony here presented. It is one from 
which she never has swerved and on which she is willing to 
stand in the pages of history — entire freedom for herself from 
religious superstition — the most absolute religious liberty for 
every other human being. 



858 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

To return to the Washington convention: Among many 
pleasant social features Miss Anthony was invited to an ele- 
gant luncheon given by Mrs. John R. McLean in honor of the 
seventieth birthday of Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant and, at the re- 
ception which followed, received the guests with Mrs. Grant 
and Mrs. McLean. 




//fc^^^^^c/--^^^ 






/ 

At the close of the convention the principal speakers and 
many of the delegates went to Philadelphia to a national con- 
ference, which was largely attended. It was here that *' Nelly 
Bly ' ' had the famous interview published in the New York 
World of February 2, 1896. She had tried to secure this in 
Washington, but Miss Anthony could not spare time for it, so 
she followed her to Philadelphia. It filled a page of the Sun- 
day edition and contained Miss Anthony's opinions on most 
of the leading topics of the day, in the main correctly reported, 
although not a note was taken. It began thus: 

Susan B. Anthony I She was waiting for me. I stood for an instant in the 
doorway and looked at her. She made a picture to remember and to cherish. 
She sat in a low rocking-chair, an image of repose and restfnlness. Her well- 
shaped head, with its silken snowy hair combed smoothly over her ears, 
rested against the back of the chair. Her shawl had half fallen from her 
shoulders and her soft black silk gown lay in gentle folds about her. Her 
slender hands were folded idly in her lap, and her feet, crossed, just peeped 
from beneath the edge of her skirt. If she had been posed for a picture, it 
could not have been done more artistically. 

" Do you know the world is a blank to' me?" she said after we had ex- 
changed greetings. '* I havenH read a newspaper in ten days and I feel lost 
to everything. Tell me about Cuba ! I almost would be willing to postpone 
the enfranchisement of women to see Cuba free. . . ." 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — ^the bible resolution. 859 

"Do you believe in immortality?" 

"I don't know anything about heaven or hell," she answered, "or whether 
I will meet my friends again or not, but as no particle of matter is ever de- 
stroyed, I have a feeling that no particle of mind is ever lost. I am sure that 
the same wise power which manages the present may be trusted with the 
hereafter." 

" Then you don't find life tiresome ?" 

"0, mercy, no I I don't want to die as long as I can work; the minute I 
can not, I want to go. I dread the thought of being enfeebled. The older I 
get, the greater power I seem to have to help the world ; I am like a snow- 
ball — ^the further I am rolled the more I gain. But," she added, signifi- 
cantly, "I'll have to take it as it comes. I'm just as much in eternity now 
as after the breath goes out of my body." 

" Do you pray?" 

" I pray every single second of my life ; not on my knees, but with my 
work. My prayer is to lift woman to equality with man. Work and worship 
are one with me. I can not imagine a God of the universe made happy by 
my getting down on my knees and calling him 'great.' . . . 

"What do I think of marriage? True marriage, the real marriage of soul, 
when two people take each other on terms of perfect equality, without the de- 
sire of one to control the other, is a beautiful thing; it is the highest con- 
dition of life ; but for a woman to marry for support is demoralizing ; and for 
a man to marry a woman merely because she has a beautiful figure or face is 
degradation. . . ." 

" Do you like fiowers ?" I asked, leading her into another channel. 

" I like roses first and pinks second, and nothing else after," Miss Anthony 
laughed. " I don't call anything a flower that hasn't a sweet perfume." 

" What is your favorite hymn or ballad ?" 

" The dickens I" she exclaimed merrily. " I don't know ! I can't tell one 
tune from another. I know there are such hymns as ' Sweet By and By ' 
and ' Old Hundred,' but I can not tell them apart. All music sounds alike 
to me, but still if there is the slightest discord it hurts me. Neither do I know 
anything about art," she continued, " yet when I go into a room filled with 
pictures my friends say I invariably pick out the best. I have good com- 
pany, I always think, in my musical ignorance. Wendell Phillips couldn't 
recognize tunes ; neither could Anna Dickinson." 

" What's your favorite motto, or have you one ?" 

" For the last thirty years I have written in all albums, ' Perfect equality 
of rights for women, civil and political ;' or, * 1 know only woman and her 
disfranchised.' There is another, one of Charles Sumner's, ' Equal rights 
for all.' I never write sentimental things. . . . 
f "Yes, I'll tell you what I think of bicycling," she said, leaning forward 
• and laying a hand on my arm. " I think it has done more to emancipate 
woman than any one thing in the world. I rejoice every time I see a woman 
; ride by on a wheel. It gives her a feeling of self-reliance and independence 
I the moment she takes her seat; and away she goes, the picture of antram« 
\melled womanhood." 
'. " What do you think the new woman will be ? " 



860 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

" She'll be free/' said Miss Anthony. '* Then she'll be whatever her best 
judgment dictates. We can no more imagine what the true woman will be 
than what the trae man will be. We haven't him yet, and it will be generations 
after we gain freedom before we have the highest man and woman. They 
will constantly change for the better, as the world does. What is the best 
possible today will be outgrown tomorrow." 

" What would you call woman's best attribute ? " 

" Good common sense ; she has a great deal of uncommon sense now, but I 
want her to be an all-around woman, not gifted overly in one respect and 
lacking in others. . . ." 

''And now," I said, approaching a very delicate subject on tip-toe, "tell me 
one thing more. Were you ever in love ? " 

" In love ? " she laughed. " Bless you, Nelly, I've been in love a thou- 
sand times I " 

'* Really I " I gasped, taken back by this startling confession. 

''Yes, really," nodding her snowy head; "but I never loved anyone so 
much that I thought it would last. In fact, I never felt I could give up my 
life of freedom to become a man's housekeeper. When I was young, if a girl 
married poverty, she became a drudge ; if she married wealth, she became a 
doll. Had I married at twenty-one, I would have been either a drudge or a 
doll for fifty-five years. Think of it I " and she laughed again. • • . 

Miss Anthony's seventy-sixth birthday was celebrated by the 
Rochester Political Equality Club at the residence of Dr. and 
Mrs. S. A. Linn. The spacious and beautifully decorated 
rooms were crowded with guests, and interesting addresses 
were given by Mrs. Greenleaf, Mrs. Gannett, Mr. J. M. Thayer 
and Mary Seymour Howell, to which Miss Anthony made a 
happy response. On February 17 she spoke at a church fair 
given by the colored people of Bath, and then completed her 
preparations for a long journey and a great campaign. It will 
be remembered that Miss Anthony had decided to rest from 
" field work '* during 1896, and to arrange her papers for the 
writing of the history of her life, which her friends felt was 
now the most important thing for her to do. To this end a 
roomy half-story had been built on the substantial Rochester 
home, and therein were placed all the big boxes and trunks of 
letters and documents which had been accumulating during 
the last fifty years and stored in woodshed, cellar and closets ; 
a stenographer had been engaged and all was in readiness for 
the great work. Then came an appeal from 3,000 miles away 
which rent asunder all her resolutions. 

When she had been in California the previous year and had 



MRS. Stanton's birthday — ^the bible resolution. 861 

helped the women plan their approaching campaign, nothing 
had been further from her thoughts than returning to give her 
personal assistance. As the time for action drew near, those 
who had the matter in charge began to realize that the task be- 
fore them was far greater than they had anticipated, and that 
they were lacking in the experience which would be needed. 
There were very few women who could be depended on to draw 
together and address great audiences of thousands of people, 
to speak thirty consecutive nights in each month, and to be 
equal to every emergency of a political campaign ; nor were 
there any considerable number who understood the best meth- 
ods of organization. It was then both natural and sensible 
that the State society should appeal to the national association 
for assistance. It is an essential part of the business of the 
o£Scers of that body to respond to such calls. 

Miss Anthony had been home from California but a short 
time in 1895 when Ellen C. Sargent, president of the State 
association, wrote an earnest official request for the help of the 
national board. At the same time Sarah B. Cooper, president 
of the campaign committee, sent the strongest letter her elo- 
quent pen could write, emphasizing Mrs. Sargent's invitation. 
These were followed by similar pleas from the other members 
of the board and from many prominent women of the State. 
Miss Anthony felt at first as if it would not be possible for her 
to make the long trip and endure the fatigue of a campaign, 
which she understood so well from having experienced it seven 
times over. On the other hand she realized what a tremend- 
ous impetus would be given to the cause of woman suffrage if 
the great State of California should carry this amendment, 
and she longed to render every assistance in her power. It 
was not, however, until early in February that she yielded to 
the appeals and decided to abandon all the plans she had 
cherished for the year. The moment her decision reached 
^California, Harriet Cooper, secretary of the committee, tele- 
graphed their delight and sent her a check of 9120 for travel- 
ling expenses. 
The question now arose with Miss Anthony what she should 



862 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

do with her secretary, whom she had engaged for a year but did 
not feel able to take with her. This was settled in a few days 
through the action of Rev. and Mrs. W. C. Gannett, who went 
among the friends and in a short time raised the money to 
pay Mrs. Sweet's expenses to California and back, all agreeing 
that Miss Anthony must have some one to relieve her of the 
mechanical part of the burden she was about to assume. This 
seemed too good to be true, as she had had no such help in all 
her forty-five years of public work. The two started on the 
evening of February 27, a large party of friends assembling 
at the station to say good -by to the veteran of seventy-six years 
about to enter another battle. They stopped at Ann Arbor 
for the Michigan convention, the guests of Mrs. Hall, and 
then a few days in Chicago, where Miss Anthony and Mrs. 
Gross sat for a statuette by Miss Bessie Potter. 

She reached San Diego March 10 and, after attending the 
Woman's Club, went to Los Angeles where she was beautifully 
received, sharing the honors with Robert J. Burdette at the 
Friday Morning Club. Mrs. Alice Moore McComas wrote to 
Mrs. Sargent and Mrs. Cooper the next day : '' Dear Miss 
Anthony came, saw and conquered, and we are hers I Letters 
and telegrams were dispatched in every direction as soon as 
we found she was coming and she has been able to reach 
women that I have almost despaired of. Dozens who have 
heretofore held aloof, have promised me today to stand by the 
amendmeat till all is over, and with these recruits we feel that 
we can undertake the convention work in this county. The 
women are aroused and we will see that they stay aroused. 
Miss Anthony's visit was opportune and just what was needed. ' ' 

She arrived at San Francisco a few days later, being joy- 
fully greeted at the Oakland station by Mrs. Cooper and Har- 
riet. She went directly to the Sargent residence, and from 
this delightful home, Miss Anthony, the National president, 
and Mrs. Sargent, the State president, directed the great cam- 
paign. 




CHAPTER XLVII. 

THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 
1896. 

N their State convention of 1894 the Republicans 
of California had adopted the strongest possible 
plank in favor of woman suffrage and, as the 
legislature the next year was Republican by a 
considerable majority, Clara Foltz and Laura de 
Force Gordon, attorneys, and Nellie Holbrook Blinn, at that 
time State president, Mrs. Peet, Madame Sorbier, Mrs. Bid- 
well, Mrs. Spencer, of Lassen county, and others made a 
determined effort to secure a bill enfranchising women. That 
failing, the legislature consented to submit an amendment to 
the constitution to be voted on in 1896. This bill was signed 
by Governor James H. Budd and the women then prepared to 
canvass the State to secure a favorable majority. 

Out of the officers of the State suffrage association and the 
amendment committee, a joint campaign committee was formed 
and, in addition to this, a State central committee.^ These 
two constituted the working force at State headquarters. There 
were also speakers and organizers, and a regularly officered 
society in each county, co-operating with the officials at head- 
quarters. 

At the request of the State committee Miss Anthony's niece, 
Lucy E., for seven years Miss Shaw's secretary and thoroughly 
experienced in planning and arranging meetings, went out 

* Joint campaign committee : Ellen C. Sargent, chairman ; Sarah B. Cooper, yioe-chair- 
man ; Ida H. Harper, corresponding secretary ; Harriet Cooper, recording secretary ; Mary S. 
Bperry, treasurer ; Mary Wood Swift and Sarah Knox Goodrich, aaditors. State central 
committee : Mrs. Sargent, Miss Anthony, Mrs. Swift, Mrs. Sperry, Mrs. Blinn, with Mary Q. 
Hay, chairman. 

(863) 



864 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

early in February to assist Dr. Elizabeth Sargent in the prepa- 
rations for the first series of conventions. She carried with 
her a complete list, made by Miss Anthony herself with great 
labor and care, of every town of over two hundred inhabitants 
in every county in the State, with instructions to plan for a 
meeting there during the campaign. One scarcely can describe 
the perplexing work of these young women in arranging this 
great sweep of conventions, two days in every county seat, 
each convention overlapping the next, getting the speakers 
from one to the other on time, finding women in each town or 
city who would take charge of local arrangements, and round- 
ing up the whole series in season for the Woman's Congress in 
May. In March the campaign committee invited Mary G. 
Hay, who had had twelve years' experience in organization 
work, and Harriet May Mills, the State organizer of New York, 
to manage the conventions ; and Rev. Anna Shaw and Miss 
Elizabeth Upham Yates as speakers. It is impossible to fol- 
low these meetings in detail further than to say that, with but 
few exceptions, they were very successful, the audiences were 
large and cordial, clubs were formed, much suffrage sentiment 
was created, and the conventions considerably more than paid 
fill expenses. The women of California possessed ability, 
energy, patriotism and desire for political freedom, but up to 
this time they had no conception of the immense amount of 
money and work which would be required for a campaign. 
As soon as they grasped the situation they were fully equal to 
its demands and never in all the history of the movement was 
so much splendid work done, or so large a fund raised, by the 
women of any State. 

It was unanimously agreed that Miss Anthony should re- 
main in San Francisco, answering the numerous calls for 
addresses in that city and the surrounding towns, and having 
general oversight of the campaign. Mrs. Sargent assigned to 
her the largest, sunniest room in her spacious home, but her 
hospitality and her services to the cause of the amendment did 
not end here. Another large apartment was appropriated to 
Rev. Anna Shaw and her secretary. The room formerly used 



'^/'C^-t. .^^a-. 



a^-a^^^t^ 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 865 

as the senator's office was dedicated to the work, the type- 
writers ensconced there, and it soon was crowded with docu- 
ments, newspapers and all the paraphernalia of a campaign. 
In a little while they encroached on the library and it was 
filled with the litter. Then a typewriter found its way into 
one corner of the long dining-room. The committee meetings 
were held in the drawing-room ; and, during the whole 
eight months, there was scarcely a meal at which there were 
not from one to half a dozen speakers, members of com- 
mittees, out-of-town workers and others besides her family at 
the table. Every hour of Mrs. Sargent's and Dr. Elizabeth's 
time was devoted to the campaign. The latter was placed at 
the head of the literary committee and also took entire charge 
of the petition work for the State, involving months of most 
exacting labor. In addition to all this, both gave most liber- 
ally in money. How much was accomplished by Mrs. Sar- 
gent's quiet influence, her wise and judicial advice, her many 
logical and dignified appeals in person and by letter, never can 
be estimated. 

The State board and committees were composed of women 
of fine character and social standing, who commanded the 
highest respect ; and during the long campaign they put aside 
every other duty and pleasure and devoted themselves, mind 
and body, to the success of the amendment. Across the bay 
in Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley were a large and active 
county society, Mrs. Isabfel A. Baldwin, president, and city 
organizations of women of equal ability and prestige, who 
were in daily communication with State headquarters and per- 
formed the most valuable and conscientious work. What was 
true here was equally so of the women in all the counties from 
San Diego to Del Norte. It seems invidious to mention a 
single name where so many gave such excellent service. It 
must be admitted, however, that while hundreds of women 
worked for their political freedom, thousands contributed abso- 
lutely nothing in either money or .service ; and yet there were 
many among them who believed fully in the principle of 
Ant.— 65 



866 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

woman suffrage. They simply allowed domestic duties or the 
demands of society or apathetic indifference to prevent their 
rendering any assistance, and they could not be prevailed 
upon even to give money to help those who performed the 
labor. If all such had lent their influence, the women of 
California today would be enfranchised ; but they left the 
whole burden to be carried by the few, and these could not do 
the work necessary for success, because human nature has its 
limits. 

The attitude of the press of California deserves especial 
mention because to it was largely due the marked considera- 
tion which the suffrage amendment received throughout the 
State. Miss Anthony met in California an acquaintance, Mrs. 
Ida H. Harper, recently of the editorial staff of the Indian- 
apolis News, and requested her to act as chairman of the press 
committee. As the press of San Francisco could kill the 
amendment at the very start, if it chose to do so, they decided 
to call upon the editors of the daily papers in that city and 
ascertain their position. They visited the managing editors of 
the Call, Examiner, Chronicle, Post, Report and Bulletin and, 
without a single exception, were received with the greatest 
courtesy and assured that the amendment and the ladies who 
were advocating it would be treated with respect, that there 
would be no ridiculing, no cartooning and no attempt to create 
a sentiment in opposition. 

The Post came out editorially in 'favor of the amendment 
and established a half-page department, headed ''The New 
Citizen," which was continued daily during the campaign, the 
largest amount of space ever given by any paper to woman 
suffrage. Dr. Elizabeth Sargent assumed most of the respon- 
sibility for this department, assisted by members of the staff. 
The Report gave editorial endorsement and a double-column 
department entitled ** The Woman Citizen," edited every Satur- 
day by Winnifred Harper. The Bulletin expressed itself as 
friendly and later in the campaign opened a suffrage depart- 
ment conducted by Eliza D. Keith; but the paper contained 
editorials from time to time, which the friends did not construe 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 867 

as favorable to the measure. The managing editor gave the 
ladies to understand that there would be no opposition from 
the Chronicle, and during the campaign it contained several 
strong editorials, not advocating the amendment, but decidedly 
favorable to woman suffrage. This paper also gave a promi- 
nent place to a number of articles from Mrs. Harper and 
[others. Two days before election, however, it advised its 
(readers to vote against the amendment. 

The Examiner was friendly and offered a column on the 
editorial page of the Sunday edition, throughout the campaign, 
if Miss Anthony would fill it. She protested that she was not 
a writer, but it was only upon this condition that the space 
would be given. It was too valuable to be sacrificed and so 
she accepted it, and for seven months furnished Sunday articles 
of 1,600 words. These were widely copied, not only through- 
out the State, but in all parts of the country. Every possible 
influence was exerted to persuade William R. Hearst, the pro- 
prietor, who was residing in New York, to bring out the paper 
editorially in favor of the amendment. Miss Anthony wrote 
an earnest personal letter which closed: ''So, I pray you for 
the love of justice, for the love of your noble mother, and for 
the sake of California — lead the way for the Democratic party 
of your State to advocate the suffrage amendment. The Ex- 
aminer has done splendidly thus far in publishing fair and 
full reports of our meetings and articles from our leading 
suffrage women. The one and only thing we do ask is that it 
will editorially champion the amendment as it will every other 
measure it believes in which is to be voted upon next Novem- 
ber." All pleadings were in vain and the great paper re- 
mained silent. It did not, however, contain a line in oppo- 
sition. 

During Miss Anthony's visit to San Francisco the previous 
year, the Monitor, the o£Bicial Catholic organ of California, 
had come out in two editions with full-page editorials in favor 
of woman suffrage, as strong as anything ever written on that 
subject. When the two ladies called on the editor, he assured 
them of his full sympathy and agreed to accept a series of 



868 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

articles from the chairman of the press committee. These 
were published regularly for a time and then suddenly were 
refused, and every effort to ascertain the reason was unsuccess- 
ful. Miss Anthony called on him several times and waited for 
half an hour in his anteroom, but he declined to see her and, 
during the remainder of the campaign, the amendment re- 
ceived no recognition from the Monitor. 

The response from the other papers of the State was most 
remarkable. The Populist press, without exception, was for 
woman suffrage. Every newspaper in Oakland, Alameda and 
Berkeley spoke in favor of the amendment. The majority of 
those in Los Angeles and San Diego counties endorsed it. All 
but one in San Jose, and all but one in Sacramento, did like- 
wise. Before the campaign closed, 250 newspapers declared 
I editorially for the suffrage amendment. Only two of promi- 
nence in the entire State came out boldly in opposition, the 
•Record-Union, of Sacramento, and the Times of Los Angeles. 
The former ceased its opposition some time before election; 
the latter continued to the end, ridiculing, misrepresenting, 
denouncing, and even going to the extent of grossly caricatur- 
ing Miss Anthony. 

The Star, the Voice of Labor and other prominent journals 
published in the interests of the wage-earning classes ; those 
conducted by the colored people ; the Spanish, French and 
Italian papers ; the leading Jewish papers ; the temperance, 
the A. P. A. and the Socialist organs ; and many published 
for individual enterprises, agriculture, insurance, etc., spoke 
strongly for the amendment. The firm which supplied plate 
matter to hundreds of the smaller papers accepted a short 
article every week. There were very few newspapers in the 
State which did not grant space for woman suffrage depart- 
ments, and these were ably edited by the women of the differ- 
ent localities. Matter on this question was furnished to the 
chairman of the press committee by the San Francisco Clipping 
Bureau, and these clippings were carefully tabulated and 
filed. At the close of the eight months' campaign they num- 
bered 9,000, taken from the press of California alone. Twenty- 



c 

I 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 869 

seven papers came out in opposition ; these included a number 
of San Francisco weeklies of a sensational character and a few 
published in small towns. 

It must be remembered, in this connection, that the woman 
suffrage organization had not a dollar to pay for newspaper in- 
fluence, had no advertising to bestow, and that even the 
notices for meetings were gratuitous. All this advocacy on the 
part of the papers was purely a free-will offering and repre- 
sented the honest and courageous sentiments of the editors. 
It is deemed especially worthy of notice because there was 
never anything like it in previous suffrage campaigns. Toward 
the end, when the influence of the opposition began to do its 
fatal work, these papers were closely watched and in not one 
^^ijMtance was there a defection. 

Notwithstanding this splendid support of the press. Miss 
Anthony was firm in her decision that she would not remain 
through the campaign unless the amendment could secure the 
endorsement of the political parties, and every energy was di- 
rected toward this point. Several of the Republican county 
conventions declared for it, and a number of Republican 
leaders who were visited, announced themselves in favor of 
the plank. The State Convention was to be held May 5. On 
May 3, the Sunday edition of the San Francisco Call, the 
largest and most influential Republican paper in the State, 
came out with flaming headlines declaring boldly and unequivo- 
cally for woman suffrage I The sensation created was tre- 
mendous, and amendment stock went up above par. The 
Monday and Tuesday editions continued the editorial endorse- 
ment, declaring that the Republican party stood committed to 
woman suffrage, and that the Call constituted itself the cham- 
pion and would carry it to victory. 

r Tuesday morning the Republican convention opened at Sacra- 
Imento. The woman suffrage delegation, consisting of Mrs. 
oargent, Mrs. John F. Swift, Mrs. Blinn, Mrs. Austin Sperry, 
Mrs. Knox Goodrich, Miss Anthony, Rev. Anna Shaw, Miss 
Hay, Miss Yates, Mrs. Harper, opened their headquarters at 
the Golden Eagle Hotel, decorated their parlor with flowers, 



870 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

spread out their literature and badges and waited for the dele- 
gates. They had not long to wait. With the influence of the 
Sunday Call, a copy of which had been laid on the seat of 
every delegate in the convention hall, they had a prestige 
which found favor in the eyes of the politicians. The visitors 
came early and stayed late ; they went away and returned 
bringing their friends to be converted. The Call account said : 
''They went in twos and threes, in large groups and in entire 
delegations, to pay homage to their more modest workers and 
apparently to beg the privilege of serving them." The rooms 
were crowded until after midnight. 

The delegates put on the badges, and when the convention 
opened 250 of them were wearing the little flag with its three 
stars. The ladies were given the best seats in the great build- 
ing. The delegates were divided into two hostile camps, rep- 
resenting opposite wings of the party, and the women had to 
move very carefully, as it was by no means certain which fac- 
tion would secure control of the convention. They also had 
to frame many non-committal answers to the question, **How 
do you stand on the A. P. A.?" The headquarters were 
thronged with reporters ; every woman was interviewed at length 
and her opinions telegraphed to the great San Francisco dailies. 
Miss Anthony's interviews occupied a column in the Ex- 
aminer, each day of the convention. Those alarmists who 
fear women will lose the respect of men when they are invested 
with political influence should have had this object lesson. 

/ The chairman of the convention was considered not favora- 
ble to woman suffrage. Of the seven men appointed on the 

. resolution committee, flve were said to be opposed to the plank. 
The spirits of the ladies began to droop. In the evening per- 
mission was given them to address the platform committee. 
Mrs. Harper wrote the San Francisco Call : 

I wish I ooald pictare tbat scene. In the small room, seated around the 
table, were the seven men who held the fate of this question in their hands. 
At one end stood Miss Anthony, the light from above shining upon her silver 
hair until it seemed like a halo, and she spoke as no one ever heard her speak 
before. On the face of every delegate was an expression of the deepest 
seriousness, and before she had finished tears were in the eyes of more tiian 



f 

\ 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 871 

one. 8he was followed by Miss Shaw, who stood there the embodiment of 
all that is pare, sweet and womanly, and in a low, clear voice presented the 
subject as no one else could have done. As we were about to leave the room, 
the chairman said, " Ladies, we will take the vote now, if yon desire." We 
thanked him, but said no, we would withdraw and leave them to consider the 
matter at their leisure. 

Within a very few minutes we had their decision— six in favor of the reso- 
lution and one opposed. Here I want to call attention to one thing. Eight 
women knew of the favorable action of the committee by 9 o'clock, but al- 
though we were besieged by reporters and delegates until nearly midnight 
we gave no sign, and the Wednesday morning papers could only say that it 
was probable there would be a woman suffrage plank. It is charged that 
women can not keep a secret, but this is one of those many ancient myths 
which take a long time to die. 

/The plank was adopted next day in the big convention with 
ronly one dissenting voice. The Woman 's Congress was in session 
at San Francisco and when Mrs. Cooper, its president, stepped 
forward on the platform and read the telegram announcing the 
result, the enthusiasm hardly can be described. The ladies 
went down from Sacramento to the Congress the next day and 
received a continuous ovation throughout the rest of the meet- 
ings. 

Among the pleasant letters which came to Miss Anthony was 
one from Abigail Scott Duniway, of Portland, Ore., in which 
she said: ''Your triumphs in California are marvellous. 
Hurrah, and again, hurrah! I believe now the women of the 
Golden State will win. All honor to you and your noble con- 
freres I " And one from Lucy Underwood McCann, of Santa 
Cruz, saying: ''It is to you, most honored and revered of 
women, we owe the fact, because of your long martyrdom in 
this great reform, that we stand now, as we hope and pray, 
upon the brink of realization of our rights. This has been 
made possible only through the patient toil of such heroic 
souls as your own. Your wisdom in planning this campaign, 
in which we confidently expect a glorious victory, is our main: 
stay, upon which all other hopes depend." 

Miss Anthony's happiness over the action of the Republi- 
cans knew no bounds, and she began with renewed courage to 
'prepare for the Populist convention May 12. The prominent 



872 



LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 



Populists who were visited assured the ladies that they need 
not waste time or money going to Sacramento to secure a plank 
in their platform, as woman suffrage was one of the funda- 
mental principles of their party. The suffrage leaders felt, 
however, that this convention was entitled to the same courtesy 
as the others and they attended in a body, headed by Miss 
Anthony and Mrs. Sargent, When they entered the conven- 
tion hall they were received with cheers and waving of hats, 
escorted to the front seats, invited to address the convention 
and surrounded by delegates during the recess. Without any 
solicitation the resolution committee reported and the conven- 
tion adopted a strong woman suffrage plank, and then gave 
three cheers for the ladies. They were told that not half a 
dozen men in that body were opposed to the amendment. 

From here they went to the Prohibition convention at Stock- 
ton, were met at the station by a delegation of ladies, and 
received with distinguished consideration by the convention. 
Miss Anthony was twice invited to address them, and the 
plank endorsing the amendment was adopted by a hearty and 
unanimous vote. .A reception was then held at the hotel and 
over a hundred ladies called. 

One convention yet remained, the Democratic. While a few 
of the leaders of this party were in favor of the amendment, 
most of them were opposed and gave no encouragement to the 
attempt to secure a plank. The ladies, however, carried out 
the program, and the same large delegation returned to Sacra- 
mento June 16, the number increased by Mrs. Cooper, Mrs. 
E. 0. Smith, of San Jose, Mrs. Alice M. Stocker, of Pleasan- 
ton, and several others. A month had intervened and the 
opposition had had time to organize. Some of the county 
conventions had declared against the amendment and many of 
the delegates had been instructed to vote against it. 

The suffrage representatives were disappointed in the hope 
that they might come to this convention with the editorial en- 
dorsement of the Examiner, but they were greatly pleased to 
receive from that paper, on the morning of the opening, a 
package of 2,000 woman suffrage leaflets. The Examiner had 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 873 

collected at its own expense a large amount of fresh and valu- 
able testimony from the leading editors and officials of Colorado 
and Wyoming, as to its satisfactory practical working in those 
States, and had arranged it in large type on heavy cream-tinted 
paper, making the handsomest leaflet of the kind ever issued. 
These were placed in the hands of the delegates, and also dis- 
tributed throughout the State. 

The women's headquarters at the Golden Eagle were prac- 
tically unvisited. A few lone delegates, and two or three dele- 
gations that had been instructed to vote for the amendment, 
strayed up to express their sympathy, but most of them were 
too well subjugated by the political bosses even to pay a visit 
of courtesy, A new element was introduced here in the per- 
son of a woman of somewhat unpleasant record who claimed 
to be the representative of the anti-suffrage organization. The 
platform committee consisted of thirty-five and met in a large 
room filled with spectators. The ladies presented a petition 
signed by 40,000 California men and women asking for woman 
suffrage. The entire delegation of speakers, with Miss An- 
thony and Miss Shaw at the head, was granted twenty minutes 
to present its claims, and the one woman above referred to was 
given the same amount of time. She did not occupy more 
than a minute of it, simply saying that her anti-suffrage league 
was going to organize all over the State and work for the Demo- 
cratic party. The resolution was laid on the table, almost be- 
fore they were out of the room. 

A minority report was prepared by Charles Wesley Reed, of 
San Francisco, and signed by himself, Mr. Alford, chairman 
of the committee, and two others. In a letter to the Call, Mrs. 
Harper thus describes subsequent events: 

Mr. Reed assared the ladies that he would bring this report before the con- 
vention and he kept his word, although he had other fights on hand and 
endangered them by standing for woman suffrage. This minority report, 
although properly drawn and signed by four members of the platform com- 
mittee, including the chairman, was ''smothered" by the secretary of the 
convention and its chairman, Mr. Frank Gould. Every other minority re- 
port was read and acted upon by the convention; that alone on woman 
suffrage was held back. In vain Mr. Reed protested; the chairman ignored 



874 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

him and called for a vote on the platform as a whole. It was adopted with a 
roar, and oar fight was lost! It was near midnight. We had sat two long 
hot days in the convention, had slept but little, were worn oat and very, very 
wrathy. At this janctare John P. Irish addressed the convention, stating 
that a distingaished lady was present, etc., and woald they hear Miss Sosan 
B. Anthony? Thinking it was too late for her to do any harm, she was re- 
ceived with load applaase. 

It was impossible to say what the convention expected, bat they got a re- 
bake for allowing sach action on the part of their chairman and for treating 
the women of the State in this anjast and andemocratic manner, which 
caased a hash to fall apon the whole body. It was a dramatic and impressive 
scene, one not to be forgotten. At its conclasion there were load cries for 
Anna Shaw. The little fighter was at the boiling point, bat she stepped upon 
the platform with a smile, and with that sarcasm of which she is complete 
master supplemented Miss Anthony's remarks. As she stepped down, half 
the convention were on their feet demanding the minority report. The chair- 
man stated that it was too late for that, bat a resolution might be offered. 
The original resolution was at once presented, and then there was an attempt to 
take a viva-voce vote, but our friends demanded a roll-call. It resulted in 
149 ayes and 420 noes. Mr. Gould's own coanty voted almost solidly in favor. 
Alameda coanty, led by W. W. Foote, gave 32 noes and 3 ayes, yet this 
coanty sent in the largest petition for woman suffrage of any in the State. 

/ To secure more than a one-fourth vote of a convention which 
pad been determined not to allow the question even to come 
(before it, was not a total defeat.^ 

VThe battle was now fairly begun and it grew hotter with 
Ivery passing week for the next five months. A few days 
after the last convention the women held a mass meeting in 
Metropolitan Temple to ratify the planks. The great hall was 
crowded to the doors and hundreds stood during all the long 
exercises. As the ladies who had been to the conventions 
came upon the stage, the building fairly rang with applause. 
/The Republican, Populist, Prohibition, Democratic and So- 
I cialist- Labor parties were represented by prominent men who 
made strong suffrage speeches. Congressman James G. 
Maguire spoke for those individual Democrats who believed 

> About 1 o'clock in the morniDg, after this eventful night, the ladies were awakened by 

/ load laughter and women's voices. They arose and went to the window and there in the 

/ brilliantly lighted street in front of the hotel were two carriages containing several gaily 

/ dressed women. A number of the convention delegates came out and crowded around them, 

/ three or four climbed into the carriages, wine bottles were passed and finally, with much 

talk and laughter, they drove oflF down the street, the men with their arms about the women's 

waists. The ladies returned to their slumbers thoroughly convinced that they had not used 

the correct methods for capturing the delegates of a Democratic convention. 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 875 

in woman suffrage, among whom he was always a staunch ad- 
vocate. Miss Anthony was cheered to the echo and it seemed 
as if the audience could not get enough of her bright, pithy 
remarks, as she introduced the different speakers. 

The suffrage advocates, elated with their victory in three con- 
ventions, opened headquarters in the large new Parrott build- 
ing and swung their banner across the street.^ Five rooms 
were filled with busy workers directed by Mary G. Hay, chair- 
man of the State central committee, while the other members 
took turns in receiving the reporters, the people on business 
and the throngs of visitors from all parts of the State. To 
follow this campaign in detail, to name all of those most promi- 
nently connected with it, would be obviously impracticable. 
It would be utterly impossible to mention individually the 
hundreds of women who thoroughly canvassed their own pre- 
cincts and deserve a full share of the credit for the large vote 
cast. A number of competent California women took up the or- 
ganization of the different counties. Every woman in the State 
who could address an audience found her place and work. Mrs. 
Alice Moore McComas and Rev. Mila Tupper Maynard headed 
the list of Southern California speakers. Miss Sarah M. Sever- 
ance spoke under the auspices of the W. C. T. U. Mrs. Naomi 
Anderson represented the colored women. Rev. Anna Shaw 
spoke every night during the campaign, except the one month 
when she returned East to fill engagements. She paid the 
salary of her secretary and donated her services to the head- 
quarters for five months* Miss Elizabeth Upham Yates, of 
Maine, made about one hundred speeches. The last two 
months Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, national organizer, gave 
several addresses each day. There were very few men who 
worked as hard during that campaign as did scores of the 
women, each according to her ability. 

^ The use of these rooms was donated by the manager of the Emporium, the large depart- 
ment store in the building. All through the summer and autumn a number of most capable 
young women, who were employed as stenographers, teachers, etc., gave every waking 
moment outside business hours to the work at headquarters, carrying home with them great 
packages of leaflets and circulars to be folded and addressed, looking after their own pre- 
cincts, and rendering services which could not have been paid for in money. Although all 
were breadwinners they labored from love of the cause and without a thought of thanks or 
remuneration. 



876 LIFE AND WOBK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

No description could give an adequate idea of the amount of 
^ labor performed by Miss Anthony during those eight months. 
There was scarcely a day, including Sundays, that she did not 
make from one to three speeches, often having a long journey 
between them. She addressed great political rallies of thou- 
sands of people ; church conventions of every denomination ; 
Spiritualist and Freethinkers' gatherings ; Salvation Army 
meetings; African societies; Socialists; all kinds of labor 
organizations ; granges ; Army and Navy Leagues ; Soldiers' 
Homes and military encampments ; women's clubs and men's 
clubs ; Y. M. 0. A.'s and W. C. T. U.'s. She spoke at farm- 
ers' picnics on the mountaintops, and Bethel Missions in the 
cellars of San Francisco ; at parlor meetings in the most ele- 
gant homes ; and in pool-rooms where there was printed on the 
blackboard, *' Welcome to Susan B. Anthony." 

She was in constant demand for social functions, where her 
presence gave an opportunity for a discussion of the all-absorb- 
ing question. One of the handsomest of these was a breakfast of 
two hundred covers, given by the Century Club in the '* maple 
room" of the Palace Hotel, where were gathered the leading 
women of San Francisco and other cities in the State. Miss 
Anthony sat at the right hand of the president and responded 
to the toast, "Those who break bread with us." The club 
privileges were extended to her and, at the close of the cam- 
paign, she was made an honorary member. This club was 
composed largely of conservative women, but its president, 
Mrs. Mary Wood Swift, was one of the most prominent of the 
suffrage advocates. She addressed the Woman's Press Asso- 
ciation, the Laurel Hall Club, the Forum, Sorosis, Association 
of Collegiate Alumnse and most of the other women's organiza- 
tions of San Francisco. An invitation to luncheon was re- 
ceived from Mrs. Stanford signed, "Your sincere friend and 
believer in woman suffrage," and a very pleasant day was 
spent in her lovely home at Menlo Park. 

A breakfast was given in her honor by the Ebell Club of 
Oakland, Mrs. G. W. Bunnell, president. She rode in a 
beautifully decorated carriage at the great Fabiola FSte, or 



c 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 877 

floral festival, held annually in this city. Many social courte- 
sies were extended in the towns around the bay, among them 
being dinner parties by Senator and Mrs. Fred Stratton, Mr. 
and Mrs. A. A. Moore, Mrs. Henry Vrooman, Mr. and Mrs. 
F. M. Smith, Mrs. Emma Shafter Howard, Mr. and Mrs. F. 
C. Havens, Mrs. Alice H. Wellman, of Oakland ; Judge and 
Mrs. J. A. Waymire, of Alameda ; Mr. and Mrs. William A. 
Keith, of Berkeley. All this would have been very enjoyable 
but for the fact that most of these occasions included a speech, 
and she was usually obliged to come from just having spoken, 
or to rush away to keep another engagement. One unique ex- 
perience was a complimentary trip tendered, through Mrs. 
Lovell White, by the proprietors of the new Mill Valley and 
Mount Tamalpais Scenic Railway, to Miss Anthony and a 
large number of guests. From the top of this high peak, 
which overlooks the Golden Gate, they enjoyed a view that for 
beauty and grandeur is not surpassed in the world. 

Miss Anthony visited also various towns throughout the 
central part of the State and along the coast, speaking in wig- 
wams, halls, churches, schoolhouses and the open air, taking 
trains at all hours, travelling through heat and dust, wind and 
cold ; and there was never a word of complaint during all the 
long campaign. She was always ready to go, always on time, 
always full of cheer and hope. 

The first week in June she went to Portland to attend the 
Woman's Congress, Abigail Scott Duniway, president. Its 
officers were among the prominent women of the city, and she 
was royally received. She spoke a number of times during 
the nine sessions and was handsomely treated by the press. 
Sarah B. Cooper joined her here, on her way home from the 
National Federation of Clubs at Louisville, Ky. A number of 
receptions were given in their honor, among them one by the 
Woman's Club. There was an elaborate luncheon at* 'the 
Curtis ; " and a reception was tendered by the managers of 
the Woman's Union. No effort was spared to make their visit 
in every way delightful. Miss Anthony lectured in the opera 
house at Seattle under the auspices of the Woman's Century 



/ 



878 LIFB AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHOMT. 

Club, and a reception was given by her hostess, Mrs. Kate 
Turner Holmes. Many inducements were offered for her to 
extend the visit, but she was desirous of returning to the field 
of work in California at the earliest possible moment and was 
I absent only nine days. 

Miss Anthony was invited by both Republican and Popalist 
managers to address their ratification meetings in San Fran- 
; Cisco, and received an ovation from the great audiences repre- 
{ senting the two parties. One wing of the Democrats held 
their ratification meeting after night in the open air and of 
course she was not invited to speak, but the other wing ex- 
tended a cordial invitation and she addressed them in Metro- 
politan Temple, receiving an enthusiastic greeting. The 
suffrage women themselves held a second mass meeting Sep- 
tember 10, according to the Call, '' amid a mighty outburst of 
popular enthusiasm, the like of which has seldom if ever been 
.seen at a political meeting held in this city." Here again the 
part taken by prominent men from all political parties demon- 
strated the non-partisan character of the woman's campaign. 
This was Mrs. Catt's first appearance before a California 
audience and the papers said : ''As she and the other ladies 
delivered their clear-cut, logical speeches, cheers rent the air 
and handkerchiefs and hats were waved with overmastering 
enthusiasm." 

And so the months went by, with their cares and pleasures, 

their hopes and fears, their elation and depression. In her 

letters to her sister, Miss Anthony wrote : '' Sometimes I have 

a homesick hour and feel as if I must leave all and rush back 

to my own hearthstone, but then I pull myself together and 

resolve to go through to the end." A similar campaign was 

/ in progress in Idaho and Mrs. Catt was there in August at the 

j request of that State board, to represent the national associa- 

* tion. They were very anxious that Miss Anthony should come 

also, but to their many letters she replied : 

I sboald love dearly to go to Boise at once, as yoa reqaeet, and I shoald 
have been in Idaho daring the last two months had it been possible for one 
human being to be in two places at the same time. ... I learn that the 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIQN. 879 

men who believe in sufiraKe in yoar State, object to an open demand for party 
endorsement, bat prefer a '* still hunt." I have seen this tried before, but 
oar opponents always can make a stiller hunt. Our only hope of success 
lies in open, free and full discussions through the newspapers and political 
party speakers. . . . Won't it be a magnificent feather in our cap if we 
get both California and Idaho into the fold this year 7 How beautiful the 
blue field will look with two more stars— five little gold stars I Remember 
that the woman suffrage stars are gold, not silver. Not that I think gold is 
better than silver, but it is a different color from the forty-five on the regular 
flag.* 

There were, of course, some misrepresentations, both inten- 
tional and unintentional, of Miss Anthony's attitude. The 
fact of her speaking on the platforms of all political parties 
was something which many people could not comprehend , and 
the party organs could not refrain from twisting her remarks 
a little bit in the direction of their doctrines ; then would 
come a storm of protests from the other side, and she would 
have to explain what she actually said. Thus, with the re- 
porters constantly at her elbow, the public watching every ut- 
terance and the politicians on the alert to discover what party 
she and her fellow-workers really did favor, she lived indeed 
for many months in ''the fierce light that beats upon a 
throne/' 

"0, that I had you by my side ; what a team we would 
make I " she often wrote to Mrs. Stanton, who answered : ''I 
read all the papers you send and watch closely the progress of 
the campaign. I feel at times as if I should fly to your help. 
We are the only class in history that has been left to fight its 
battles alone, unaided by the ruling powers. White labor and 
the freed black men had their champions, but where are 
ours?" 

In June the National Republican Convention was held at St. 
Louis. Miss Anthony could not make the long journey but 
sh0 sent the following resolution and asked its adoption : *' The 
Republican Party in national convention assembled hereby 
^recommends that Congress shall submit an amendment to the 

* In Idaho all politioal State oonTontions, Repnblioan, Populist and Democratic, endorsed 
the amendment, it reoeiyed a majority of the popular vote, and the women now have full 
suffrage. 



880 LIFB AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Federal Constitution providing that the right of citizens of the 
United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the 
United States, or by any State, on account of sex/' 

The platform committee labored and this is what it brought 
forth: "The Republican party is mindful of the rights 
and interests of women. Protection of American industries 
includes equal opportunities, equal pay for equal work, and 
protection to the home. We favor the admission of women to 
wider spheres of usefulness, and welcome their co-operation in 
'rescuing the country from Democratic mismanagement and 
Populist misrule." 

Miss Anthony's indignation, anger and contempt when she 
read this resolution can not be put into words. It required the 
combined efforts of those who were nearest her to prevent the 
expression of her opinion in reply to the many reporters and 
letters wanting to know how she regarded this plank. " You 
must not offend the Republicans and injure our amendment," 
they argued, and she would acquiesce and subside. Then, 
after thinking it over, she would again burst forth and declare 
the women of the country should not be compelled to submit 
to this insult without a protest from her. '* Women want the 
suffrage as a sword to smite down Democratic and Populist 
misrule. Infamous ! " she exclaimed again and again. " That 
climaxes all the outrages ever offered to women in the history 
of political platforms." To Mrs. Stanton she wrote : "0, that 
you were young and strong and free, and could fire off of the 
planet such ineffable slush as is being slobbered over our 
cause I " But she held her peace, and all the brainy women 
who were conducting this great campaign kept silent, although 
there was not one of them who did not feel exactly like Miss 
Anthony in regard to this plank. Nor was there a woman 
in the country, who was able to comprehend the resolution, 
that did not regard it as an insult and feel that she would 
prefer never again to have women mentioned in a national 
platform if the men who should make it had no higher concep- 
tion of justice than this. 

On October 11, Miss Anthony started on a southern tour. 



J 

/ 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 881 

speaking first at San Luis Obispo to an audience which 
crowded the hall. From here to Santa Barbara, through the 
courtesy of Superintendent Johnson, of the narrow gauge rail- 
road, the train was stopped at every station for a ten-minute 
address. At some places a stage had been extemporized, at 
others she spoke from the rear platform of the car. Her com- 
ing had been announced and, even in those rather thinly set- 
tled regions, there would be as many as a thousand people 
gathered at Ihe station. When she concluded, quantities of 
flowers would be thrown in her pathway and the platform 
literally banked with them.^ After a stage ride of forty miles 
she received an enthusiastic welcome at Santa Barbara, where 
she was the guest of Dr. Ida Stambach. The ovation was con- 
tinued at all the towns visited in the southern part of the 
State. 

A little flurry had been caused early in the campaign by the 
announcement that the National W. C. T. U. Convention would 
\ be held in San Francisco during the autumn of 1896. Miss 
Anthony had written Miss Willard that she thought this would 
be very injudicious. She then had agreed to postpone it until 
after Uie election, and Miss Anthony again had objected, say- 
ing: 

I am glad yoa think it will be possible to postpone your convention to 
November; bat, yoa see, even to do that all California will be full of yoar 
advertisements, and the papers all telling how the W. G. T. U. is going to 
bring its convention to San Francisco immediately after the women have the 
right to vote, so as to edacate them to destroy the wine-growing and brandy- 
distilling basiness ; in other words, that it is going to start in the first thing 
to rain what today is the one means of livelihood for immense nambers of 
ranchmen throaghoat the State. So, I hope — nay, I beseech — ^that yon will 
withdraw the convention altogether from California for this year. I have 
had letters from the amendment campaign committee, and every one of them 
deplores the coming of the convention. . . . 

Now, my dear, hold yoar convention any place bat in a State where we are 
trying to persaade every license man, every wine-grower, every drinker and 

> To commemonite this jonmey Miss Selina Solomons, of San Franeisoo, wrote a tender 

poem, beginning: 

" She walks on loees I she whose feet 

HaTe trod so long the stony way, 

They tread who lead mankind to greet 

The coming of a brighter day." 

Amt.— 66 



882 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

every one who does not believe in prohibition, as well as every one who does, 
to vote '' yes " on the woman safErage question. If yoa only will do this, I am 
sure yoa will do the most effective work in the power of any mortal to secure 
the end we all so much desire. 

Miss Willard replied in a cordial letter that she had not the 
slightest wish to antagonize her or the suffrage movement and 
would use her influence to have the place of the convention 
changed. To Mrs. B. Sturtevant Peet, president of the Cali- 
fornia W. C. T. U., who was somewhat in doubt as to the 
necessity for such change. Miss Anthony wrote : 

What yoa say of the good inflaence of year national convention in San 
Francisco is true so far as concerns the actaal Prohibition men ; bat we mast 
consider those who are making their daily bread out of the manufacture as 
well as the sale of liquors. There are many excellent men in California who 
are not total abstainers, but who believe in wine as the people of Italy and 
France believe in it ; and I think that, in waging our campaign, we should be 
careful not to run against the prejudices or the pecuniary interests of that 
class. As I have said before, if it were a Prohibition amendment which was 
pending I should think it exceedingly unwise to run that campaign under the 
banner of woman suffrage. The average human mind is incapable of taking 
in more than one idea at a time. The one we want to get into the heads of 
the voters this year is woman's enfranchisement, and we must pull every 
string with every possible individual man and class of men to secure their 
votes for this amendment. We should be extremely careful to base all oar 
arguments upon the right of every individual to have his or her opinion 
counted at the ballot-box, whether it is in accordance with ours or not. 
Therefore, the amendment must not be urged as a measure for temperance, 
social purity, or any other reform, but simply as a measure to give to women 
the right to vote yea or nay on each and all of them. I want every woman 
in California to work for the amendment, but I want her to work in the name 
of suffrage, not of prohibition. 

, The national convention was withdrawn entirely from Cali- 
fornia, and the W. C. T. U. women, in most places, worked 
under the one banner of the suffrage amendment during the 
campaign. In proof that there was no feeling on the part of 
the leaders against Miss Anthony, it may be stated that she re- 
ceived official invitations to be present at the birthday celebra- 
tion of Mrs. Peet, in April ; to address the State W. C. T. U. 
Convention at Petaluma, in October ; to attend the National 
Convention at St. Louis in November ; and to join in the fare- 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 883 

well reception to Miss Willard in New York on the eve of her 
departure for Europe. 

The managers of the woman's campaign supposed of course 
that the endorsement hy the Populist and Republican State Con- 
ventions meant not only that the speakers of those parties 
would advocate the suffrage plank just as they did the others 
in their respective platforms, but that they also would permit 
the women themselves to speak for it in their political meet- 
ings. When they applied to Mr. Wardall and the other members 
of the Populist Central Committee, the schedule was promptly 
furnished and they were assured that their speakers would be 
welcomed. When they applied to the Republican Central 
Committee, to their amazement, they were put off with an 
evasive answer. Meanwhile they had Miss Anthony, Miss 
Shaw, Mrs. Catt and other speakers waiting for engagements 
and did not dare make dates ahead lest it might interfere with 
the big Republican rallies which they wished them to address. 
Again and again they went to the Republican Central Commit- 
tee and asked for the schedule of their meetings and the priv- 
ilege of sending their speakers to them. Finally, after weeks 
of anxious waiting, the chairman. Major Frank McLaughlin, 
sent a letter to the suffrage headquarters saying in effect : '' The 
committee had decided not to grant this privilege ; in the lan- 
guage used at one time by Miss Anthony, it meant ' too many 
bonnets at their meetings,' and they wished to reach the 
; voters." 

/ He added that they were at liberty to make any arrange- 
/ments they chose with the county chairmen. This meant, of 
course, that they must ascertain the name and address of every 
county chairman in the State, watch the papers for the an- 
nouncements of meetings, hold their speakers in reserve, and 
beg the privilege of having them heard. All this, when the 
endorsement of the suffrage amendment was the first plank in 
the Republican platform unanimously adopted by the State 
convention ! There was nothing, however, except to make the 
best of it ; but when they attempted to arrange with the county 
chairmen, they found Major McLaughlin had written them 



\ 



884 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

I not to allow the women speakers on their platforms I While 
many of them refused to obey his orders, he had practically 
destroyed the best opportunity for reaching the people. 

The Republican State Convention had enthusiastically adopted 
a resolution declaring for '^ the free coinage of silver at a ratio 
of 16 to 1.'' When the National Convention met in St. Louis 
soon afterwards it adopted a gold standard plank, and there they 
i were I The Populists and Democrats who agreed on a financial 
plank saw here an opportunity and, in many counties, effected 
a fusion and held their meetings together. This, of course, 
nullified the permission given the women to put speakers on 
the Populist platform, since the Democrats, as a party, were 
opposed to woman suffrage, and there they were I If they 
attempted to hold simply suffrage meetings, they could get 
only audiences of women, because all the men were in attend- 
ance at the political rallies. So the only thing left was for the 
women in every city and town in the State, whenever a political 
mass meeting was advertised, to go to the managers and hum- 
bly beg to have one of their speakers on the platform: 

This was not often refused, and it was just as easy to get 
this permission from Democrats as from Republicans. The 
former felt that if the amendment should carry they would not 
object to a little of the credit, and they soon found also that 
the women were a drawing card. Whenever there was a purely 
Populist meeting, a conspicuous place and all the time desired 
were given to the women, but at Republican, Democratic or 
Fusion meetings, they always were placed at the end of the 
program and allowed only five or, at most, ten minutes. In 
order simply to get this little word, the women speakers would 
make long journeys and sit on the platform until every long- 
winded male orator had finished his speech, and until they 
were ready to drop from their chairs. But the audience waited 
for them, no matter how late, and never failed to receive them 
with the wildest enthusiasm. Many times when the managers 
would have been willing to sandwich them between other 
speakers, the latter would object, saying the people would go 
home as soon as the women had finished I 



THB CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 885 

y/^As the campaign wore on it became a fight for life with the 
/ political parties. The Call, which had come out so valiantly 
/ for woman suffrage, had been struck in a vital part, i. e., in 
> the counting-room, by the opponents of this measure, who 
I withdrew valuable advertising and in every possible way 
V sought to injure the paper. Its support was used by the other 
wing of the Republican party to create a prejudice against the 
candidates it advocated ; the principal stockholders were not 
friendly to the amendment ; as the organ of the Central Com- 
mittee it was deprived of independent action. So it was not 
surprising that, long before the close of the campaign, the great 
fight which the Call agreed to make had dwindled to an occa- 
sional skirmish when the pleading of the women grew too 
strong to be resisted. 

(Almost without exception the Republican orators were silent 
on the question of woman suffrage, even those who personally 
favored it. The women wrote them, interviewed them and 
begged them to advocate the first plank in their platform as 
they did all the rest, and occasionally when they would go in 
a body and sit on the front seats to watch the speaker, he 
would say a few mild words in favor of the amendment, but 
there were several of the Democrats who did as much. Some 
, of the Populists advocated it, but the most prominent, who 
always before had spoken for it, went through the entire cam- 
paign without so much as a mention, in order to secure 
Democratic support. When Thomas B. Reed came into the 
State, at the very end of the campaign, the women felt sure of 
an ally, as he had long been a pronounced advocate, but he 
did not so much as refer to the question in his tour of the 
State, although they bombarded him with letters which 
would have impressed a heart of stone. At the last grand 
rally in Oakland, the day before election, with Miss Anthony 
on one side of him and Miss Shaw on the other, he did say 
that he ''knew of no more reason why a woman should not 
vote than why a man should not '' — ^but the battle then was 
already lost. 
Up to within a few weeks of election, in spite of all the 



886 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

9 

'drawbacks, it looked as if the amendment would win. The 
/ general sentiment throughout the State seemed to be in favor. 
\ The mere mention of the subject at any meeting was received 
I with the greatest enthusiasm. Almost every delegate body 
which assembled in convention during that summer adopted a 
resolution of endorsement ; this was true of most of the church 
conferences, the teachers' institutes, the State Grange and 
farmers' institutes, the Chautauqua assemblies and countless 
others. And still the women watched and waited I There 
was one element more powerful than all these combined, which 
had not yet shown its hand. It never had failed in any State 
\ to fight woman suffrage to the death, and there was no reason 
\to believe it would not kill it in California. 
\ Ten days before election the fatal blow came. The rep- 
nesentatives of the Liquor Dealers' League met in San Fran- 
disco and resolved ^' to take such steps as were necessary to 
^rotect their interests." The political leaders, the candidates, 
^ the rank and file of the voters recognized the handwriting on 
the wall. From that moment the fate of the amendment was 
1 sealed. The women had determined, from the beginning of 
the campaign, that they would give the liquor business no ex- 
cuse to say its interests were threatened, and therefore the 
temperance question had been kept out of the discussion as 
had the religious, the tariff and the financial questions. They 
took the sensible view that it had no more place than these in 
the demand for women's right to vote as they pleased on all 
subjects. Therefore the action of the liquor dealers had no 
justification in anything which the women had said or done. 
It simply showed that they considered woman suffrage a 
dangerous foe. The following letter, signed by the wholesale 
liquor firms of San Francisco, was sent to the saloon-keepers, 
hotel proprietors, druggists and grocers throughout the State : 

At the election to be held on November 8, Constitational Amendment No. 
Six, which gives the right to vote to women, will be voted on. 

It is to your interest and oars to vote against this amendment. We request 
and urge yoa to vote and work against it and do all you can to defeat it. 

See yoar neighbor in the same line of business as yourself, and have him 
be with yoa in tiiis matter. 



r 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 887 

/ The men in the slums of San Francisco were taken in squads 
and, with sample ballots, were taught how to put the cross 
against the suffrage amendment and assured that if it carried 
there never would be another glass of beer sold in the city. 
When the chairman of the press committee went to a promi- 
nent editor, who was opposed to woman suffrage and knew 
that these things were being done, and asked if there were no 
way by which some suffrage literature could be given to those 
men so that they might see there was no ground for these 
threats, he said: ''Most of them can not read and if they 
could the whiskey men would never allow a page of it to get 
/into their hands." In what way the liquor dealers worked 
( upon the political parties, it is not necessary to speculate. The 
methods were not new and are pretty well understood. They 
control tens of thousands of votes not only in California but 
in every State, which they can deliver to either of the great 
parties that does their bidding and regards their interests. 
\ It is absurd, however, to attribute the defeat of the suffrage 
amendment wholly to the liquor dealers, or to the densely 
(ignorant, or to the foreigners. In the wealthiest and most 
aristocratic wards of San Francisco and Oakland, where there 
were none of these, the proportion of votes against the amend- 
^ ment was just as great as it was in the slum wards of the two 
cities. Those respectable, law-abiding citizens who cast their 
ballots against the amendment, thereby voted to continue the 
power of the above mentioned classes. 

For weeks before the election, the most frantic efforts were 
made by the politicians to register new voters and colonize 
them in the wards where they would be most needed.* Columns 
of appeals were issued in all the newspapers to get the vast 
numbers of lately arrived immigrants to come to the city hall 
and register. Men were sent around ringing big bells and 
calling upon them to do this, and interpreters were employed 
to explain that it would not cost them a cent. Finally the 

* Some of the women going the rounds with suffrage petitions in San Franoisoo found a 
house consisting of one room with three cots, where were registered twenty-seyen Toters. 



I 



888 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

registry books were carried to the parks and other places where 
these men were employed^ in order to secure their names. 

Meanwhile the intelligent, order-loving, sober and industri- 
ous women of the State were making such efforts as never were 
made by any class of men, to secure this same privilege of 
placing in the ballot-box and having counted their opinions on 
questions relating to the public welfare ;— opinions, one would 
think, that ought to be considered of as much value to the 
State as those which such strenuous attempts were being made 
to obtain. It seems, however, that intelligence, morality and 
thrift must wait the pleasure of ignorance, vice and idleness. 

During the months of the early spring, through the efforts 
of a few women who worked without pay and used only their 
spare moments, the names of nearly 30,000 women were 
secured to a petition asking for the suffrage. This, of course, 
represented only a fraction of those which might have been 
obtained by continued effort, but a petition signed by even 
30,000 men would have been considered worthy of attention. 
The vast majority of women have no money of their own and 
those who work for wages, as a rule, receive but a pittance, 
and yet there were raised in California for this amendment 
campaign almost $19,000, and the amount contributed by men 
was so small as not to be worth mentioning. The financial 
success was due very largely to the State treasurer, Mrs. Aus- 
tin Sperry. She not only made a donation of $500, but bor- 
rowed from the bank on her personal note, when necessary, 
and signed blank checks to be used when the treasury was 
empty and repaid when outstanding pledges were collected. 
Mrs. Phoebe Hearst headed the list with $1,000. Mrs. Stan- 
ford gave almost as much in railroad transportation to the 
speakers and organizers. The next largest contributor was 
Mrs. Knox Goodrich, of San Jose, who for nearly thirty years 
had stood in California a faithful advocate of woman suffrage, 
giving time, money and influence. She added to her past 
donations nearly $500 for this campaign. Mrs. Sargent's 
munificence has been mentioned. A few women subscribed 



^^«t<£c^,^W.<X y^-re^/ff^ — 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 



889 



$100 each, but all the rest was given in sums ranging down to 

a few cents. 
The true record of these contributions would wring the 

heart of every man in the State. A large photograph of Miss 

Anthony and Miss 
Shaw was given for 
every $2 pledge, and 
many poor seamstress- 
es and washerwomen 
fulfilled their pledges 
in twenty - five cent 
installments, coming 
eight times with their 
mite. Of ten when there 
was not enough money 
on hand at headquart- 
ers to buy a postage 
stamp, there would 
come a timid knock at 
the door and a poorly 
dressed woman would 
enter with a quarter or 
half-dollar, saying, ''I 
have done without fea 
this week to bring you 
this money ; " or a 
poor little clerk would 
say, ''I made a piece 
of fancy work evenings 
and sold it for this 
dollar." Many a wo- 
man who worked hard 
ten hours a day to earn 
her bread, would come 
to headquarters and 
carry home a great 
armload of circulars to 




890 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

fold and address after night. And there were teachers and 
stenographers and other workingwomen who went without a 
winter cloak in order to give the money to this movement for 
freedom. This pathetic story ought to be written in full and 
given to every man who eases his conscience by saying, ^'The 
majority of women do not want to vote ; " and to every well- 
i fed, well-clothed woman who declares in her selfish ease, ''I 
have all the rights I want. ' ' 

Knowing that if the suffrage amendment were placed first 
or last among the six which were to be voted on, it would 
' be a target for those who could not read, the ladies wrote to 
the Secretary of State asking that it be placed in the middle 
of the list. He answered, June 26: "It shall be as you re- 
I quest and the suffrage amendment be third in order as certi- 
I fied by me to the various county clerks.'' When the tickets 
were printed, however, it was placed at the end of the list and 
thus necessarily at the end of the whole ticket, making it a 
conspicuous mark. The explanation given was that Governor 
Budd had directed the amendments to be placed on the ballot 
in the same order as they had appeared in his proclamation. 
'As this had not been issued until July 20, a month after the 
official request of the ladies had been granted, one must con- 
clude there was a mistake somewhere. The results were ex- 
actly what had been feared. In San Francisco alone hundreds 
of ballots were cast on which there was only one cross and 
that against the amendment; not even the presidential electors 
voted for. 

There were 247,454 votes cast on the suffrage amendment; 
110,355 for; 137,099 against; defeated by 26,734. The ma- 
jority against in San Francisco was 23,772; in Alameda county, 
comprising Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley, 3,627; total, 27,- 
399 — 665 votes more than the whole majority cast against the 
amendment. Berkeley gave a majority in favor, so in reality 
it was defeated by the vote of San Francisco, Oakland and 
Alameda.^ Alameda is the banner Republican county and 
gave a good majority for the Republican ticket. There never 

* Loe Angeles gaie a majority of 3|000 in f aTor of the amendment. 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 891 

had been a hope of carrying San Francisco for the amend- 
menty but the result in Alameda county was a most unpleasant 
surprise, as the voters were principally Republicans and Popu- 
lists, both of whom were pledged in the strongest possible 
manner in their county conventions to support the amendment, 
and every newspaper in the county had declared in favor of it. 
The fact remains, however, that a change of 13,400 votes in 
the entire State would have carried the amendment; and proves 
beyond question that, if sufficient organization work had been 
done, this might have been accomplished in spite of the com- 
bined efforts of the liquor dealers and the political bosses. 

Near midnight of election day, a touching sight might have 
been witnessed on a certain street in San Francisco: two 
women over seventy years of age, one the beloved wife of a 
man whom California had selected as its representative in the 
United States Senate and whom the government had sent as 
its minister to the court of Germany ; the other a woman uni- 
versally admitted to be the peer of any man in the country in 
statesmanship and knowledge of public affairs — Mrs. A. A. 
Sargent and Susan B. Anthony. In the darkness of night, 
arm in arm, they went down the street, peering into the win- 
dows of the rough little booths where the judges and clerks of 
the election were counting votes. The rooms were black with 
tobacco smoke and in one they saw a man fall off his chair too 
drunk to finish the count. They listened to the oaths and 
jeers as the votes were announced against the suffrage amend- 
ment, to which they had given almost their lives. Then in 
the darkness they crept silently home, mournfully realizing 
that women must wait for another and better generation of 
men to give them the longed-for freedom. 

The next morning when Miss Anthony came down to break- 
fast she found a group in the Sargent library reading the news 
of the election, and all looked at her in sorrowing sympathy. 
She stood still in the center of the room for a moment and 
then said sadly : "I don't care for myself, I am used to de- 
feat, but these dear California women who have worked so 
hard, how can they bear it? " 



/ 



892 LIFE AND WOBK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Miss Anthony not only had donated her own services hut 
had paid her secretary's salary of $75 per month and permit- 
ted her to give her entire time to the State headquarters for 
seven months, while she herself attended to the drudgery of 
her immense correspondence whenever she could get a spare 
hour. Even at the small sum of $26 for a regular speech, she 
would have contributed over $3,000 to this campaign, in ad- 
dition to the scores of little parlor and club addresses. She 
gave her services freely and willingly and did not regret them, 
but often said that the California campaign was the most har- 
monious and satisfactory of any in which she ever was engaged. 
There was not the slightest friction between herself and the 
State association or State headquarters, and most of those 
prominent in the work were of such refinement and nobility 
of character that it was a pleasure to be associated with them. 
Not a day passed that she did not receive some token of affec- 
tion from the women of the State. The Sargent home was 
filled with the flowers and baskets and boxes of fresh and dried 
fruits, etc., which were sent to her.* 

On November 6, two days after the election, a large body of 
California women met in Golden Gate Hall to hold the annual 
State Suffrage Convention. Miss Anthony and all the national 
officers remained to help. There was not a trace of defeat or 
disappointment ; all were brave, cheerful and ready to go to 
work again. Twelve hundred dollars were raised to settle all 
outstanding bills and the campaign closed without a dollar of 
\ indebtedness. As Mrs. Sargent was going abroad, a worthy 
presidential successor was elected, Mrs. Mary Wood Swift, 
wife of John F. Swift, minister to Japan, a fine presiding 
officer, a lady of much culture, travel and social prestige, who 

* In her presideiit's report, at the next annual oonvention, Mrs. Sargent said : 
" Soaan B. Anthony I We can never forget her labor of love and devotion to the cause of 
woman soffrage in California. She counted not her life dear to her so that she could help 
to awaken the interest of men and women in the great principle to which she has devoted 
her Ufe. She was not cold, nor hungry, nor tired, nor sleepy, while there was a chance to 
pnah forward the worJc. Throoghont the campaign Miss Anthony gave her own services and 
those of her secretary withont money and without price. She reminds one of the great 
Niagara, which wonld be wonderful if its waters rolled and dashed for only a short period ; 
but when they roll and dash on ceaselessly, nor ever stop to rest, there the wonder of it all 
comes in, and we can only gaie, admire and acknowledge the great law or power behind it." 



THE CALIFORNIA CAMPAIGN. 



893 



had rendered valuable service throughout the campaign. The 
next evening the suffrage forces held a grand rally in Metro- 
politan Temple. Every seat in that fine auditorium was occu- 
pied and the aisles were crowded. It was not a meeting of the 
adherents of a lost cause, but of one which had suffered only 
[temporary defeat. Miss Anthony presided and was given a 




AoY^PrJC^L^ 



true California ovation and, as her voice rang out with all its 
old-time vigor, there was not one in that vast audience but 
hoped she might return to lead her hosts to victory. 

Saturday evening at 6 o'clock the seven eastern women 
started homewards, laden with tokens of affection, accompa- 
nied across the bay by a large number of loving friends, and 
moving off amidst smiles and tears and a shower of fragrant 
blossoms. 




CHAPTER XLVIII. 

HER LETTERS BIRTHDAY PARTY — BIOGRAPHY. 

1896—1897. 

N the way home from California Miss Anthony and 
Mrs. Catt stopped at Reno, Nev., lecturing there 
Sunday, while Miss Shaw hastened on to speak 
at Salt Lake City. Then all met at Kansas City 
to attend the Missouri convention, where they 
were the guests of Mrs. Sarah Chandler Coates. The papers 
refer to Miss Anthony's speeches at this convention as being 
the very strongest she ever had made, and of her perfect 
physical condition at the close of an eight months' campaign. 
She went from here directly home, and on November 19 a 
brilliant banquet was given in honor of Miss Shaw and herself 
at the Hotel Livingston by the Political Equality Club. Mary 
Lewis Gannett was toast-mistress and about 250 guests were 
seated at the tables. This was followed by the State conven- 
tion at Rochester. After a few days' rest Miss Anthony went 
to the home of Mrs. Catt, near New York, where a business 
meeting was held of the national executive board. With Mrs. 
Avery she then took one of the great Sound steamers for Bos- 
■« ton to attend a meeting of the National Woman's Council. A 
reception was given by Mrs. Charles W. Bond, of Common- 
wealth Avenue, and one at the Hotel Vendome. She ran up 
to Concord, N. H., for a few days' visit with her aged friends, 
Mr. and Mrs. Parker Pillsbury and Mrs. Armenia S. White. 
Then back again to the Garrisons', and out to Medford for a 
day with Mrs. Edward M. Davis, the daughter of Lucretia 
Mott. 

She left Boston December 9, to fulfill a promise made to 

(895) 



896 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

Elizabeth Buffum Chace, to spend her ninetieth birthday at 
her home in Valley Falls, R. I. Mrs. Chace had written a 
number of letters with her own trembling hand to arrange for 
this visit. It was only a family party, but the diary tells of 
the cake with ninety little candles, and other birthday features. 
Anna Shaw came in time for the supper, and the next day Mrs. 
/Chace sent them in her carriage to Providence to attend the 
I State convention. Here they were guests in the handsome old 
Eddy homestead, and Miss Anthony addressed a large audience 
in the evening. She stopped a day in New York to tell Mrs. 
Stanton about the California campaign, and Sunday morning 
reached her own dear home. Her old and loved friend, Maria 
Porter, had died the preceding night, and she attended the 
funeral services next day. On December 23 she went to 
Niagara Falls with her stenographer to secure reminiscences 
from her cousin, Sarah Anthony Burtis, aged eighty-six, who 
was a teacher in the home school at Battenville over sixty years 
before. 

w The year just closed had been busy but pleasant. It had 
/Drought the usual number of tokens of appreciation, one of 
Iwhich was notice of election as honorary member of the Chicago 
/Woman's Club. Among the scores of invitations on file were 
one from Judge George F. Danforth to meet the justices of the 
appellate court at his home; and one to the golden wedding of 
her old fellow-laborers, Giles B. and Catharine F. Stebbins, at 
Detroit, the latter one of the secretaries of that famous first 
convention of 1848. Major James B. Pond, the well-known 
lecture manager, wrote Miss Mary Anthony: *' Thank you for 
your kind letter and the excellent photograph of your great 
sister, whom I have admired and hoped and prayed for since 
I was a poor boy out in Kansas. I still believe she will be 
spared to witness a general triumph of her noble cause." The 
letter contained an offer of $100 for a parlor lecture by Miss 
Anthony at Jersey City. 

A few of Miss Anthony's own letters, taken almost at random 
from copies on her file, will illustrate the vast scope of her 
correspondence and her peculiarly trenchant mode of expres- 



HER LETTERS — BIRTHDAY PARTY — BIOGRAPHY, 897 

sion. To one who wanted a testimonial from her that she 
might show in vindication of certain accusations, she wrote: 

I went through all the fire of charges ol stealing, and of every other crune 
in the whole calendar, twenty-five years ago— charges made, too, by people 
of vastly more influence than any of the women who are talking and writing 
today about you. I never made a public denial of one of them, through all 
the years of the bitterest kind of persecution, and believe I was greatly the 
gainer by working right on and ignoring them. It will be the mistake of 
your life if you go into print in your own defence. Your denial will reach a 
new set of people and start them to talking, while the ones who read the 
original charges will never see the refutation of them. 



/. 



To one of the newly-enfranchised women of Utah: 



The one word I should have to say to the women throughout your State 
would be, not so much to try to get women elected to the offices as to get the best 
persons, whether men or women. Naturally there will be a far less number 
of women than of men capable of holding office, from the very fact of their 
long disfranchisement. I do hope your women therefore will set a good ex- 
ample not only for Utah, but also for the States where they are not enfran- 
chised ; namely, that of proving it is not the spoils of office they are after. I 
think the women of Wyoming always have been wonderfully judicious in not 
being anxious to hold offices themselves, but mightily anxious as to what men 
hold them. It will be considered a strong objection to woman suffrage if the 
vast majority of your women should prove themselves mere partisans. 

To a New York cousin : '* Your little birthday present, the 
Book of Proverbs, came duly. Solomon's wise sayings, how- 
ever, don't help me very much in my work of trying to per- 
suade men to do justice to women. These men and their pro- 
genitors for generations back have read Solomon over and over 
again, and learned nothing therefrom of fair play for woman, 
and I fear generations to come will continue to read to as little 
purpose. At any rate, I propose to peg away in accordance 
with my own sense of wisdom rather than Solomon's. All 
those old fellows were very good for their time, but their wis- 

\ dom needs to be newly interpreted in order to apply to people 

\ of today." 

/ In answer to a letter from Illinois asking the secret of her 
success in life: 






If I may be said to have made a success of my life, the one great element 
Ant. — 6Y 



\ 



898 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

in it has been constancy of purpose — not allowing myself to be switched off 
the main road or tempted into bypaths of other movements. It always has 
been clear to me that woman suffrage is the one great principle underlying 
all reforms. With the ballot in her hand woman becomes a vital force-— de- 
claring her will for herself, instead of praying and beseeching men to declare 
it for her It has been a long, hard fight, a dark, discouraging road, but all 
along the way here and there a little bright spot to cheer us on. And now we 
have four true republics, whose women are full-fledged citizens, and the pros- 
pects are hopeful for others soon to follow in the wake of those blessed four. 
One of the most cheering things in these days is the large number of young 
women who are entering the work, bringing to it a new, strong enthusiasm 
which will push on to victory. The women over all the country are waking 
up to the fact that truly to possess themselves, to have their opinions re- 
spected, they must have this right of suffrage. 

A letter from the secretary of a national conference which 
was seeking to bring about a union of reformers, Prohibition- 
ists, Free Silver advocates, etc., asked her assistance and called 
forth the following response : 

It is all very well for you men, who have the power to make and unmake 
political parties, to form a third, fourth or fiftieth party, as the case may be ; 
but as for myself and all who are of my class, disfranchised and helpless, 
we have nothing to do with any of them— old or new— except to ask each 
and all to put a woman suffrage plank in their platform and educate their 
members to place a ballot in the hands of women. I never have identified 
myself with any political party, but have stood outside of all, asking each to 
pledge itself to the enfranchisement of women. Whenever any one of them 
has asked me to speak in its meetings on the suffrage question, I have ac- 
cepted the invitation, but I never have advocated the specific measures of 
any. 

So, you see, I can be of no help to you, but I do know that no one of the 
reform political parties ever will amount to much standing alone, and that it 
would be a good thing for all of them to come together in one body. I might 
say, however, that least of all could I join yours, which makes " God the 
author of civil government." If such civil government as we have was made 
by God, what reason is there to expect any improvement in the future ? 

From a letter to Isabella Beecher Hooker : 

Fortune indeed does not smile any too favorably upon us who feel so long- 
ingly the need to use money. I am crippled all the time and prevented from 
doing what I might by lack of funds. The old faith would say, I suppose, 
that whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth financially, but seems to me I could 
better do His work and my own for the regeneration of the world, if I had 
the money to do it with. . . . What a fuss the men are making nowadays 
over "good government "—the idiots! Can't they see it is impossible to 



HKR LETTERS — BIRTHDAY PARTY — BIOGRAPHY. 899 

; improve things until they get a new and better balance of power that will 
outweigh the one which now pulls down the political scales and makes 
decency kick the beam every time 7 It does try my soul that we can not 

j make them see they are simply trying to lift themselves by their bootstraps. 

^ Well, they are born of disfranchised mothers, a subject class, and one can 
not expect different results. 

If I could spare the time and money I would love to accept your invitation 
to sit with you and your dear John in your summer retreat, and chat over 
the world of work for our good cause. Of the before and the after I know 
absolutely nothing, and have very little desire and less time to question or to 
study. I know this seems very material to you, and yet to me it is wholly 
spiritualy for it is giving time and study rather to making things better in the 
between f which is really all that we can influence ; but perhaps when I can no 
longer enter into active, practical work, I may lapse into speculations. 



\ 



cX. 



To a debating society asking her opinion on the question of 
** educated and property suffrage : " 



I always have taken the negative ; that is, have believed in universal suf- 
frage without either property or educational qualification. I hold that every 
citizen has a right to a voice in the government under which he lives. While 
an education is highly desirable, yet a man may be unable to read but may 
attend political meetings, talk with his neighbors and form intelligent opin- 
ions. He may be honest and beyond bribery, and a more desirable voter 
than many wily and unscrupulous men who have a graduate's diploma. It is, 
however, the duty of the State to educate its citizens ; and the Australian 
ballot, which has been largely adopted, is in itself an educational qualifica- 
tion. 

As to a property qualification : while in the majority of cases, perhaps, 
the possession of property is evidence of ability and thrift, there are many 
who do not own property and yet are possessed of good sense and are more 
capable of casting an honest and intelligent ballot than some of the wealthy 
men of the country ; then, too, those who have least are the ones who suffer 
most from the legislation of the rich, and need the ballot for self-protection. 
I am decidedly opposed to a property qualification. 

To one who was in deep grief she said in an affectionate letter: 
** Do assure me that you are beginning to think of your dear 
one as he was when well and moving about in his always help- 
ful and cheering manner. To get far enough from the sick- 
ness, the suffering and the death of our friends, so as to be 
able to have only the thought of them in their full vigor of 
life, is the greatest joy which possibly can come to those who 
have lost their beloved." 

While Miss Anthony was thus constantly giving out from 



y 



900 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

the vast wealth of her heart and brain , she was receiving, also, 
from all parts of the country the strong and loving tributes of 
noble souls. A beautiful one which shines on the pages of 
1896 was pronounced by the eloquent Dr. H. W. Thomas, of 
Chicago, in the course of a Sunday sermon entitled " Progres- 
sive Greatness, '^ delivered to a large audience assembled in 
McVicker's Theater : 

A Washinicton and a Lincoln have come in oar great centary, and between 
their birthdays was born a Susan B. Anthony, whose grand life has been 
given to a noble cause ; once the target for the cruel and bitter shafts of ridicule ; 
now deemed the noblest among women. The task of Washington and Lincoln 
could not be complete till the crown was placed on the brow of woman as well 
as man ; and when the angels shall call Susan B. Anthony to the life immor- 
tal, her name, her memory on earth should and will take its place among the 
martyrs and saints of liberty, not for man alone, but for woman and child." 

To watch the old year out and the New Year in, Miss 
Anthony went to Geneva, and here spent a few days very 
pleasantly with Elizabeth Smith Miller and her guest, Harriot 
Stanton Blatch. Among the New Year's remembrances were 
$50 from Mrs. Elda A. Orr, of Reno, Nev.; $150 from Mrs. 
Gross, of Chicago; and $300 from Mrs. Cornelia Collins Hussey, 
j^ Orange, N. J. The usual number of congratulatory letters 
/were received from all classes of people, high and low, old and 
'young, white and colored. 

To show their wide range two or three may be given. From 
Mrs. Ellen M. Henrotin, president of the General Federation 
of Women's Clubs : "I send to you on the New Year a fra- 
ternal greeting and my best wishes that this may prove for you 
and the interests you represent, a year of fulfillment. We are 
all serving the same cause and we are surely among the happy 
ones of earth that we are enabled to assist, by even a slight 
impetus, the * power which makes for righteousness.' . . . 
Therefore I send you today my heartfelt wishes for the con- 
tinued success of your cause and the peace and prosperity of 
your life. " 

Her friend of iSfty years, John W. Hutchinson, the last of 
that never-equalled family of singers, sent his New Year's 



HER LETTERS — BIRTHDAY PARTY — BIOGRAPHY. 901 

greetings and added : '* I bless you and your work. Wonder- 
ful possibilities will be the result of this great movementy 
which you have led, for equal rights and the franchise for 
women.'* The president of the National Council of Women, 
Mary Lowe Dickinson, an earnest, efficient worker for human- 
ity, said in the course of a long letter dated January 9 : 

I pray that all strength and blessing of every kind may crown this coming 
year of your life ; and O, how earnestly I hope that in it yon may see the 
fruition of some of the work that yon have been struggling with these many, 
many years. When I ran over in my mind the present situation of the cause 
you represent — ^which seems to me more and more the one cause which must 
succeed if we are going to have genuine success anywhere else — I see what 
ground you have for encouragement and what a vast advance has been made ; 
but I see, too, how slow it must seem to you, and how weary of waiting you 
must become. I know no courage like yours, and I do that courage full honor. 

She had received a telegram of greeting from Frances E. 
Willard as soon as she arrived home from California, and 
January 5 accepted her urgent invitation for a little visit with 
her at the sanitarium of Dr. Cordelia Green, Castile; and 
while there addressed a parlor gathering of the patients. On 
January 15 she was guest of honor at a luncheon given by the 
Educational and Industrial Union of Rochester, at the Genesee 
clubhouse, to the State executive committee of the Federation 
of Clubs. Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Stetson spent a few days 
with her, and she arranged for her to hold Sunday evening 
services in the Unitarian church. On January 20 the two 

(ladies, with Miss Mary, started for the twenty-ninth annual 
convention of the national association, which was to be held 
this year at Des Moines, la. The thermometer was 15° below 
zero, the snow very deep, and Miss Anthony's friends saw her 
set forth on the journey to this cold western city with much 
anxiety. All their protests, however, were not sufficient to 
keep her at home ; but she thought with much longing of the 
clean, beautiful streets of Washington, the mild climate, the 
Congressional committees, the crowds of visitors there from 
various parts of the country who always came to the conven- 
i tion, and she felt more strongly than ever that it was a serious 
\ mistake to take it away from the national capital. 



902 LIFE AND WORK OF SUSAN B. ANTHONY. 

She stopped at Chicago for a few days, and a characteristic 
little entry in her diary says: *' I slept on a $6,000 bed last 
night; my I how much good suffrage work could have been 
done with that money." On the afternoon of January 23, 
Miss Anthony addressed a large meeting of the Woman's 
Club and in the course of her remarks paid a tribute to that 
organization, in which she said : *' This is the banner club of 
the United States, not because it has such nice women for 
members, and not even because it is located in Chicago, but 
because it is a club which does a large amount of practical 
work." 

Mrs. Foster Avery joined the party at Chicago and they reached 
Des Moines January 24, where they found the rest of the execu- 
tive board, and all were entertained in the suburban mansion 
of James and Martha C. Callanan. The meetings were held 
in the Central Christian church, whose pastor, Rev. H. O. 
Breeden, extended a cordial greeting. Notwithstanding the 
extreme severity of the weather, 24° below zero, the audience- 
room was crowded to its capacity at every public session, and 
''overflow meetings were held. The convention was officially 
welcomed by Governor Francis M. Drake and Mayor John Mc- 
Vicar ; Mrs. Adelaide Ballard, State president, made the open- 
ing address, and Mrs. Macomber spoke in behalf of the 
women's clubs of the city. State Senator Rowan was one of 
the speakers. Among the letters of greeting was one from 
Miss Kitty Reed, daughter of Speaker Thomas B. Reed. The 
memorial services showed that never in any previous year had 
so long a list of friends to the cause passed away as in 1896. 
There were thirty-seven names mentioned in the resolutions.* 

In Miss Anthony's address she spoke of the great victories 
in 1896, as shown by the full enfranchisement of the women 
of Utah and Idaho. Mrs. M. C. Woods, from the latter State, 
presented an interesting account of the late campaign and an 
outline of their work for the future. Her mother, Emmeline 
B. Wells, made the report for Utah. Delegates were present 

> Among them were Harriet Beecher Stowe, Sarah B. Cooper, Drs. Hiram Corson and Caio* 
line B. Winslow, Judges E. G. Merrick and O. P. Steams, Mary Grew, J. Blisabeth Jones, 
Hannah Tracy Cntler, Sarah Soathwick. 



HER LETTERS — BIRTHDAY PARTY — BIOGRAPHY. 903 

from twenty States, and most of them were entertained in the 
hospitable homes of the city. A reception , attended by 500 
guests, was tendered by Mr. and Mrs. Hubbell, at their ele- 
gant residence on Terrace Hill. An imaginative reporter on 
this occasion transformed Miss Anthony's historic garnet vel- 
vet gown, worn for the past fourteen years, into a "magnifi- 
cent royal purple," and her one simple little pin into *' hand- 
some diamonds.'' A pleasant reception also was given by the 
Woman's Club in their commodious parlors. The daily news- 
papers contained excellent reports of the convention, but not 
V)ne gave editorial endorsement of the cause it represented. 

Those who believed in holding the alternate national con- 
ventions away from Washington were satisfied with the result ; 
those who thought differently continued to hold the same opin- 
ion, and among the latter was Miss Anthony, who soon after- 
wards wrote to one of the business committee : 

The conventions at Atlanta and Des Moines have bat confirmed me in my 
]adg:ment that oar delegated body always shoald meet in Washington. For 
local propaganda both were andoubtedly good, but for effect in secaring Con- 
gressional action, absolutely nil. I believe in resaming oar old plan of 
holding at least two conventions every year, one for the election of officers 
and for its influence upon Congress in Washington every winter ; the other 
in whatsoever State we have constitational amendments pending, where we 
need to do our greatest amount of work in that direction. The best way for 
the national association to help create local sentiment is to build up and 
make a success of the different State annual meetings, and to have at least 
two of its ablest and most popular speakers attend as many of them as possi- 
ble every year; and I think by this meaps we can do a great deal more to 
make the States feel that the national is mother to them, than by once in a 
lifetime holding a delegate convention within their borders. I am more and 
more convinced that some of the national officers must be present at every 
State annual meeting, and if well advertised there would be as many repre- 
sentatives of the local clubs present as go to our national convention. 

On the way home from Des Moines Miss Anthony spent a 
few days at Indianapol